Skip to main content

Full text of "Research Branch report, 1980 = Rapport de la Direction générale de la recherche, 1980"

See other formats


I* 



AgrtaJitw. ... "JM "ETuer 



Canada 



PRIERE DE RETOURS 



LLent,to 



- Prêté à 



Date 



001 0-32 .3 



RESEARCH 
BRANCH REPORT 

#1980# 

RAPPORT DE 

LA DIRECTION 

GÉNÉRALE DE 

LA RECHERCHE 



AGRICULTURE CANADA 



9 NOV 1981 



LIBRARY - BIBLIOTHEQUE 



630.7 

C212 

CANADA 

Research 

Br 



r i98o IdÉk Agriculture 

I T Canada 



c.3 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/researchbranchre1980cana 



Research 
Branch Report 



1980 



Rapport de la 

Direction générale 

de la recherche 



RESEARCH BRANCH 
DIRECTION GÉNÉRALE DE LA RECHERCHE 

AGRICULTURE CANADA 



Copies of this publication are available from 

Research Program Service 
Research Branch 
Agriculture Canada 
Ottawa, Ont. 
Kl A 0C6 



On peut obtenir des exemplaires de cette 
publication au 

Service des programmes de recherche 
Direction générale de la recherche 
Agriculture Canada 
Ottawa (Ont.) 
K1A 0C6 



© Minister of Supply and Services Canada 1981 
Cat. No. A51 -1/1 980 
ISBN 0-662-51531-5 



© Ministre des Approvisionnements et Services Canada 1981 
N°decat. A51-1/1980 
ISBN 0-662-51531-5 



CONTENTS 

Executive of the Research Branch, v L'exécutif de la Direction générale de la recherche, v 
Finance and Administration Division, vi Division des affaires financières et administratives, vi 
Map of research establishments, vii Carte des établissements de recherche, vii 
Organization of the Research Branch, viii Organisation de la Direction générale de la recherche, ix 
Foreword, x Avant-propos, xi 

INSTITUTES AND PROGRAM COORDINATION DIRECTORATE 
DIRECTION DES INSTITUTS ET DE LA COORDINA TION DU PROGRAMME 

Executive, 3 L'exécutif, 3 
Preface, 4 Préface, 5 

Biosystematics Research Institute, 7 

Chemistry and Biology Research Institute, 25 

Engineering and Statistical Research Institute, 41 

Food Research Institute, 49 

Land Resource Research Institute, 61 

Research Program Service, 77 
ATLANTIC REGION RÉGION DE L'ATLANTIQUE 
Executive, 85 L'exécutif, 85 
Preface, 86 Préface, 87 

St. John's West, Nfld., 89 

Charlottetown, P.E.I., 95 

Kentville, N.S., 105 

Fredericton, N.B., 121 
QUEBEC REGION RÉGION DU QUÉBEC 
Executive, 135 L'exécutif 135 
Preface, 137 Préface, 136 

Lennoxville, Québec, 139 

Sainte- Foy, Québec, 149 

Saint-Jean, Québec, 163 
ONTARIO REGION RÉGION DE L'ONTARIO 
Executive, 173 L'exécutif 173 
Preface, 174 Préface, 175 

Animal Research Centre 177 

London Research Centre 203 

Delhi, Ont., 215 

Harrow, Ont., 223 

Ottawa, Ont., 239 

Vineland Station, Ont., 257 
WESTERN REGION RÉGION DE L'OUEST 
Executive, 269 L'exécutif 269 
Preface, 270 Préface, 21 \ 

Brandon, Man., 273 

Morden, Man., 281 

Winnipeg, Man., 289 

Melfort, Sask., 303 

Regina, Sask., 309 

Saskatoon, Sask., 317 

Swift Current, Sask., 33 1 

Beaverlodge, Alta., 343 

Lacombe, Alta., 351 

Lethbridge, Alta., 361 

Agassiz, B.C., 385 

Kamloops, B.C., 391 

Saanichton Research and Plant Quarantine Station, B.C., 397 

Summerland, B.C., 403 

Vancouver, B.C., 413 

Program Structure, 423 Structure du programme, 429 




Dr. E. J. LeRoux 






Dr. E. E. Lister 










Mr. J.-J. Jasmin Dr. J. J. Cartier 





Dr. A. A. Guitard Dr. T. H. Anstey 




EXECUTIVE OF THE RESEARCH BRANCH 
L'EXÉCUTIF DE LA DIRECTION GÉNÉRALE DE LA RECHERCHE 

Assistant Deputy Minister, Research 
Sous-ministre adjoint, recherche 
E. J. LeRoux, B.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Director General, Institutes and Program Coordination Directorate 

Directeur général. Direction des instituts et de la coordination du programme 

J. W. Morrison, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Director General, Atlantic Region 
Directeur général, région de l'Atlantique 

E. E. Lister, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Director General, Quebec Region 
Directeur général, région du Québec 

J.-J. Jasmin, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. 

Director General, Ontario Region 
Directeur général, région de l'Ontario 

J. J. Cartier, B.A., B.Sc, Ph.D. 

Director General, Western Region 

Directeur général, région de l'Ouest 
A. A. Guitard, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Senior Adviser, International Research and Development 

Conseiller principal, programmes internationaux de recherche et de 

développement 

T. H. Anstey, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 

Director, Finance and Administration Division 

Directeur, Division des affaires financières et administratives 

J. E. Ryan, R.I.A. 



FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION DIVISION 
DIVISION DES AFFAIRES FINANCIÈRES ET ADMINISTRATIVES 

Director/ Directeur J. E. Ryan, R.I.A. 

Chief, Finance Section 

Chef, Section des finances J. E. Renaud, CD. 

Chief, Administration Section 

Chef, Section de l'administration H. D. Brannen 








„, 
























Oi 






< g 






j5 

< S 


B* g 

i Q 2< 

i^z Ei- 

<2 2 e ? 

St; 38 


1 




11 


1 




o 


• o 




HI 




■4 












E | 




1 




















^ 


3 D 




2 




-e 














?u?o 




o 

z 

B 








K < 


OO OO 




J 


u 


* 

















-1 




< 




ce z 




LU O 




uj û 




il 


















o i" 










Lu H 




Z 






ce °° 




o 






_ LU 




qE 






Qg 




z 2 
















LU S 








O — 








zz 










<2 










LL < 






-1 

< 
ecz 

LUC 
LU O 














O UJ 








ce* 








o2 








hec 








Ez 








Q O 










_l 










< 


oc 








ce 


LU 








LU H 


H 








zo 


CO 








LU — 










y>0 








ES 


<oE 








ÛO 








-i 


i 






2* 


o 






£o 


z 






Zo 


< 






LU LU 


oc 






UCC 

ce o 


m 




i 










LU ^ 

Eh 






o 








ce 

< 








LU 








û < 


w 


-1 








LU 


lie 








ce 






LU 


o<i£ 






I 


1-15 








< O Q- 








LL 
O 

Z 


2 OC O 

Jl CO > 
5 LU LU 

± ce û 






ENERAL 
AND 

ION 
ÏÏE 


o 
















RECTOR G 

STITUTES 

OGRAM 

lORDINAT 

RECTORA 


5 

N 

Z 

< 








ce 


- z ce o — 

Q - ol o Q 


o 















Q <- « 



(O 



-5 g 

a, ^c/3 

O c ° 

°- E "5 

§2 



dffsaq«q^ 



5si"-li?lifif«rfi 

s? S8"sS|«|ëIg-lS|.E.y^SES^o 
's , -|^1s l ^i > s o5 

ce io io m -i —i 



->!-|f s Ill!lif 

|< E£ £ SooEo^ë 



O 
S . 



~ O 

c 

O ™ 



. c Jr 
■ OO 



■ilillil 



-J3 oj' 



a 

oùïïrTJ I £ 

U- O p ma» Sr 
il t nI u . , 

E -I 2 £ U. _l _J jj 
C/5 W 



2 — ! 

2 £ 



|z| 






z' m . 

2-D = 



7 o fô c z | m 

00 Oii IL 



o 5 



Ë > E S ^ 
oo O lu u l dc 















_l 




<H 




CC co 




-UJ UJ 




ZO 




•uj O 




Oj 










CC uj 


















3Q 










"J — 










h-Z 










oo 




co 






uj ;= 




L_ "J 






ce O 




h> 






= «UJ 




UJ — 






occ 




wl- 










ui < 
ce cc 
















«Î'UJH 








Sôg 
















5 <i 






_i2 
<5 




<li- < 






ce < 

«UJ H 

zz 

•LU O 
















Oil 

OC uj 












Dû 








UJ _ 








HZ 








OO 








Ï5 

= >UJ 








OCC 










_i 










ce lu 










•UJ CD 










Z>w 


LU 








>uj 3 


ce 

H LU 
00 I 








oo 

CCD 








z <-> 








oo 


- H CC 








UJ -, 


S Z LU 








HZ 


^o5 

3 ^2 LU 

0°œ 








O O 

uj ;^ 








cc o 

— -LU 

occ 








-i 


LU 






< 


I 






oc 


O 

OC 






•UJ 

z 

•LU UJ 


LU 






O D 


X 






ÛCujO 
OOH 

— 'LU " 


o 

LU 

ce 














< 

_l 








LU 


£|< 
ujgO 

UJ -I ^ 

5^ 

lu -lu 5 






o oc li 


Û 








LU 

-1 
< 

ce 












•LU 






_i 

7 UJ m 

•5 [S û g s 

-> ^ oo < ce 

u2t;Zo 

SStgg 

££1-0°- 

ïSE"oo 
ooSoo 


uj 2 






< P 

co o 

^ UJ 

oc < 








O _i 


















o c "o «5 g w 



m S g5tc 



O co > j8< | 
< ^ 



w Euy ç 



O) m •- — 



I 



|o 

O .s 






c 2 ? O .2 a •£ 
c c t! .£ E .2 o 



o 2 S < < 

Z Ç IL J J 






a. — ^ '. 

-: -O - m ~ H 

2 ^ — — :-lu '• g>~ 

'■ '. c' 1 ^ '• 2 -n .ï 

c "î c 2 c . 
■? s; o > aj c ,E 
|o SçZÏBw 
co o v il 



- s J S 3 

5 g 2 « -f „ 

'5 E « Ê £ £ 

c = .9 2 S ï 

— < m o t- H- 



FOREWORD 



The Research Branch of Agriculture Canada 
conducts about one-half of the agricultural research 
and development in Canada. It also cooperates with 
universities and industry by supporting research 
that augments the Branch's goals and objectives. 
The budget for 1980 was $140 million, of which $5 
million was spent on contracted research. In 1980 
the Branch staffed 3659 person-years, of which 918 
were professional positions. 

Branch Headquarters are located at the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa. A reorganization of 
the Research Branch became effective on 25 Au- 
gust 1980. A new directorate and three new regions 
were established on that date, by reorganizing the 
administration of the former Central and Eastern 
regions and by renaming two institutes. The man- 
date of the Western Region remains unchanged 
from that given it in 1978. 

Dr. J. W. Morrison was named Director General 
of the new Institutes and Program Coordination 
Directorate. He now assumes responsibility for the 
institutes in Ottawa and for Research Program 
Service, all formerly administered by the Central 
Region, while retaining his control over the 
Branch's research coordinators. 

The Animal Research and London Research 
institutes have been renamed centres and are now 
under the direction of Dr. J. J. Cartier, Director 
General for the new Ontario Region. As well as the 
two research centres, Dr. Cartier also assumes 
responsibility for all the stations and experimental 
farms formerly located in the Central Region. 

Two new regions, the Atlantic Region and the 
Quebec Region, were created from the former 
Eastern Region. Dr. E. E. Lister heads the Atlantic 
Region, with headquarters in Halifax. Dr. J. -J. 
Jasmin is the Director General for the Quebec 
Region, with Headquarters in Quebec City. 

This Report is divided into five sections, with 
each director general describing his organizational 
structure and highlighting achievements for the 
year. The research establishments then give details 



of their work in separate chapters, for which 
reprints are available. 

The Branch conducts basic and applied research 
on soils, plants, animals, pests including diseases 
and weeds, engineering and energy, and food. There 
is close cooperation with other branches in the 
Department, with other federal agencies, and with 
universities, provincial departments of agriculture, 
the agricultural industry, and farm organizations. 

In Canada there is a unique system for coordi- 
nating agricultural research and services, called the 
Canadian Agricultural Services Coordinating Com- 
mittee (CASCC). This organization reviews gov- 
ernmental and institutional services affecting the 
general welfare of Canadian agriculture. Its mem- 
bers include provincial deputy ministers of agricul- 
ture, deans of agricultural colleges and colleges of 
veterinary medicine, and representatives from the 
private sector. The Chairman is the Deputy Minis- 
ter of Agriculture Canada. The research arm of 
CASCC is the Canadian Agricultural Research 
Council, which advises the parent committee on the 
state and needs of agricultural research and devel- 
opment. Despite resource constraints, the Research 
Branch has maintained a high quality of output and 
has contributed significantly to the departmental 
aims and the government's policies in support of the 
Canadian agricultural industry. 

The Branch also strongly supports and cooper- 
ates in research at the international level. This 
support is partly provided through the Canadian 
International Development Agency and the Inter- 
national Development Research Centre. The 
Branch also has direct relations with the Organi- 
zation for Economic Cooperation and Development 
(OECD) and the Food and Agriculture Organi- 
zation (FAO). Through annual tripartite meetings 
with leaders of agricultural research in the USA 
and the UK, effective exchanges are occurring and 
cooperation is being maintained. In 1980 the 
meeting was attended by a delegation from France. 

E. J. LeRoux 



AVANT-PROPOS 



La Direction générale de la recherche d'Agricul- 
ture Canada réalise environ la moitié des travaux de 
recherche et de développement agricoles effectués 
au Canada. Elle coopère également avec les univer- 
sités et l'industrie en appuyant financièrement les 
recherches qui viennent compléter ses buts et ses 
objectifs. En 1980, son budget s'élevait à $140 
millions dont $5 millions pour la recherche contrac- 
tuelle et son effectif était de 3659 années-personnes 
dont 918 employés professionnels. 

La Direction générale loge son administration 
centrale à la Ferme expérimentale centrale d'Otta- 
wa. Depuis le 25 août 1980, elle compte une 
nouvelle Direction et trois nouvelles régions, issues 
d'une restructuration de l'administration de la 
région du Centre et de la région de l'Est. En outre, 
deux instituts ont changé de nom. Le mandat de la 
région de l'Ouest n'a pas changé par rapport à celui 
de 1978. 

M. J.W. Morrison a été nommé Directeur géné- 
ral de la nouvelle Direction des instituts et de la 
coordination du programme. Il cumule donc main- 
tenant la direction des instituts et du Service des 
programmes de recherche, qui relevaient aupara- 
vant de la région du Centre, et celle des coordina- 
teurs de la recherche de la Direction générale. 

L'Institut de recherche zootechnique et l'Institut 
de recherche de London portent maintenant le nom 
de Centres et relèvent de M. JJ. Cartier, Directeur 
général de la nouvelle région de l'Ontario. En outre, 
M. Cartier assure la direction de toutes les stations 
et fermes expérimentales qui faisaient auparavant 
partie de la région du Centre. 

L'ancienne région de l'Est a été subdivisée en 
deux nouvelles régions: l'Atlantique et le Québec. 
M. E.E. Lister assure la direction de la première, 
dont l'administration centrale est située à Halifax; 
M. J.-J. Jasmin dirige la région du Québec dont 
l'administration centrale est située à Québec. 

Le présent rapport se divise en cinq sections, 
chaque directeur général décrivant l'organisation 
dont il est responsable et ses principales réalisations 
durant l'année écoulée. Chaque établissement de 
recherche présente ensuite ses travaux dans des 
chapitres dont on peut obtenir des tirés à part. 



La Direction générale fait de la recherche 
fondamentale et appliquée sur les sols, les plantes, 
les animaux, les ravageurs, les pathogènes, les 
mauvaises herbes, le génie rural et l'exploitation de 
l'énergie, ainsi que l'alimentation. Elle travaille en 
étroite collaboration avec d'autres Directions géné- 
rales du Ministère, d'autres organismes fédéraux 
ainsi que les universités, les ministères provinciaux 
de l'agriculture, l'industrie agricole et les groupe- 
ments d'agriculteurs. 

Le Canada s'est doté d'un mécanisme particulier 
de coordination de la recherche et des services 
agricoles. Il s'agit du Comité canadien de coordina- 
tion des services agricoles (C.C.C.S.A.) dont le rôle 
est de superviser les services gouvernementaux et 
institutionnels touchant l'état général de l'agricul- 
ture canadienne. Il est composé des sous-ministres 
provinciaux de l'agriculture, des doyens des facultés 
d'agriculture et de médecine vétérinaire ainsi que 
des représentants du secteur privé. Son président est 
le sous-ministre fédéral de l'agriculture. La fonction 
«recherche» est confiée au Conseil de la recherche 
agricole du Canada qui conseille le C.C.C.S.A. sur 
l'état et les besoins de la recherche et du développe- 
ment agricoles. Malgré le resserrement de ses 
ressources, la Direction générale a réussi à conser- 
ver un rendement de haut calibre et à épauler le 
Ministère et le gouvernement dans la réalisation des 
politiques axées sur la prospérité de l'industrie 
agricole canadienne. 

En outre, la Direction générale encourage la 
recherche au niveau international et y coopère 
énergiquement, entre autres par l'entremise de 
l'Agence canadienne de développement internatio- 
nal et le Centre de recherche pour le développement 
international. Elle est également en contact direct 
avec l'Organisation de coopération et de développe- 
ment économiques (O.C.D.É.) et l'Organisation des 
Nations-Unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture 
(F.A.O.). Les réunions annuelles tripartites tenues 
avec les chefs de file de la recherche agricole aux 
États-Unis et au Royaume-Uni sont l'occasion 
d'établir des échanges fructueux et de renouer des 
liens de coopération. En 1980, une délégation 
française a assisté à cette réunion. 

E.J. LeRoux 



INSTITUTES AND PROGRAM 
COORDINATION DIRECTORATE 

DIRECTION DES INSTITUTS 

ET DE LA COORDINATION 

DU PROGRAMME 



EXECUTIVE OF THE INSTITUTES AND PROGRAM COORDINATION 

DIRECTORATE 

L'EXÉCUTIF DE LA DIRECTION DES INSTITUTS ET DE LA 
COORDINATION DU PROGRAMME 



Director General/ Directeur général J. W. Morrison, B.Sc., M. Se., Ph.D. 
Research Coordinators/ Coordonnateurs de la recherche 



Animais//! nimaux 
Crops/ Cultures 
Food/ Aliments 
Production/ Production 

Protection/ Protection 
Resources/ Ressources 



F. K. Kristjansson, B.S.A., M.S., Ph.D. 

W. J. Saidak, B.S.A., M.S., Ph.D. 

R. R. Riel, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

C. J. Bishop, B.Sc, A.M., Ph.D. F.R.S.C. 

F.A.S.H.S., F.A.I.C, 
R. M. Prentice, B.Sc, M.Sc 
R. L. Halstead, B.S.A., Ph.D. 



Analy sts/A nalystes 

Contracts/ Contrats 
Program/ Programmes 



J. R. Aitken, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
A. P. Chan, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Special Advisers/ Conseillers spéciaux 



Resources/ Ressources 
Crops/ Cultures 
Crops/ Cultures 



W. Baier, Diplomlandwirt, Dr. agr., M.Sc. 
J. C. St-Pierre, B.Sc. (Agr.), B.Sc, M.S., 
L. Dessureaux, B.A., B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 



Ph.D. 



Directors of the institutes/Z)/r^c/^wn des instituts 



Biosystemat'ics/ Biosystématique 
Chemistry and Biology 
Chimie et biologie 
Engineering and Statistical 
Technique et statistique 
Food/ Aliments 
Land Resource/ Terres 
Research Program Service 
Service des programmes de 
recherche 



G. A. Mulligan, B.Sc. 

A. I. de la Roche, B.Sc, M.Sc., Ph.D. 

P. W. Voisey, F.I., Mech.E 

J. Holme, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. 

J. S. Clark, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

R. Trottier, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



institutes and program coordination directorate 



PREFACE 



With reorganization of the Branch in August 
1980 a new directorate, Institutes and Program 
Coordination, was formed, with Dr. J. W. Morrison 
as Director General. The Institute group comprises 
the Biosystematics Research Institute, the Chemis- 
try and Biology Research Institute, the Engineering 
and Statistical Research Institute, the Food Re- 
search Institute, the Land Resource Research 
Institute, and Research Program Service. The 
institutes' programs were conducted by a staff of 
590, with a budget of $18.5 million. 

The institutes have the responsibility of carrying 
out national programs of research in response to 
problems that may have been identified in the 
regions. Biosystematics research includes tax- 
onomic studies on insects, arachnids, nematodes, 
vascular plants, and fungi. The Institute also 
maintains national collections of these biota and 
provides an identification service. The Chemistry 
and Biology Research Institute carries out research 
in specialized areas such as winterhardiness, nitro- 
gen fixation, and plant diseases. It also provides 
analytical chemistry and electron microscopy ser- 
vices to other Branch establishments. The Engi- 
neering and Statistical Research Institute is in- 
volved in research on mechanization and farm 
structures. During the year two new sections, 
Energy and Food Engineering, were formed within 
the Institute to respond to research needs in these 
high-priority areas. Statistical research in support 
of Branch programs is another important activity. 
The research program of the Food Research Insti- 
tute is oriented toward food quality, food process- 
ing, new food ingredients, food safety, and nutri- 
tion. The Land Resource Research Institute carries 
out soil surveys in all provinces and performs 
research in land classification and utilization and in 
agrometeorology. Research Program Service pro- 
vides research support to the Branch in the form of 



a wide range of scientific information, technical, 
and publication services. 

Program Coordination, formerly known as Plan- 
ning and Evaluation, is located at Headquarters 
and is now made up of six coordinators, two 
program analysts, and three special advisers. The 
staff serves as advisers to the Assistant Deputy 
Minister, Research, and to the Research Branch 
Management Committee. Program Coordination 
serves also as a training ground for potential 
managers. Dr. Yvon Martel, who is now Director of 
the Lennoxville Research Station, served as Special 
Adviser, Soils, and as Executive Assistant to the 
Assistant Deputy Minister. Dr. Réjean Bouchard, 
Program Specialist for the Quebec Region, spent a 
year as Special Adviser, Animal research. Dr. D. G. 
Dorrell, recently appointed Director of the Winni- 
peg Research Station, was Special Adviser, Crops. 
Dr. Ian de la Roche, formerly Coordinator, Crops, 
is now Director of the Chemistry and Biology 
Research Institute. Dr. W. J. Saidak has just been 
appointed Crops Coordinator. Dr. W. Baier is at 
present acting as Special Adviser, Resources, and 
Dr. J. C. St-Pierre, as Special Adviser, Crops. 

Dr. E. E. Lister, Program Specialist, left the 
Directorate to assume the responsibilities of Direc- 
tor General, Atlantic Region. Dr. Robert Trottier 
was appointed Director of Research Program 
Service. 

Further information about our programs may be 
obtained by writing to the research establishments 
concerned or by addressing inquiries to Institutes 
and Program Coordination Directorate, Research 
Branch, K. W. Neatby Building, Agriculture 
Canada, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ont. 
K1A0C6. 

J. W. Morrison 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



PREFACE 



La restructuration de la Direction générale, en 
août 1980, a donné lieu à la création de la nouvelle 
Direction des instituts et de la coordination du 
programme, dont le Directeur général est M. J.W. 
Morrison. Cette direction englobe l'Institut de 
recherche biosystématique, l'Institut de recherche 
chimique et biologique, l'Institut de recherche 
technique et statistique, l'Institut de recherche sur 
les aliments, l'Institut de recherche sur les terres et 
le Service des programmes de recherche. La réalisa- 
tion des programmes des Instituts est assurée par 
un personnel de 590 personnes qui dispose d'un 
budget total de $18,5 millions. 

Les Instituts ont pour mandat de procéder à la 
réalisation de programmes nationaux de recherches 
visant à régler les problèmes qui surgissent dans 
chacune des régions. La recherche biosystématique 
englobe des études taxonomiques sur les insectes, 
les arachnides, les nematodes, les plantes vasculai- 
res et les champignons. L'Institut qui en est 
responsable garde aussi des collections de spécimens 
et dispense un service d'identification. L'Institut de 
recherche chimique et biologique travaille dans les 
domaines spécialisés comme la résistance à l'hiver, 
la fixation de l'azote et les maladies des plantes. Il 
fournit aussi les services de chimie analytique et de 
microscopie électronique aux autres établissements 
de la Direction générale. L'Institut de recherche 
technique et statistique fait des études sur la 
mécanisation et sur les constructions agricoles. Au 
cours de l'année, deux nouvelles sections y ont vu le 
jour; celle de l'énergie et celle du génie industriel 
alimentaire. Ce changement vise à répondre aux 
besoins nouveaux de recherches dans deux domai- 
nes hautement prioritaires. La recherche statistique 
menée dans le cadre des programmes de la Direc- 
tion générale constitue également une activité 
importante. Le programme de l'Institut de recher- 
che sur les aliments englobe les domaines de la 
qualité et de la transformation des aliments, des 
nouveaux ingrédients alimentaires, de l'innocuité 
des aliments et de la nutrition. L'Institut de 
recherche sur les terres effectue des prospections 
pédologiques dans toutes les provinces et s'occupe 



de la classification et de l'utilisation des terres et 
d'agrométéorologie. Enfin, le Service des program- 
mes de recherche assure le soutien des diverses 
directions en leur fournissant une large gamme de 
services d'informations scientifiques et techniques 
ainsi que de publications. 

La coordination du programme, autrefois connue 
sous le nom de planification et évaluation, fait 
partie de l'Administration centrale et compte six 
coordinateurs, deux analystes de programmes et 
trois conseillers spéciaux. Elle assure un service de 
conseil auprès du sous-ministre adjoint à la recher- 
che et du Comité de gestion de la Direction 
générale de la recherche. Elle constitue finalement 
un champ de formation pour les futurs gestionnai- 
res. M. Yvon Martel, l'actuel Directeur de la 
station de recherche de Lennoxville, était conseiller 
spécial sur les sols et adjoint administratif du sous- 
ministre adjoint. M. Réjean Bouchard, spécialiste 
en programmes de la région du Québec, a été 
pendant un an conseiller spécial en recherche 
zootechnique. M. D.G. Dorrell, récemment nommé 
Directeur de la station de recherche de Winnipeg, 
était conseiller spécial sur les cultures. M. Ian de la 
Roche, auparavant coordinateur pour les cultures, 
est aujourd'hui Directeur de l'Institut de recherche 
chimique et biologique. M. W.J. Saidak vient tout 
juste d'être nommé coordinateur pour les cultures. 
M. W. Baier est actuellement conseiller spécial sur 
les ressources et M. J.C. St-Pierre est conseiller 
spécial sur les cultures. 

M. E.E. Lister, spécialiste en programmes, a 
quitté la Direction pour devenir Directeur général 
de la région de l'Atlantique. M. Robert Trottier a 
été nommé Directeur du Service des programmes 
de recherche. 

Pour de plus amples renseignements sur nos 
programmes, prière d'écrire aux établissements de 
recherche concernés ou de s'adresser à la Direction 
des instituts et de la coordination du programme. 
Direction générale de la recherche, Édifice K.W. 
Neatby, Agriculture Canada, Ferme expérimenta- 
le, Ottawa (Ontario) Kl A 0C6. 

J.W. Morrison 



INSTITUTES AND PROGRAM COORDINATION DIRECTORATE 



Biosystematics Research Institute 
Ottawa, Ontario 



PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



Administration 



G. A. Mulligan, B.Sc. 

A. Giroux 

E. Gavora,' I.N.G., B.L.S. 

V. Desroches, 1 B.Ph.A., B.L.S. 

J. E. H. Martin 



P. M. LeClair 



Director 

Administrative Officer 

Librarian, Botany 

Librarian, Entomology 

Head, National Identification 
Service, Zoology; Unit Curator, 
Miscellaneous insect orders 

Head, National Identification 
Service, Botany 



Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Trichoptera 



J. M. Campbell, B.S., M.S., Ph.D 

S. A. Allyson, B.Sc, M.Sc. 
D. E. Bright, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. 

J. R. Byers, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

P. T. Dang, 2 B.S., M.S., Ph.D. 

J. D. Lafontaine, B.A., Ph.D. 

L. LeSage, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. 

A. Mutuura, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

F. Schmid, Lie es Se Nat., D. es Se Nat. 

A. Smetana, M.U.DR., Cand. Sc Biol. 



Head of Section; Staphylinidae 

(rove beetles) 
Lepidopterous larvae 
Scolytidae (bark beetles), 

Curculionidae (weevils) 
Reproductive biology and behavior 

of cutworm moths 
Microlepidoptera of forest 

importance (spruce budworm) 
Noctuidae (cutworm moths); Unit 

Curator, Lepidoptera-Trichoptera 
Chrysomelidae (leaf beetles) and 

larval Coleoptera 
Tortricidae (leafroller moths) 
Trichoptera (caddisflies) 
Aquatic beetles, Staphylinidae (rove 

beetles); Unit Curator, Coleoptera 



biosystematics research institute 



Diptera and Hemiptera 



D. M. Wood, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. 

K. G. A. Hamilton, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

L. A. Kelton, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

J. F. McAlpine, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

D. R. Oliver, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. 
R. V. Peterson, B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 

W. R. Richards, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

H. J. Teskey, B.Sc, M.S.A., Ph.D. 
J. R. Vockeroth, B.A., M.A., D.Phil. 



Head of Section; Tachinidae 

(parasitic tachinid flies), Culicidae 

(mosquitoes) 
Cicadellidae (leafhoppers), 

Cercopidae (spittlebugs); Unit 

Curator, Hemiptera 
Miridae (plant bugs), Anthocoridae 

(flower bugs) 
Lonchaeidae (lance flies), 

Chamaemyiidae (silver flies) 
Chironomidae (nonbiting midges) 
Simuliidae (black flies), 

Nycteribiidae and Streblidae (bat 

flies) 
Aphidoidea (aphids, plant lice), 

Psyllidae (psyllids), Coccoidae 

(scale insects), Thysanoptera 

(thrips), Psocoptera (psocids, book 

lice), Collembola (springtails) 
Tabanidae (horse flies, deer flies), 

dipterous larvae; Unit Curator, 

Diptera 
Syrphidae (flower flies), 

Scatophagidae (dung flies) 



Experimental Taxonomy and Nematology 



R. V. Anderson, B.A., M.S., Ph.D. 



J. W. Arnold, B.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
B. A. Ebsary, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



E. S. Eveleigh, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
B. N. A. Hudson, B.Sc, Ph.D. 
R. Matsuda, B.A., Ph.D., D.Sc 



Head of Section; Hoplolaimidae 
(spiral nematodes), 
Tylenchorhynchidae (stylet 
nematodes), Aphelenchoidea (foliar 
nematodes); Unit Curator, 
Nematodes 

Insect hemocytology 

Criconematidae (ring nematodes), 
Paratylenchidae (pin nemotodes), 
Hemicycliophoridae (sheath 
nematodes) 

Dorylaimida (dagger nematodes), 
Acarine systems (mites) 

Chemical taxonomy of insects: 
polymorphic enzymes 

Comparative morphology, Tingidae 
(lace bugs), Aradidae (flat bugs) 



Hymenoptera and Arachnida 

I. M. Smith, B.Sc, Ph.D. Head of Section; Acari (mites) 

8 RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



J. R. Barron, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
C. D. Dondale, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



H. Goulet, B.A., B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
E. E. Lindquist, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. 
L. Masner, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



W. R. M. Mason, B.Sc, Ph.D. 
C. M. Yoshimoto, 2 B.A., M.Sc. 



Ph.D. 



Ichneumonidae (ichneumon wasps) 
Araneae (spiders), Opiliones 

(harvestmen); Unit Curator 

Arachnida 
Symphyta (sawflies) 
Acari (mites, ticks) 
Proctotrupoidea (proctotrupid 

wasps), Bethyloidea (bethylid 

wasps), Sphecoidea (digger wasps), 

Evanioidea (ensign wasps); Unit 

Curator, Hymenoptera 
Braconidae (braconid wasps) 
Chalcidoidea (chalcid wasps), 

Cynipoidea (gall wasps) 



Mycology: Plant Disease and Biodegrading Fungi 

R. A. Shoemaker, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 
D. J. S. Barr, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



J. D. Bissett, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

M. P. Corlett, B.A., M.A., Ph.D 

J. H. Ginns, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Ascocarpic 
parasites of cereals 
Zoosporic parasites of vegetable 
crops 

Conidial parasites of forage crops 
Ascocarpic parasites of fruit crops 
Curator, National Collection of 
Fungus Cultures; Basidiocarpic 
tree wood rots 
S. J. Hughes, B.Sc, M.Sc, D.Sc, F.L.S., F.R.S.C. Conidial molds of wood and insects 
G. A. Neish, B.Sc, Ph.D. Mycotoxin fungi 

J. A. Parmelee, B.Sc, M.A., Ph.D. Curator, National Mycological 

Herbarium; Obligate parasites of 
plants (rusts, smuts, mildews) 
S. A. Redhead, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. Mushrooms 



Vascular Plants 



E. Small, B.A., B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

S. G. Aiken, B.Sc, M.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 

I. J. Bassett, B.A. 

B. R. Baum, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

P. M. Catling, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

W. J. Cody, B.A. 

J. McNeill, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

G. A. Mulligan, B.Sc 

S. I. Warwick, B.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Cultivated crops, 

Medicago 
Grass flora of Canada 
Hay-fever plants, palynology, weeds 
Cultivated crops, Hordeum 
Sedges, aquatic plants 
Curator, Herbarium; Canadian 

flora, ferns 
Weeds, Polygonaceae, 

Caryophyllaceae 
Weeds, Cruciferae 
Weeds, genecology 



BIOSYSTEMATICS RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



Honorary Research Associates 



E. C. Becker, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. 

J. A. Downes, B.Sc. 

D. F. Hardwick, B.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

G. P. Holland, B.A., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.C. 

R. Macrae, B.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

W. C. McGuffin, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. 

O. Peck, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

D. B. O. Savile, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D., D.Sc, 

F.R.S.C. 
G. E. Shewell, B.Sc, M.Sc. 

A. Wilkes, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Elateridae (click beetles, 

wireworms) 
Ceratopogonidae (biting midges) 
Noctuidae (cutworm moths) 
Siphonaptera (fleas) 
Basidiocarpic wood rots, polypores 
Geometridae (geometer moths, 

loopers) 
Chalcidoidea (chalcid wasps) 
Plant rusts 

Lauxaniidae (lauxaniid flies), 
Calliphoridae (blow flies) 
Insect genetics 



Departures 



E. C. Becker, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. 

E. H. Salkeld, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 



Elateridae (click beetles, 

wireworms) 
Comparative micromorphology of 

insect eggs 



Transfers 



F. W. Collins, B.Sc, Ph.D. 
C. C. Loan, B.A., M.S., Ph.D. 



Chemotaxonomy, Brassica 
Ichneumonidae (ichneumon wasps), 
Braconidae (braconid wasps) 



'Seconded from Libraries Division, Finance and Administration Branch. 
Seconded from Environment Canada. 



10 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



INTRODUCTION 



The Biosystematics Research Institute provides a national identification service for 
insects, mites, spiders, nematodes, vascular plants, and fungi of importance to Canadians. The 
Institute conducts research on various aspects of biosystematics and maintains custody of the 
Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes; the Agriculture Canada 
Vascular Plant Herbarium; the National Mycological Herbarium; and the National 
Mycological Culture Collection. Eight new curators were appointed for the zoology national 
collections during 1980. 

The Institute emphasizes taxonomic studies on organisms of special interest to Canadians 
and the production of identification guides and inventories of organisms having economic or 
environmental impact. 

Reprints of research publications are available from the authors. Correspondence on other 
matters should be addressed to the Director, Biosystematics Research Institute, Research 
Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa Ont. Kl A 0C6. 

G. A. Mulligan 
Director 



IDENTIFICATIONS, COLLECTIONS, 
AND SURVEYS 

National Identification Service 

A total of 85 900 specimens of insects, 
arachnids, and nematodes were identified 
during 1980, an increase of 14% over the 
previous year. Agriculture Canada (25%) and 
Canadian and American universities (22% 
and 13%, respectively) were the greatest 
users. Some 5150 were received from the 
general public for identification, general 
information, or advice on control measures. 

A total of 12 552 collections of vascular 
plants were identified during 1980. Universi- 
ties were again the major users of this service 
(50.4%). An increased number of inquiries 
were received directly from the general public 
and through Public Services Section, Infor- 
mation Services, Agriculture Canada. Assist- 
ance was provided to the Poison Control 
Centre for 15 cases of suspected poisonings 
from vascular plants. 

A total of 3015 collections and cultures of 
fungi were identified during 1980. Principal 
users of the service were the general public 
(28.1%), followed by other federal depart- 
ments (17.0%) and Canadian universities 
(14.4%). Assistance was provided to the 
Poison Control Centre for 54 cases of sus- 
pected poisonings from mushrooms. The 
accompanying table shows the number of 
specimens identified and their sources. 



Collection development 

The holdings of the Canadian National 
Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nema- 
todes increased by some 675 000 specimens. 
Major contributions were made by 28 officers 
of the Institute collecting across Canada, the 
Yukon Territory, and eastern and central 
United States. The use of devices newly 
designed or modified by Institute scientists for 
collection of micro-hymenoptera and other 
minute arthropods resulted in a spectacular 
increase of holdings of many species in the 
collection. Donations of specimens to the 
collection totaled some 38 400 specimens and 
purchases amounted to 7715 specimens. Some 
222 loans totaling 73 438 specimens of Cana- 
dian National Collection material were made 
to scientists around the world for research 
study. Material incorporated into the collec- 
tion totaled some 195 500 specimens. 

The holdings of the Vascular Plant Herbar- 
ium now stand at 690 596 collections, an 
increase of 13 555 during 1980. Approx- 
imately 7000 collections were made during 
field trips by staff members in Ontario, the 
western provinces, the Yukon Territory, 
southwestern and central United States, and 
Mexico. Some 3804 collections were donated 
to the Herbarium, 2991 as exchange and 813 
as gifts from other herbariums. 

The holdings of the National Mycological 
Herbarium stand at 231 426 specimens, an 
increase of 8054 accessions during 1980. A 
total of 4498 specimens were donated, 4348 as 



BIOSYSTEMATICS RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



C/3 C/5 

0Û i- 



c/5 C 
3 O 
00 \3 
C O 
3 C 



ea 




# o 








'S 




« 








© 




JS 


c _ 


e 


■a 8 


*« 


«3 y 


o 


3 J!2 


'53d 


c/5 O 


J2 


ol O 


"3 


> 


o 




N 





u 

. S 

1° 

2 a3 

C x» 

a 

3 



-moOOOOff>(N 
N rt m-n rt 0O t 
<N t- CN OS NvO 



m t^ m m >n - oo 

tJ- m <N — i Os rf 

Tf (N0O 



m oo | 



OS "^ OO OS | Tt SO 

»/-> m os so •** O 

(N T}- OO - CO SO 



r- os 

ro OO 
so OS 



-mm - - -oo 
— (N — t - i^ m 
OO vo Os Os — O O 







03 


E 


c 








ed 


T3 


ÇJ 


<u 








T3 


03 


c3 


E 








cd 


c 


D. 








c 


Cd 


u 










c3 

u 


u 


T3 

"o3 


03 

a. 








<u 


C 


u. 


-a 




c/2 




In 

3 


u 

E 

c 
o 
I- 


U 

-a 


"03 




i) 


03 

■o 


"3 


Cm 

Im 


'5 
B 

'> 

O 


M 

3 


"«a 

> 


c 


ob 


> 

c 


•5 


-a 


c 



U<uJOû.-DO 



•s ë 

S <° 3 

C i_ 03 

i- o i- 

^ (O > <u 

C/5 o c <u 

3030 



c "2 

o Ç 



*-•£ 



<U -3 



O. O 



3 — 
oo.e 



9 ^ ~ " 



S 2 

o Z 

<= c 

T3 I- 



2Ê 

il 



12 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



exchange from other herbariums and 150 as 
gifts. Approximately 4700 collections were 
made by staff members during the year. The 
National Collection of Fungus Cultures has 
increased its holdings from 6093 to 6558, an 
increase of 465 cultures. These cultures were 
received for deposit from other institutions, 
through the Identification Service, or from 
isolations made by staff members. At the 
present time 2066 cultures have been success- 
fully lyophilized for long-term preservation. 

During the summer of 1980, the Institute 
carried out a 4-mo survey of the insects, 
mites, vascular plants, and fungi of Waterton 
Lakes National Park, Alberta. The purpose of 
this survey was to collect specimens pertinent 
to research interests of Institute scientists and 
to enhance the collections. This park was 
selected because it serves as an excellent site 
for studying the flora and fauna of the Rocky 
Mountains as well as those of western prairie 
elements and aspen parkland. Ten Institute 
scientists and technicians participated in the 
survey. The material collected is being sorted 
and prepared, and will be incorporated into 
the collections. Institute personnel worked 
closely with park naturalists to provide them 
with useful biological information. Four Insti- 
tute scientists, including two entomologists, 
one mycologist, and one vascular plant taxon- 
omist, collected extensively in the Yukon 
during 1980. Particular emphasis was placed 
on collecting organisms in areas where there 
were glacial réfugia. 

Identification aids 

Insects and Arachnids of Canada. This 
faunal series was initiated several years ago 
and is now established as an Institute activity. 
This activity is designed to treat the insect 
and arachnid fauna of Canada in a series of 
books that will permit the nontaxonomic 
biologist to identify various arthropod entities. 
Since the last annual report two contributions 
were published: Part 7, Genera des Trichop- 
tères du Canada et des États adjacents; and 
Part 8, The Plant Bugs of the Prairie Prov- 
inces of Canada, Heteroptera: Miridae. 

Vascular Plants of Continental Northwest 
Territories. This work is a guide or manual to 
the species and major geographical races of 
the 1113 flowering plants and ferns of the 
continental Northwest Territories and in- 
cludes keys, descriptions, distribution maps, 
and line drawings. The area covered is 
roughly 1.6 million square kilometres. 



Poison-ivy, Western Poison Oak, and Poi- 
son Sumac/ L'herbe à la puce, le sumac a 
vernis et le rhus diversiloba. This bulletin, 
with line drawings and color plates, includes 
information on the biology and identification 
of the plants, symptoms of poisoning and 
treatment, how poisoning occurs, and how to 
eradicate the plants. 

Common and Botanical Names of Weeds 
in Canada/Noms populaires et scientifiques 
des plantes nuisibles du Canada. This bulle- 
tin presents the botanical names and English 
and French common names of all the plants 
growing as weeds in Canada. 

Grasses of Ontario. This manual treats the 
species and major geographical races of all 
the grasses growing in Ontario. It includes 
keys, descriptions, distribution maps, line 
drawings, and photographs for 78 genera, 238 
species, and 123 subspecies and varieties. 

Fungi Canadenses. During 1980, 30 contri- 
butions were published, bringing the total in 
this series to 190. An additional 20 contri- 
butions are being processed. Taxa illustrated 
and described include several new records of 
Canadian fungi, two new species, and three 
new combinations. Species of parasitic and 
biodegrading fungi from the following genera 
are described: Aecidium, Arachnophora, 
Endophragmiella, Gerronema, Helmintho- 
sporium, Hemimycena, Hygrocybe, Maras- 
miellus, Melanotus, Microascus, Mycena, 
Olpidium, Peziza, Phaeomarasmius, Psilach- 
num, Puccinia, Spiropes, Stigmina, Taeni- 
olella, Tyromyces, and Venturia. 



SECTIONAL RESEARCH 

Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Trichoptera 

Coleoptera. Carabidae — A major system- 
atic and phylogenetic analysis of the genus 
Elaphrus was redrafted and submitted for 
internal review. The revision of the 34 species 
and four subgenera of Elaphrus includes a 
review of both adult and larval characters. An 
analysis of structural variation in two subspe- 
cies of the Elaphrus americanus complex was 
submitted for publication. A similar study of 
the E.finitimus complex is in progress. 

Staphylinidae — A large revision of the 
subfamily Xantholininae for America north of 
Mexico was completed. The subfamily in- 
cludes 28 genera and 105 species. Revisions of 
the genera Lordithon and Carphacis were 



BIOSYSTEMATICS RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



13 



completed; the latter has been published. Two 
new species, including one in a new genus, of 
the subfamily Phloeocharinae were described 
and illustrated. 

Scolytidae — A monograph on the large 
genus Pityophthorus in North America was 
completed. Over 200 species are described 
and illustrated, and keys are provided to aid 
in identification. 

Buprestidae — A handbook on the Bupres- 
tidae of Canada for The Insects and Arach- 
nids of Canada series is nearing completion. 
Over 200 Canadian species are treated. 

Miscellaneous — Considerable progress was 
made on the inventory of pest species of 
Coleoptera of agricultural importance. It is 
expected to be completed in 1981. 

Lepidoptera. Tortricidae — A paper de- 
scribing a new species of Clepis from the 
Yukon Territory was published. Manuscripts 
for two papers on the pine cone borer genera 
Eucosma and Laspeyresia were prepared. 
Genitalia drawings, and keys to genera and 
species, of Archipini were completed for a 
handbook in the series The Insects and 
Arachnids of Canada. Forty populations of 
spruce budworm from across Canada were 
established for use in a projected taxonomic 
revision of the Choristoneura fumiferana 
complex. 

Pyralidae — A paper describing a new spe- 
cies of Dioryctria from Eastern Canada was 
completed. Two papers on the larvae of the 
subfamily Pyraustinae were submitted for 
publication. 

Noctuidae — A manuscript on the biogeog- 
raphy of the 180 North American species of 
Euxoa was submitted for publication. A 
taxonomic study of the Euxoa comosa group, 
using both classical and experimental ap- 
proaches, was completed. On the basis of 
larval growth rates, hybridization, mating 
discrimination, and pheromone specificity 
studies, it was concluded that nine normal 
species were best regarded as five subspecies 
comprising a single polytypic species. A 
catalog of the 450 species and 45 genera of 
cutworms of the subfamily Noctuinae in the 
Neotropical region was completed. 

Geometridae — The fourth memoir in the 
series Guide to the Geometridae of Canada 
on the subfamily Ennominae was submitted 
for publication. 

Trichoptera. A world revision of the family 
Xiphocentronidae was completed. The family 
includes 88 species, of which 68 are new. 



Diptera and Hemiptera 

Diptera. Volume I of the Manual of the 
Nearctic Diptera, covering 43 families of 
Nematocera and lower Brachycera, was pub- 
lished. The text of the second volume covering 
all 65 families of the higher Diptera (Musco- 
morpha or Cyclorrhapha) occurring north of 
Mexico was completed; work on illustrations 
for the second volume is now in progress. 
Fifty-two world specialists collaborated in this 
two-volume work, which provides new keys 
and abundant illustrations to 2150 genera of 
flies known to occur in Canada, Greenland, 
and continental United States. Well-illus- 
trated family keys to adults and larvae of soil- 
dwelling Diptera were prepared for inclusion 
in a book entitled Soil Biology Guide. Adults 
and immature stages of one of the major 
blackfly vectors of onchocerciasis in Venezu- 
ela, Simulium sanguineum Knab, were rede- 
scribed as part of a study of these vectors 
under the auspices of the World Health 
Organization. Nine new genera and six new 
species of Mycetophilidae (fungus gnats) 
were described. As part of a cooperative 
project involving both North American and 
European specialists on midges (Chironomi- 
dae), keys, diagnoses, and illustrations of the 
larvae of 21 genera of the subfamily Ortho- 
cladiinae and nine genera of Diamesinae were 
completed. Six New World genera of Empidi- 
dae related to Megagrapha were revised, 
incorporating the description of one new 
genus and 27 new species. Illustrated keys to 
the larvae of horse flies and deer flies of 
Illinois were completed as part of a manual to 
the Tabanidae of that state. Fifty-three 
Canadian species in 10 genera of Syrphidae 
(flower flies) were redescribed as part of a 
handbook to the Syrphidae of Canada, 
Alaska, and Greenland. The 14 world genera 
of Pallopteridae were redefined and keyed for 
the first time. One new extant pallopterid 
species was described whose sister-species is 
known only as a fossil species in Baltic amber 
of Oligocène age (± 40 million years). The 
identities of the 12 described species of 
Neosilba (Lonchaeidae), whose larvae live in 
fruit and vegetables, were established and 
three new species described. In cooperation 
with the Food Production and Inspection 
Branch of Agriculture Canada, a detection 
survey for the anthomyiid wheat-bulb fly, 
Delia coarctata (Fallen), turned up numbers 
of adults on quack grass from Quebec to Nova 



14 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Scotia. No damage to winter wheat was 
detected. 

Siphonaptera. A monographic treatment of 
the fleas of Canada and Alaska, including 
keys to all genera and species, and illustra- 
tions and distribution maps for each species, is 
nearing completion. 

Hemiptera. Studies of plant bugs of the 
family Miridae resulted in publication of 
descriptions of nine new species. Five Euro- 
pean species were reported from North Amer- 
ica for the first time. Technical bulletins 
dealing with the plant bugs infesting apple 
trees in Quebec and fruit crops in Canada 
were completed. The second part of a hand- 
book to the genera of Aphidoidea of Canada 
is nearing completion and will be published, 
along with the first part, as a single major 
treatment. Morphological characteristics and 
a diagnosis for a new species of flat bugs 
(Aradus) in Canada were published. 

Experimental taxonomy and nematology 

Biosystematics of cutworms. Two species 
of cutworm moths of the genus Xestia from 
North America and one from Europe were 
compared morphologically and electrophoreti- 
cally. Where morphological distinctions were 
unclear, the species were readily differenti- 
ated by the allozymes of six enzymes. Rela- 
tionships between the species were clarified by 
measures of genetic distance, attractiveness to 
pheromones, and hybridization experiments. 
The morphological characters, allozyme fre- 
quency distinctions, and behavior of the 
species are described in two published papers 
and in one manuscript nearing completion. 

A manuscript comparing hemocyte com- 
plexes in 85 species of cutworms has been 
completed. Data show that, with some excep- 
tions, a natural system of classification of the 
family based on hemocyte complexes is more 
relative to one based on larval, rather than 
adult, morphology. It is thought that these 
hemocyte characteristics may be associated 
with the biology of larval development. Some 
anomalies in cell complexes, however, lend 
support to projected taxonomic revisions 
based on adults. 

Insect morphology. In two memoirs sub- 
mitted for publication the eggs of 124 species 
of cutworm moths (Noctuidae) and 112 
species representing 40 other families are 
described and cataloged. The characters of 
taxonomic and phyletic importance depicted 



in 235 plates of scanning micrographs include 
position and form of the chorionic microsculp- 
ture and surface texture, features of the 
micropylar area, and position, shape, and size 
of the aeropyles. Descriptions include date, 
site, and pattern of oviposition, and color and 
dimensions of eggs. In a continuing study of 
evolutionary processes in animals a new 
theory of inheritance of environmentally 
acquired characters was extended to talitrid 
amphipods and salamanders, and the results 
were submitted for publication. Based on 
newly postulated concepts concerning mor- 
phogenetic plasticity and environmental ef- 
fects of the epigenetic system involving 
hormonal action, a new theory on the origin of 
insect wings was developed and submitted for 
publication. 

Nematology. Published were descriptions 
of a new species of root-knot nematode, a new 
genus and species of cyst-forming nematodes, 
a bulb-and-stem nematode that induces leaf 
galls, and a new species and subgenus of 
Aphelenchus. 

Revisionary studies of the plant-parasitic 
ring nematodes (Criconematidae) were com- 
pleted and the data were presented in a series 
of papers that are in press, submitted, or 
completed. Nominal species of the 22 genera 
considered were realigned into more tenable 
groupings, for which six new genera were 
proposed. Taxonomic keys are provided to 
facilitate identification of 180 species of ring 
nematodes, including new species described 
from Canada. 

A manuscript was completed that con- 
cludes morphological and taxonomic studies 
of plant-parasitic species of the genus Mer- 
linius in Canada. The text contains descrip- 
tions and illustrations of three new species 
and a key to the Canadian species. Also 
completed were descriptions of a new species 
of spiral nematode (Helicotylenchus), with a 
revised key to the Canadian species, and of a 
new species of Triversus. New records of 
nematodes for Canada have been documented 
for a species each of Merlinius and Helicoty- 
lenchus, and for the genus Triversus. Host 
plants of nematodes recorded for the first time 
are spike rush, Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R 
& S, and dryas, Dry as integrifolia M. Vahl. 

Hymenoptera and Arachnida 

Hymenoptera. Progress continued on the 
introductory volume on Hymenoptera for the 
faunal series, The Insects and Arachnids of 



BIOSYSTEMATICS RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



15 



Canada. Important research, leading to re- 
classification of some major groups of Hyme- 
noptera, was continued, with one preliminary 
paper completed and three others initiated. 
These will contribute to a general classifica- 
tion basis for the faunal handbook. 

Symphyta (sawflies) — A paper on distingu- 
ishing more readily among three species of 
Gilpinia in North America was submitted for 
publication; included are two species actually 
or potentially introduced from Europe, one of 
which could become a pest of spruce. A 
manuscript on distinguishing five species of 
Phymatocera in North America, with a 
discussion of the natural relationships of these 
liliaceous plant feeders, was submitted for 
review. 

Braconidae — A major revision of the sub- 
family Microgastrinae, with a reclassification 
and phylogenetic analysis of its genera, is in 
press. This study centers on the large, com- 
plex genus Apanteles, and shows that this 
group of parasites of lepidopterans is not a 
natural assemblage. 

Ichneumonidae — A taxonomic revision of 
the genus Ctenopelma for North America, 
treating 24 species (18 new) that are parasites 
of pamphiliid sawflies, was submitted for 
publication. A revision of the genus Pyrac- 
mon, based on larvae and adults, was largely 
completed. 

Chalcidoidea — A synopsis of eight North 
American species of the genus Chrysonoto- 
myia, endoparasites of small insect eggs and 
larvae, was published. A paper on natural 
relationships of endemic Chalcidoidea of 
Hawaii was presented at the 16th Interna- 
tional Congress of Entomology in Kyoto, 
Japan, in 1980. A paper was nearly completed 
that describes a new species of Thripocte- 
noides, a genus of entedontine Eulophidae, 
and parasites of thrip eggs not previously 
known from North America. A revision of 
North American species of Pediobius, en- 
doparasites of various immature insects and 
spiders, was nearly completed. 

Proctotrupoidea — A large paper providing 
keys to 67 genera of the family Scelionidae 
for the Northern Hemisphere was published. 
A similar work on 46 world genera of ino- 
stemmatine Platygastridae was nearly com- 
pleted. A paper treating six species of the 
platygastrid genus Acerotella for North 
America was published, and another on 18 
species of the related genus Metaclisis was 
completed; wasps of both genera are parasites 
of gall flies. Two papers on the scelionid genus 



Calotelea, including a revision of 10 species 
(all new) for North America, and another 
paper revising two species of the diapriid 
genus Leaiopria, associated with termites in 
Australia, were published. 

Arachnida. Araneae (spiders) — A paper, 
providing the first description of the female of 
Xysticus winnipegensis Redner & Dondale, 
was published. A paper was published on the 
spider fauna of Canada, given at the 8th 
International Congress of Arachnology in 
Vienna, Austria, in 1980. A chapter providing 
illustrated keys to the spiders of litter, repre- 
senting 95 genera in 16 families, was submit- 
ted for publication in a book entitled Soil 
Biology Guide. Two papers on the wolf spider 
genus Pirata were submitted for publication: 
Pirata is redefined, along with the description 
of a new genus, Trebacosa, in one; and a new 
species of Pirata is described from Canada in 
the other. The second contribution on spiders 
to the faunal series Insects and Arachnids of 
Canada is in press. Entitled The Sac Spiders 
of Canada and Alaska (Araneae: Clubionidae 
and Anyphaenidae), this handbook includes 
taxonomic keys, illustrations, descriptions, 
and notes on living habits concerning the 1 1 
genera and 72 species of sac spiders found, or 
anticipated to occur, in Canada and Alaska. 

Acari (mites) — An important paper on 
evolutionary and ecological strategies of mites 
and other arthropods inhabiting annually 
temporary pools was published. A major 
revision of North American species of the 
eriophyoid genus Trisetacus, sporadic pests of 
coniferous trees, was nearly completed. A 
large monograph on morphology, systematics, 
and natural relationships of the world genera 
of Tarsonemidae, and on classification of this 
family with others in the Heterostigmata, was 
completed as a preliminary draft for internal 
review. 

Mycology: plant disease and biodegrading 
fungi 

Ultrastructural examinations of fungal 
zoospores have revealed numerous new char- 
acteristics that substantially aided biosystem- 
atic theory. Included prominently among 
these new characteristics is the microtubule 
rootlet complex that anchors the flagellar 
apparatus and provides cytoskeletal support 
for the cell. As a direct result of these 
findings, a new order, Spizellomycetales, in 
the class Chytridiomycetes, was described. 



16 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



The order includes many newly reported soil- 
inhabiting fungi, as well as ones previously 
known such as the virus-transmitting Olpid- 
ium brassicae and O. radicale. The genus 
Synchytrium, which includes S. endobioti- 
cum, the cause of black wart disease of 
potato, is retained in the revised order 
Chytridiales. 

An ecological study on the effect of fire on 
the soil microflora of coniferous forests was 
published. Accelerated microbial activities 
were observed as a long-term effect of fire on 
soil microbial populations and metabolism. 
These could be attributed to specific environ- 
mental changes caused by burning. A revision 
of the species of Septorioid fungi occurring on 
Gramineae in Canada is nearing completion. 
Descriptions of these important disease-caus- 
ing fungi will be published in a format that 
should assist pathologists and others with 
their identification. 

A taxonomic revision of some species of 
Didymella parasites of raspberry, cucurbits, 
and legumes has been completed. A tax- 
onomic study of the hyphomycetous genus 
Stemphylium is nearly completed. Canadian 
species of Mycosphaerella parasitizing se- 
lected groups of economically important 
plants are being investigated. 

A taxonomic monograph of the genus 
Coniophora was completed. Detailed descrip- 
tions and illustrations will allow rapid identi- 
fication of specimens of these dry rot fungi. 
They cause economically significant losses in 
wood of buildings and other wooden struc- 
tures as well as decay in forest trees. 

A supplement to the 20-yr-old reference, 
An Annotated Index of Plant Diseases in 
Canada, is progressing and, when completed, 
will be a useful reference work for plant 
pathologists, ecologists, and other biologists. 

Studies on the taxonomy and distribution of 
Fusarium species in Canada, emphasizing the 
fusaria associated with cereal grains, are 
being continued. Collaborative work with 
Animal Research Centre and Plant Products 
scientists is focusing on toxin production by 
these fungi with emphasis on zearalenone 
production by F. graminearum and on the 
trichothecenes produced by this and other 
Fusarium species. A new variety of Fusarium 
moniliforme was described. 

A study of 1 7 species of Puccinia complet- 
ing their life cycles on Cichorieae (Composi- 
tae) in North America was completed. It 
revealed one new species on the genus 
Agoseris and recognized that certain rusts 



attacking Taraxacum, Hieracium, and re- 
lated plants are distinct from the wide- 
ranging Puccinia hieracii, under which they 
had been treated synonymously. Seven rusts 
parasitizing the family Primulaceae in 
Canada were described. 

A revision of section Herbicolae of the 
mushroom genus Coprinus on a global basis 
was necessary to determine that a winter 
pathogen of winter wheat and legume forage 
crops in Western Canada represented an 
undescribed species. A second species in the 
section, which was associated with a turf 
disease, was discovered in Canada. Fieldwork 
continued to reveal mushrooms new to 
Canada, including species new to science, and 
many new provincial records. This documen- 
tation will assist decision making by Plant 
Quarantine officers, should any of the species 
be found on imported materials. 

Revision of the genus Leptosphaeria and its 
segregates progressed through type studies 
and additional fieldwork in northern Ontario. 
A review was prepared on "Changes in 
taxonomy and nomenclature of important 
genera of plant pathogens". 

Vascular plants 

Alfalfa. Four publications on alfalfa were 
prepared. Examination of pubescence distri- 
bution on alfalfa leaves led to the discovery 
that trichome density is greater on the lower 
halves of the two outer leaflets than on other 
parts of the leaf. Numerical taxonomic analy- 
ses of 55 species of Medicago resulted in 
recognition of 12 major groupings in three 
assemblages. Study of floral structures in 
species of Medicago and their relatives en- 
abled separation of Medicago, Factorovskya, 
and a segment of the genus Trigonella 
(fenugreek) from Melilotus (sweet clover) 
and the remainder of Trigonella. In the first 
group, features were found which promote the 
'tripping' phenomenon of alfalfa. A study of 
pollen grains revealed that pollen could be 
used taxonomically to separate Medicago 
from several closely related genera. 

Hops. A study of the relationships between 
the structure and geographical origin of hops 
(the fruit of Humulus lupulus L., widely used 
in brewing) was completed. Fruit structure 
could be used to identify hops from North 
America, Britain, continental Europe, and 
Japan. 

Wheat group. Based on ultrastructure of 
epicuticular waxes, the relationships among 



BIOSYSTEMATICS RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



17 



genera of this difficult group was investigated 
by means of electron microscopy, chemistry, 
and numerical taxonomy. Two papers have 
been accepted for publication. 

Barleys. Preparation of a worldwide barley 
cultivar registry, to include pedigrees, coeffi- 
cients of common parentage and inbreeding, 
and synonyms, is progressing. A new method 
of identifying species and cultivars was under- 
taken, using a combination of starch granules 
from the grain and an image analyzer, and 
computer data analysis. This approach 
yielded excellent results that were summa- 
rized in a comprehensive paper. About 300 
accessions of wild species of Hordeum were 
collected this summer in the southwestern 
United States and Mexico by a joint Cana- 
dian-Danish-Swedish exploration team. 

Inventory of cultivated crop plants of 
Canada. Literature collection continued 
toward compilation of a treatment of all 
plants known to be cultivated outdoors for 
crop purposes in Canada. Treatments of 50 of 
the most important genera of Canada were 
drafted. 

Inventory of Canadian weeds. Work contin- 
ued toward publication of an inventory of all 
weeds and other noxious or potentially noxi- 
ous plants found in Canada. For each of about 
1500 species to be included there will be 
information on the correct scientific name, 
widely used synonyms, English and French 
names, geographical distribution, and habitat. 

Biology of Canadian Weeds series. Ac- 
counts were completed of the common horse- 
tail (Equisetum arvense L., a pernicious weed 
of pastures and a variety of other habitats), 
narrow-leaved plantain (Plantago lanceolata 
L., a weed of pastures, lawns, and waste 
places, known to shed large amounts of pollen 
leading to many cases of hay fever), and 
night-flowering catchfly (Silène noctiflora L., 
an important weed, particularly of grain and 
leguminous crops in Western Canada). 

Aquatic weeds. The genus Myriophyllum 
includes the watermilfoils, which are ex- 
tremely damaging to waterways in Canada. 
Several studies were published documenting 
the relationships of substrate on the growth 
and form of M. spicatum L., M. exalbescens 
Fern., and M. alterniflorum DC, and clarify- 
ing the difficulty many individuals have had in 
identifying these species due to the differen- 
tial development of the plants in various 



habitats. An identification key to the 13 
species found in North America and discus- 
sions of their taxonomic difficulties were 
published. 

White cockle. A revised treatment of varia- 
tion within this weed species was completed. 
Four subspecies are recognized and the cor- 
rect scientific name for the species is shown to 
be Silène pratensis (Rafn.) Godron & Gren. 

Knotweeds. Morphology and cytology of 
introduced knotweeds {Polygonum spp.) in 
Eastern Canada established the existence of 
two groups of plants recognizable as species. 
The most common knotweeds in open habitats 
are tetraploid plants that are distinguishable 
from others that are hexaploid by size of their 
leaves, and form of their perianth segments 
and fruit. These plants are referable to P. 
arenastrum Boreau. The more erect intro- 
duced hexaploid plants that can more readily 
compete as field weeds belong to a species 
with the name P. aviculare L., which may be 
rejected as ambiguous and replaced by the 
name P. monspeliense Pers. 

Silky-bent. Discovery of two species of 
silky-bent (Apera) in southern Ontario en- 
abled preparation of an account that distingu- 
ishes this genus from other grasses with which 
it might be confused, and indicates the 
diagnostic features and potential hazard of 
loose silky-bent, A. spicaventi (L.) Beauv., a 
weed of winter wheat. 

Lamb's-quarters. An extensive account was 
prepared for all 31 species of lamb's-quarters 
(Chenopodium) in Canada and presents de- 
scriptions, distribution maps, chromosome 
numbers, a key, and discussions of morphol- 
ogy and nomenclature. 

Herbicide-resistant weeds. Three papers 
were published on comparisons of triazine- 
resistant and susceptible weed strains. Resist- 
ant strains of groundsel, Senecio vulgaris L., 
were less competitive in the absence of 
herbicides and much more homogeneous than 
nonresistant strains of North American and 
European populations. Resistant and suscepti- 
ble strains of lamb's-quarters, Chenopodium 
album, and late-flowering goosefoot, C. stric- 
tum Roth, differ in competitive fitness both 
between species and between strains of the 
same species. The literature on three resistant 
pigweed species was clarified, and docu- 
mented both the occurrence of green pigweed, 
Amaranthus powellii, and the first known 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



occurrence of resistant redroot pigweed, 
Amaranthus retroflexus, in southern Ontario; 
a key for identification of all three species of 
pigweed was provided. Three studies were 
completed assessing differences between tria- 
zine-resistant and susceptible populations of 
lamb's-quarters. Differential growth and re- 
sponse to atrazine and isoenzyme variation 
provided evidence for climatically adapted 
populations of both susceptible and resistant 
strains; electrophoretic studies of isoenzyme 
variation indicated remarkable homogeneity 
within resistant populations, but provided 
evidence for two independent mutations of 
triazine-resistant lamb's-quarters within well- 
established populations in Ontario. The ge- 
netic basis of ecoclimatic adaptation in 
lamb's-quarters was clarified, based on pho- 
toperiodic and reciprocal transplant studies 



into contrasting climatic regimes. A differen- 
tial nitrogen response to atrazine in suscepti- 
ble and resistant populations showed that a 
degree of inhibition of photosynthesis by 
atrazine was necessary to elicit the increase 
observed in nitrogen compounds for suscepti- 
ble plants. 

Floristic studies. A paper on distribution of 
the orchid twayblades {Listera) was pub- 
lished. One on distribution of plants of 
restricted geographical range in Ontario was 
completed. Numerous distribution maps were 
prepared toward publication of a handbook of 
plants of Riding Mountain National Park. A 
paper on water-meal {Wolffia columbiana 
Karst.), previously unreported in the Park, 
was published. Considerable progress was 
made toward preparation of an identification 
guide to the more than 180 species and 60 
genera of grasses of western cattle rangelands. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Aiken, S. G.; McNeill, J. 1980. The discovery of 
Myriophyllum exalbescens Fernald (Halora- 
gaceae) in Europe and the typification of M. 
spicatum L. and M. verticillatum L. Bot. J. 
Linn. Soc. 80(3):21 3-222. 

Aiken, S. G.; Picard, R. R. 1980. The influence of 
substrate on the growth and morphology of 
Myriophyllum excalbescens and Myriophyl- 
lum spicatum. Can. J. Bot. 58(9): 1 1 11-1118. 

Allyson, S. 1980. Last-instar larva of the goose- 
berry fruitworm, Zophodia convolutella (Lep- 
idoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae). Can. Ento- 
mol. 112:43-45. 

Anderson, R. V.; Hooper, D. J. 1980. Diagnostic 
value of vagina structure in the taxonomy of 
Aphelenchus Bastian, 1865 (Nematoda: Aph- 
elenchidae) with a description of A. (Anaph- 
elenchus) isomerus n. subgen., n.sp. Can. J. 
Zool. 58(5):924-928. 

Anderson, R. V.; Mulvey, R. H. 1980. Description, 
relationships, and host symptoms of Ditylen- 
chus dryadis n.sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) 
from the Canadian High Arctic, a transitional 
species of gall-forming parasite attacking 
Dryas integrifolia M. Vahl. Can. J. Zool. 
58(3):363-368. 

Anderson, R. V.; Townshend, J. L. 1980. Variation 
of the first head annule in Canadian popula- 
tions of Pratylenchus penetrans (Nematoda: 
Praytlenchidae) from three host plants. Can. J. 
Zool. 58(7): 1336- 1340. 



Barr, D. J. S. 1980. Fungi Canadenses: No. 176, 
Olpidium brassicae. 

Barr, D. J. S. 1980. Heterothallic-like reaction in 
the large-oospore form of Phytophthora 
megasperma. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 2:1 16-1 18. 

Barr, D. J. S.; Badoni, R. 1979. A new species of 
Rozella on a basidiomycete. Mycologia 
LXXI(6):1261-1264. 

Baum, B. R. 1980. Multivariate morphometric 
relationships between Hordeum jubatum and 
H. br achy anther um in Canada and Alaska. 
Can. J. Bot. 58(6):604-623. 

Bissett, J.; Parkinson, D. 1980. Long-term effects of 
fire on the composition and activity of the soil 
microflora of a subalpine, coniferous forest. 
Can. J. Bot. 58( 1 5): 1 704- 1 72 1 . 

Cody, W. J.; Scotter, G. W.; Talbot, S. S. 1979. 
Additions to the vascular plant flora of Na- 
hanni National Park, Northwest Territories. 
Nat. Can. 106:439-450. 

Corlett, M; Egger, K. N. 1980. Fungi Canadenses: 
No. 181, Venturia rumicis; No. 182, Venturia 
canadensis. 

Corlett, M.; Neish, G. A. 1980. Fungi Canadenses: 
No. 1 80, Microascus longirostris. 

Dang, P. T.; Peterson, B. V. 1980. A case of 
bilateral gynandromorphism in Simulium sou- 
brense Vajime & Dunbar (Diptera: Simuli- 
idae). Trop. Parasitol. 30:548-550. 



BIOSYSTEMATICS RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



19 



Dang, P. T.; Peterson, B. V. 1980. Pictorial keys to 
the main species and species groups within the 
Simulium damnosum Theobald complex oc- 
curring in West Africa (Diptera: Simuliidae). 
Trop. Parasitol. 31:117-120. 

Doganlar, M.; Mutuura, A. 1980. A new species of 
Phyllonorycter Hbn. (Lithocelletis Hbn.) 
(Lepidoptera: Gracilariidae) from western 
North America. Can. Entomol. 1 12:31 1-314. 

Dore, W. G.; McNeill, J. 1980. Grasses of Ontario. 
Agric. Can. Monogr. 26. 566 pp. 

Ebsary, B. A. 1979. Crossonema capitospinosum 
new species and description of C. menzeli and 
C. fimbriatum juveniles (Nematoda: Cricone- 
matidae). Can. J. Zool. 57(1 2):23 19-2324. 

Farnworth, E. R.; Neish, G. A. 1980. Analysis of 
corn seeds for fungi and mycotoxins. Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:727-731. 

Gibson, G. A. P. 1980. A revision of the genus 
Macrophya dahlbom (Hymenoptera: Sym- 
phyta, Tenthredinidae) of North America. 
Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 1 14:617. 

Gibson, G. A. P. 1980. Deda, a new genus of 
sawflies from western North America (Hyme- 
noptera: Symphyta, Tenthredinidae). Can. 
Entomol. 112:249-258. 

Ginns, J. 1980. Fungi Canadenses: No. 168, Peziza 
badioconfusa; No. 169, Peziza varia; No. 174, 
Tyromyces kmetii. 

Ginns, J. 1980. The genus Flaviporus Murrill 
(Polyporaceae). Can. J. Bot. 54(14):1578- 
1590. 

Hamilton, K. G. A. 1980. Review of the Nearctic 
Idiocerini, excepting those from the Sonoran 
subregion (Rhynchota: Homoptera: Cicadelli- 
dae). Can. Entomol. 1 12:81 1-848. 

Hudson, A; Lefkovitch, L. P. 1980. Two species of 
the Amathes c-nigrum complex (Lepidoptera: 
Noctuidae) distinguished by isozymes of ade- 
nylate kinase and by selected morphological 
characters. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 
82(4):587-598. 

Hughes, S. J. 1980. New Zealand Fungi 27. New 
species of Guedea, Hadrosporium, Helmintho- 
sporium. N.Z. J. Bot. 18:65-72. 

Hughes, S. J. 1980. New Zealand Fungi 29. 
Rhinocladium Sacc. et March. N.Z. J. Bot. 
18:163-172. 

Hughes, S. J. 1980. Fungi Canadenses: No. 163, 
Helminthosporium velutinum; No. 164, 
Arachnophora excentrica; No. 167, Stigmina 
robusta; No. 183, Taeniolella elixis; No. 184, 
Taeniolella alata; No. 185, Taeniolella rudis. 



Hughes, S. J.; Cooke, J. C. 1980. Fungi Ca- 
nadenses: No. 161, Spiropes helleri; No. 162, 
Endophragmiella cesatii. 

Kelton, L. A. 1980. The insects and arachnids of 
Canada. Part 8. The plant bugs of the Prairie 
Provinces of Canada. Heteroptera: Miridae. 
Agric. Can. Publ. 1703. 408 pp. 

Kelton, L. A. 1980. Description of three new species 
of Miridae from the Prairie Provinces and a 
new record of European Phylini in the Nearc- 
tic region (Heteroptera). Can. Entomol. 
12:285-292. 

Kelton, L. A. 1980. Lectotype designation for 
Idolocoris agiles, and descriptions of three new 
species of Dicyphus Fieber from North Amer- 
ica (Heteroptera: Miridae). Can. Entomol. 
112:387-392. 

Kelton, L. A. 1980. Description of a new species of 
Parthenicus Reuter, new records of Holarctic 
Orthotylini in Canada, and new synonymy for 
Diaphnocoris pellucida (Heteroptera: Miri- 
dae). Can. Entomol. 1 12:341-344. 

Kelton, L. A. 1980. Two new species of Melanot- 
richus Reuter from Western Canada and a 
description of the male of M. atriplicis (Het- 
eroptera: Miridae). Can. Entomol. 112:337- 
339. 

LeSage, L.; Harrison, A. D. 1980. The biology of 
Cricotopus (Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae) in 
an algal-enriched stream: Part I. Normal 
biology. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 57:375-418. 

LeSage, L.; Harrison, A. D. 1980. The biology of 
Cricotopus (Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae) in 
an algal-enriched stream: Part II. Effects of 
parasitism. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 57:1-25. 

Loan, C. C. 1979. Three new species of Peristenus 
Foerster from Canada and Western Europe 
(Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Euphorinae). Nat. 
Can. 106:387-391. 

Loan, C. C; Doganlar, M. 1980. Oedemopsis 
scabricula in British Columbia (Hymenoptera: 
Ichneumonidae, Tryphoninae). Nat. Can. 
107:11-14. 

Loan, C. C; Holliday, N. J. 1979. Euphorinae 
parasitic on ground beetles with descriptions of 
three new species of Microctonus Wesmael 
(Hymenoptera: Braconidae, and Coleoptera: 
Carabidae). Nat. Can. 106:393-397. 

Marriage, P. B.; Warwick, S. I. 1980. Differential 
growth and response to atrazine between and 
within susceptible and resistant biotypes of 
Chenopodium album L. Weed Res. 20:9-15. 

Masner, L. 1980. The identity of Calotelea ocularis 
Ashmead, 1894 (Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoi- 
dea, Scelionidae). Can. Entomol. 1 12:393-396. 



20 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Masner, L. 1980. A revision of the Nearctic species 
of Calotelea Westwood (Hymenoptera, Proc- 
totrupoidea, Scelionidae). Can. Entomol. 
112:397-408. 

Masner, L. 1980. Key to genera of Scelionidae of 
the Holarctic region, with descriptions of new 
genera and species (Hymenoptera: Procto- 
trupoidea). Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 113:1- 

54. 

Matile, L.; Vockeroth, J. R. 1980. Description d'un 
genre nouveau de Keroplatidae de l'ouest 
Nord-Américain (Diptera: Mycetophiloidea). 
Can. Entomol. 112:545-548. 

Matusda, R. 1980. Description of a new species of 
Aradus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from 
Canada. Can. Entomol. 1 12:855-856. 

McNeill, J. 1980. The delimitation of Arenaria 
(Caryophyllaceae) and related genera in North 
America with 1 1 new combinations in Minuar- 
tia. Rhodora 82:495-502. 

McNeill, J.; Majumdar, N. C. 1980. A new species 
of Arenaria subgenus Odontostemma from 
Tibet, with a review of the status of the genus 
Gooringia (Caryophyllaceae). Bot. J. Linn. 

Soc. 80:371-378. 

Mulligan, G. A. 1980. The genus Cicuta in North 
America. Can. J. Bot. 58( 1 6): 1 755- 1 767. 

Mulvey, R. H. 1979. Heterodera canadensis n. sp. 
(Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from spike-rush 
(Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. & S.) in Que- 
bec, Canada. J. Nematol. 1 1 (4):363-371 . 

Mulvey, R. H.; Anderson, R. V. 1980. Description 
and relationships of a new root-knot nematode, 
Meloidogyne sewellii n. sp. (Nematoda: 
Meloidogynidae) from Canada and a new host 
record for the genus. Can. J. Zool. 58:1551- 
1556. 

Mulvey, R. H.; Ebsary, B. A. 1980. Dolichodera 
fluvialis n.gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderi- 
dae) from Quebec, Canada. Can. J. Zool. 
58(9):1697-1702. 

Munroe, D. D.; Smith, R. F. 1980. A revision of the 
systematics of Acalymma sensu stricto Barber 
(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from North 
America including Mexico. Mem. Entomol. 
Soc. Can. 112:92. 

Mutuura, A. 1980. Epiblema (Notoceliaj cynosba- 
tella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a recently 
introduced old world species potentially injuri- 
ous to Rosaceae. Can. Entomol. 112:511-514. 

Mutuura, A. 1980. Morphological relations of 
sclerotized and pigmented areas of lepidopter- 
ous larvae to muscle attachments, with appli- 
cations to larval taxonomy. Can. Entomol. 
112:697-724. 



Naumann, I. D.; Masner, L. 1980. A revision of the 
termitophilous Australian genus Leaiopria 
Dodd (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea: Diapri- 
idae). J. Aust. Entomol. Soc. 1 9: 1 43- 1 49. 

Neish, G. A. 1980. Effects of sugars on microconid- 
ium production by macroconidia and primor- 
dial hyphae of Fusarium acuminatum. Can. J. 
Bot. 58(5):542-545. 

Parmalee, J. A. 1980. Fungi Canadenses: No. 172, 
Puccinia schedonnardi; No. 173, Puccinia 
sherardiana. 

Parmelee, J. A.; de Carteret, P. M. 1980. Fungi 
Canadenses: No. 171, Puccinia malvacearum; 
No. 186, Aecidium physalidis; No. 187, Puc- 
cinia physalidis; No. 188, Puccinia tumidipes. 

Porsild, A. E.; Cody, W. J. 1980. Vascular plants of 
continental Northwest Territories, Canada. 
Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci. Publ. 667 pp. 

Redhead, S. A. 1980. Fungi Canadenses: No. 165, 
Mycena cariciophila; No. 166, Marasmiellus 
paludosus; No. 170, Gerronema pseudogri- 
sella; No. 175, Phaeomarasmius erinaceus; 
No. 177, Hemimycena tortuosa. 

Redhead, S. A.; Malloch, D. W. 1980. Fungi 
Canadenses: No. 178, Hygrocybe spqdicea; 
No. 179, Marasmiellus filopes; No. 189, Mel- 
anotus caricicola. 

Redhead, S. A. 1980. The genus Strobilurus 
(Agaricales) in Canada with notes on extralim- 
ital species. Can. J. Bot 58(l):68-83. 

Redhead, S. A.; Ginns, J. 1980. Cyptotrama 
aspraia (Agaricales) from North America and 
notes on the five other species of Cyptotrama 
sect. Xerulina. Can. J. Bot. 58(6): 731-740. 

Salkeld, E. H. 1980. Microtype eggs of some 
Tachinidae (Diptera). Can. Entomol. 112:51- 
83. 

Savile, D. B. O. 1979. Fungi as aids in higher plant 
classification. Bot. Rev. 45(4):337-503. 

Miscellaneous 

Alex, J. F.; Cayouette, R.; Mulligan, G. A. 1980. 
Common and botanical names of weeds in 
Canada. Agric. Can. Publ. 1397. 132 pp. 

Barr, D. J. S. 1980. A Phlyctochytrium-type 
zoospore; the possible progenitor for the Blas- 
tocladiales. Mycol. Soc. Am. Newsl. 31:33 
(abstract). 

Bassett, I. J.; Crompton, C. W. 1980. Contributions 
11,21, and 32. Mulligan, G. A., ed. Biology of 
Canadian weeds. Contributions 1-32. Agric. 
Can. Publ. 1693.380 pp. 



BIOSYSTEMATICS RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



21 



Becker, E. C. 1980. Hariminus Fairmaire, 1852 
(Coleoptera): proposed designation of a type 
species under the Plenary Powers. 
Z.N.(S)2264. Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 37(1 ):49- 
50. 

Boyes, J. W.; Van Brink, J. M.; Boyes, B. C; 
Vockeroth, J. R. 1980. Chromosomes of Eris- 
talinae and Microdontaine (Diptera: Syrphi- 
dae). Genet. Soc. Can. Publ. 3. 137 pp. 

Carmichael, J. W.; Kendrick, W. B.; Conners, I. L.; 
Sigler, L. 1980. Genera of Hyphomycetes. 
University of Alberta Press. 386 pp. 

Cody, W. J. 1980. Wolffia columbiana (Limna- 
ceae), water-meal, new to Manitoba. Can. 
Field-Nat. 94:193-194. 

Cody, W. J., editor. 1980. Transactions of the 
Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club and the Ot- 
tawa Naturalist Index. Gillett, J. M., compiler. 
Publ. No. 2. 95 pp. 

Cody, W. J. 1980. Book review: Eastern North 
America's wildflowers. Can. Field-Nat. 
94:102. 

Cody, W. J. 1980. Book review: The pteridophytes 
of Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota. Can. 
Field-Nat. 94:211. 

Cody, W. J. 1980. Book review: Wildflowers of the 
North. Can. Field-Nat. 94:484. 

Cody, W. J.; Crompton, C. W. 1979. Contribution 
15. Mulligan, G. A., ed. Biology of Canadian 
weeds. Contributions 1-32. Agric. Can. Publ. 
1693.380 pp. 

Cody, W. J.; Hall, I. V.; Crompton, C. W. 1979. 
Contribution 26. Mulligan, G. A., ed. Biology 
of Canadian weeds. Contributions 1-32. Agric. 
Can. Publ. 1693.380 pp. 

Cody, W. J.; Munro, D. 1980. The genus Listera 
(twayblades) in New Brunswick. Can. Field- 
Nat. 94:443-446. 

Dondale, C. D. 1980. The spider fauna of Canada. 
Proceedings 8th International Congress Arach- 
nology, Vienna, pp. 41 1-413. 

Ginns, J. 1980. Book review: How to identify 
mushrooms to genus: I, Macroscopic features; 
II, Field identification of genera; III, Micro- 
scopic features; IV, Keys to families and 
genera. Largent, D. L. et al. Can. Field-Nat. 
94:354. 

Ginns, J. 1980. Book review: North American 
species of Lactarius. Hesler, L. R.; Smith, A. 
H. Can. Field-Nat. 94:843-844. 

Hamilton, K. G. A. 1980. Book review: The 
Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) of Fennoscan- 
dia and Denmark. Part 1: Introduction, in- 
fraorder Fulgoromorpha. Ossiannilsson. F. 



1978. Fauna Entomol. Scand. 7(1): 222 pp. 
Bull. Entomol. Soc. Can. 12(1):17-18. 

Kelton, L. A. 1979. Replacement name for Brook- 
sella Kelton (Heteroptera: Miridae). Can. 
Entomol. 1 1 1(12):1423. 

McAlpine, J. F. 1980. 60. Family Lonchaeidae. 
Crosskey, R. W. et al., eds. Catalogue of the 
Diptera of the Afrotropical Region. British 
Museum (Natural History), London, England, 
pp. 630-632. 

McNeill, J. 1979. Contribution 25. Mulligan, G. 
A., ed. The biology of Canadian weeds. Contri- 
butions 1-32. Agric. Can. Publ. 1693. 380 pp. 

McNeill, J. 1980. The genus Alchemilla in North 
America. Bot. Soc. Am. Misc. Ser. Publ. 
158:69-70 (abstract). 

Mulligan, G. A., editor and compiler. 1979. The 
biology of Canadian weeds. Contributions 
1-32. Agric. Can. Publ. 1693. 380 pp. 

Mulligan, G. A. 1980. Poison-ivy, western poison 
oak, and poison sumac. Agric. Can. Publ. 
1699. 13 pp. 

Mutuura, A. 1980. Two Pandemis species intro- 
duced into British Columbia, with a compari- 
son of native North American species (Lepi- 
doptera: Tortricidae). Can. Entomol. 112:549- 
554. 

Neish, G. A.; Hughes, G. C. 1980. Diseases of 
fishes. Book 6: Fungal diseases of fishes. 
T.F.H. Publications, Neptune, N.J. 159 pp. 

Redhead, S. A. 1979. Mycological observations: 1, 
on Cristulariella; 2, on Valdensinia; 3, on 
Neolecta. Mycologia 7 1(6): 1248- 1253. 

Redhead, S. A. 1980. Book review: British fungus 
flora. Agarics and boleti: 2. Coprinaceae Part 
1: Coprinus. Orton, P. D.; Watling, R. Mycolo- 
gia 72:223-224. 

Shoemaker, R. A.; Pirozynski, K. A. 1980. Obitu- 
ary Luella Kayla Weresub 1918-1979. Bull. 
Can. Bot. Assoc. 1 3(2): 13-16. 

Smith, K. G. V.; Vockeroth, J. R. 1980. 38. Family 
Syrphidae. Crosskey, R. W. et al., eds. Cata- 
logue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical region. 
Crosskley, R. W., ed. London, pp. 488-510. 

Thakur, M.; Nozolillo, C; Baum, B. R. 1980. 
Anthocyanin pigmentation in vegetative tissues 
as a tool in identifying Impatiens species. 
Botany 80. Bot. Soc. Am. Misc. Ser. Publ. 
158:1 15 (abstract). 

Traquair, J. A.; Redhead, S. A. 1980. Calyptella 
capula, an inconspicuous basidiomycete on 
alfalfa. Presented to the Canadian Botanical 
Society. Bot. Soc. Am. Misc. Ser. Publ. 
158:1 18-1 19 (abstract). 



22 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Vockeroth, J. R. 1980. 82. Family Scathophagidae. 
Crosskey, R. W. et al., eds. Catalogue of the 
Diptera of the Afrotropical region. London, p. 
714. 

Warwick, S. I.; Marriage, P. B. 1980. Differential 
growth and response to atrazine in resistant 
and susceptible populations of Chenopodium 
album in relation to geographical location. 
Botany 80. Am. Bot. Soc. Am. (abstract). 

Warwick, S. I.; Weaver, S. E. 1980. Atrazine 
resistance in Amaranihus retroflexus (redroot 
pigweed) and A. powellii (green pigweed) 
from southern Ontario. Expert Committee on 
Weeds Research Report. 



Weresub, L. K.; Hughes, S. J. 1979. Proposal to 
emend entries under Helminthosporium E. M. 
Fries, Nom. Cons. (Fungi). Taxon 28:605-607. 

Weresub, L. K.; McNeill, J. 1980. Effective publi- 
cation under the Code of botanical nomencla- 
ture. Taxon 29(4):47 1-476. 

Wilkinson, P. R.; Fyfe, R.; Martin, J. E. H. 1980. 
Further records of Ornithodoros ticks on 
prairie falcons and in bat-inhabited buildings 
in Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 94(2): 1 91 -1 93. 



BIOSYSTEMATICS RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



23 



Chemistry and Biology Research Institute 
Ottawa, Ontario 



PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



A. I. de la Roche, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. Director 

S. U. Khan, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D., F.C.I.C, F.R.I.C. Assistant Director 

D. Brunette Acting Administrative Officer 

Plant Pathology 

C. Madhosingh, D.I.C.T.A., B.S.A., M.S. A., Ph.D. Program Leader; Enzymology of 

pathogenic fungi 
L. R. Barran, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. Cell membrane biochemistry 

R. B. Pringle, B.S., M.Sc, Ph.D., F.A.A.A.S. Host-specific toxins 

E. F. Schneider, B.S., M.Sc, Ph.D. Sporulation and wall structure 
I. L. Stevenson, B.S.A., M.S. A., Ph.D. Cytology and physiology 

Virus and Mycoplasma 



R. C. Sinha, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D., D.Sc 

L. N. Chiykowski, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
Y. C. Paliwal, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Program Leader; Virus and 
mycoplasma vector relationships 
Leafhopper-transmitted mycoplasma 
Aphid- and mite-transmitted viruses 



Environmental Chemistry 

S. U. Khan, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D., F.C.I.C, F.R.I.C. Program Leader; Herbicides 

R. Greenhalgh, B.S., Ph.D. Organophosphorus insecticides 

M. Ihnat, B.Sc, Ph.D. Inorganic chemistry 

D. A. Shearer, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., F.C.I.C. Insect pheromones 

J. C. Young, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. Analytical organic chemistry 



Soil Chemistry and Biology 

M. Schnitzer, B.Sc (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D., F.C.S.S., Program Leader; 

F.A.S.A., F.S.S.S.A. Soil organic matter 

D. S. Gamble, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D., F.C.I.C. Soil phosphorus 

chemistry and biology research institute 



25 



K. C. Ivarson, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
H. Kodama, B.Sc, M.Sc, D.Sc 
S. P. Mathur, B.Sc, Assoc LA. R.I. 
N. M. Miles, B.Sc. 
H. Morita, B.Sc, M.Sc, D.Sc. 
C. Preston, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
L. Purdie, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
G. J. Ross, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
S. S. Singh, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Ph.D. 



Soil nitrogen 
Soil mineralogy 
Organic soils 
Soil mineralogy 
Organic soils 
Soil mineralogy 
Soil nitrogen 
Soil mineralogy 
Soil chemistry 



Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation 



R. W. Miller, B.S., Ph.D. 

R. M. Behki, B.S., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

S. M. Lesley, B.Sc, M.A., Ph.D. 

F. D. H. MacDowall, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

E. A. Peterson, B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 

J. C. Sirois, B.A., B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Program Leader; Biochemistry, 
enzymology 
Genetic manipulation 
Genetic manipulation 
Physiology 
Bacteriology 
Physiology 



Winterhardiness 



D. Siminovitch, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.S.C. 

C. J. Andrews, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

F. D. H. MacDowall, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

M. K. Pomeroy, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

J. Singh, B.S., Ph.D. 

J. C. Sirois, B.A., B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Program Leader; Frost hardiness, 

lipids and membrane 
Winter survival of cereals 
Frost damage, chloroplast 

membrane 
Frost resistance, biochemistry, 

cytology 
Frost hardiness 
Growth regulators 



Analytical Chemistry Services 

S. U. Khan, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D., F.C.I.C, F.R.I.C. Program Leader 

Electron Microscope Centre 



I. L. Stevenson, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 
G. H. Haggis, B.Sc, Ph.D. 



Program Leader 
Electron microscopy 



Departures 

W. Baier, Diplomlandwirt, Dr. agr., M.Sc. Acting Director 

Transferred to Land Resource Research Institute, 
Ottawa 



2b 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



T. Spurr 

Seconded to Research Branch Headquarters 
D. A. Shearer, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., F.C.I.C. 
Retired August 1980 



Administrative Officer 
Insect pheromones 



VISITING SCIENTISTS 



N. Benhamou, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

National Research Council visiting fellow 
F. Haque, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

Ottawa University 
K. Ghosh, B.Sc, M.Sc, D. Phil. 

National Research Council visiting fellow 
B. E. Gudleifsson, Candidatus agr., Licensiat agr. 

Agricultural Research Institute, Iceland 
Y. Cloutier 

National Research Council visiting fellow 



Rickettsia mycoplasma 
Pesticide degradation 
Soil organic matter 
Winter survival 
Winterhardiness 



Postgraduate student 



A. H. Khadhair, B.Sc, M.Sc. 



Plant virology 



CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



27 



INTRODUCTION 



The activities of the Chemistry and Biology Research Institute are integrated into 
multidisciplinary, mission-oriented programs that have regional responsibility for research in 
basic and applied sciences related to agriculture. The activities are conducted under eight main 
programs. 

Research is concerned with interrelationships between microorganisms, viruses, soils, and 
plants. The research programs place particular emphasis on the mineralogy, biology, and 
chemistry of soils; frost hardiness; nitrogen fixation in legume crops; plant viruses and 
mycoplasma; environmental chemistry including organic toxins, trace elements, and pesticides; 
and fusarium-spot blotch disease. New or improved analytical methods for the determination 
of various constituents in agricultural materials are developed. 

Services include mineralogical analyses by means of X-ray diffraction, electron 
microscope facilities, and analytical chemistry services. The facilities of the Electron 
Microscope Centre were used by various establishments within the Research Branch, 
universities, and outside agencies. The Analytical Chemistry Services provided a wide range of 
chemical analyses and structural information on extracts from agricultural and food products 
by means of advanced analytical instrumentation such as gas chromatography - mass 
spectrometry. 

There were some organizational changes in the Institute. The Acting Director, W. Baier, 
returned to the Land Resource Research Institute in May 1980 and assumed his duties as 
Head, Agrometeorology Section. Dr. A. I. de la Roche of the Planning and Evaluation 
Directorate was appointed Director of the Institute in May 1980. 

This report summarizes only the highlights of our achievements in 1980. Reprints of the 
research publications and copies of this report are available from the Chemistry and Biology 
Research Institute, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ont. Kl A 0C6. 

A. I. de la Roche 
Director 



PLANT PATHOLOGY 

Enzymes and inhibitors related to lipid and 
membrane biochemistry in Fusarium spp. 

A number of inhibitors to the enzymes 
hydroxylmethylglutaryl-CoA reductase and 
sterol ester hydrolase from F. culmorum, a 
wheat pathogen, have been examined. After 
10 h incubation at pH 7, the optimum pH for 
activity, linoleoyllysine and linoleoylaspartate 
at 0.5 mM concentration inhibited the hydro- 
lase system and respiration by 50%. However, 
after 25 h incubation linoleoylaspartate 
showed significantly more effective inhibition 
of respiration than linoleoyllysine. Similarly, 
linoleoylaspartate reduced phenylalanine 
transport into the mycelium and spores and 
the net-sterol content more effectively than 
linoleoyllysine. Other studies demonstrated 
the laboratory degradation of these com- 
pounds by the pathogen. 

Mycelia of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 
transported methionine by an energy-depen- 
dent process. The energy required for uptake 



may be derived from either respiration or 
glycolysis at the optimum pH 4 and the 
optimum temperature 35°C. Apparent K m 
and the K max for methionine was 3 /am and 
0.27 nmol/min per milligram dry weight, 
respectively. .S-Adenosylhomocysteine was 
found to be the major metabolic product of 
the accumulated methionine. 

Methionine uptake was not inhibited by the 
acidic and basic amino acids and amino acids 
having less than a four-carbon chain. The rate 
of methionine transport was greatest in log- 
phase cells and decreased substantially as the 
cells entered the stationary phase. 

Macroconidia of F. sulphureum actively 
transported L-glutamate via a specific acidic 
amino acid permease. The apparent K m for 
uptake (pH 5) was 0.8 x 1.7 x 10 s M and 
the V varied from 0.8 to 1.2 nmol/min per 
milligram dry weight. The pH and tempera- 
ture optimums for transport were 3.5-4.5 and 
30°C, respectively. The transport of gluta- 
mate was shown to occur against a concentra- 
tion gradient of at least 1:140 and was 



28 



RHSL.ARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



suppressed by uncouplers or inhibitors of 
respiration. 

Cell wall structure and composition in 
Fusarium spp. 

Conidiogenesis in F. sulphureum, F. cul- 
morum, and F. decemicullare exhibited a 
primitive phialitic mode of ontogeny. The 
macroconidia were produced terminally and 
externally on conidiophores. Mature macroco- 
nidial cell walls were found to have a highly 
crystalline chitin structure, whereas those of 
younger conidia were amorphous as deter- 
mined by X-ray diffraction and infrared 
analyses. Similar analyses of cells treated 
with thiols indicated that these compounds 
produced depolymerization of the chitin net- 
work in the cell walls. 

Biology of seed infestation by Cochliobolus 
sativus 

Field trials were undertaken in 1980 to 
follow natural seed infestation by C sativus 
throughout the course of grain development. 
Prolonged periods of leaf-surface wetness, 
high relative humidity, and elevated tempera- 
tures (15 July-4 August) resulted in the rapid 
spread of the disease with the concomitant 
increase in aerial spore populations. The 
percentage of internally infected seed paral- 
leled the incidence of airborne spores and the 
progression of spot blotch. At harvest C 
sativus was recovered from 90% of surface- 
sterilized seed. 

Light transmission and scanning electron 
microscope studies of naturally infected seeds 
and seed parts established the following: 
fungal mycelium was present within the 
parenchyma and sclerenchyma cells of the 
lemma and palea and between these outer 
husks and the closely appressed pericarp of 
the caryopsis. Mycelium was also observed in 
the pericarp and between the pericarp layers 
and the seed testa. No fungi (or spores) were 
observed in other parts of the grain. 

Disease-producing toxins from Cochliobolus 
spp. 

Derivatives of a toxin produced by Coch- 
liobolus were prepared by complexing this 
toxin with a variety of inorganic ions. These 
derivatives were bioassayed and were found to 
be biologically stable. They can be used for 
further chemical characterization. 



Disease control studies 

Mixtures of Europan and Maneb fungicides 
as a wheat seed treatment did not synergisti- 
cally enhance the disease control capacity of 
either fungicide. Thiols, which enhanced the 
in vitro fungicidal capacity of benomyl 
against F. sulphureum, were ineffective under 
field conditions for controlling the pathogen. 
Clofibrate, an inhibitor of sterol biosynthesis 
which inhibits spore germination and growth 
of the pathogen, was examined as a seed 
treatment. DMSO, ethyl ether, and ethanol 
(5%) tested as carriers of the inhibitor for 
seed treatments for 6 min, 1 h, and 6 h, 
respectively, did not affect seed germination. 
Clofibrate at 0.02 mg per seed (5% ethanol 
carrier) afforded 50% fungus infestation 
reduction in 6 days in cultures of wheat 
seedlings containing 10 5 spores per millilitre 
of sand. Results from preliminary field trials 
were inconclusive. 



VIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA 

Peach-X disease 

Twenty-five species of plants in 13 families 
were tested for disease susceptibility by 
exposing them to infective vector leafhoppers 
Paraphlepsius irroratus. Eight plant species 
developed the disease symptoms and infected 
plants were shown to contain typical my- 
coplasma cells. Based on high susceptibility to 
infection, insect palatability, and mycoplasma 
concentration, celery was found to be the most 
promising plant species for pathogen 
purification. 

Forage legume diseases 

Four viruses were identified in alfalfa from 
26 isolates obtained in 1979. To determine the 
incidence of these viruses, extracts of each of 
700 plants that were collected from seven 
alfalfa fields in Ontario were tested against 
antisera of the four viruses. Virus distribution 
was: alfalfa mosaic, 3-92%; tobacco streak 
and pea streak, 0-10%; and clover yellow 
mosaic, 0-12%. Incidence of five viruses, 
suspected to be present in red clover, was 
similarly determined by testing 350 samples 
collected from six fields. Incidence of viruses 
was: red clover vein mosaic and pea streak, 
1-6%; clover yellow mosaic, 1-7%; bean 
yellow mosaic, 2-10%; and white clover 
mosaic, 4-11%. Two- to three-year-old alfalfa 



CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



29 



or clover stands had the highest infection 
levels. 

Examination of field-collected white clo- 
vers through electron microscopy revealed the 
presence of rickettsia-like organisms in some 
plants. The disease was transmitted to healthy 
plants by means of dodder. Infected plants 
showed severe stunting, leaf chlorosis, twist- 
ing, and reduction in size of leaflets. Both 
experimentally infected plants and the dodder 
contained rickettsia. This is the first record of 
a disease in Canada involving such an 
organism. 

Aster yellows 

The mycoplasma found associated with the 
disease was first detected serologically in 
extracts of aster plants 3 wk after infection. 
The mycoplasma concentration reached a 
peak by the 7th wk, remained at the same 
level for another 2 wk, and then declined to a 
lower level by the 13th wk. Leafhopper 
transmission pattern of the disease, after the 
vector leafhoppers Macrosteles fascifrons 
acquired the pathogen from plants of different 
infection ages, was similar to the mycoplasma 
growth curve. 

Barley yellow dwarf virus 

Tests on 140 samples of perennial grasses 
from five locations in Ontario revealed gener- 
ally low virus infection levels (0-5%) with the 
exception of samples collected from Ottawa 
area which showed 40% infection. Three virus 
strains were identified in grasses and four in 
winter and spring wheat grain. An RP- 
specific strain was predominant in the grasses, 
whereas wheat contained only a nonspecific 
one. Virus incidence ranged from 1 to 8% in 
winter wheat; from 5 to 10% in spring grains 
at locations of very low grass infection; and 
from 2 to 3% in the Ottawa area. These 
epidemiological studies suggest a limited role 
of grasses as a source of virus for the cereal 
crops. 



ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY 

Inorganic chemistry 

Biological availability of trace minerals 
from silages. A number of tissues from sheep 
fed with normal alfalfa and corn silages or 
with similar silages treated with trace miner- 
als were analyzed using wet digestion - flame 
spectrometry. Different levels of Mg, Ca, Zn, 



Cu, Mn, Fe, Cr, and P were present in 
samples of rumen, duodenal, and ilial digesta 
and components. A computer program for 
analytical calculations was used to assess the 
bioavailability of these elements from silage. 

Detection of hazardous silo gases. A sim- 
ple, inexpensive device for detecting the 
presence of hazardous gases in silos was 
identified for use by farm workers after a 
comprehensive survey of the literature and 
manufacturers of gas detection devices. Sev- 
eral certified, length-of-stain chemical detec- 
tors for nitrogen dioxide, the dominant toxic 
silo gas with a threshold-limiting value of 5 
ppm, and other silage-produced gases were 
chosen for field testing. Modifications were 
suggested and testing protocols were 
established. 

Organic chemistry 

Ergot alkaloids. The variability in total 
and individual ergot alkaloid contents in 
wheat sclerotia collected from about 60 
different locations throughout Canada was 
determined. The total alkaloid content was 
highly variable between sclerotia and ranged 
from 0.013 to 0.307% (av. 0.163%). Ergocris- 
tine and its isomer ergocristinine were the 
major constituents (^46%). Other alkaloid 
pairs observed were ergotamine (~17%), 
ergocryptine (^12%), ergocornine (^11%), 
ergometrine (%7%), and ergosine (~5%), 
together with some unidentified alkaloids 
(-v2%). 

Short- and long-term feeding of ergotamine 
to poultry showed that 5% reductions in 
weight gain resulted with diets containing 40- 
60 ppm of the alkaloid. Alkaloid residues in 
tissues, when detected, were very low (<10 
ppb). 

Pesticides 

Pesticides in soils, plants, and food crops. 
Field microplots were treated with fensul- 
fothion containing active ingredient (ai) at 
equivalent to field treatment rates of 8.48 and 
16.96 kg/ha and with fensulfothion at 2.23 
and 4.47 kg ai/ha for banded application. The 
half-lives in a sandy loam soil were 30-39 and 
14-23 days, respectively. Fensulfothion sul- 
fone and fensulfothion sulfide were the main 
derivatives found in fensulfothion-treated soil. 
The residue levels in crops at harvest de- 
creased in the order carrot peel > pulp > 
rutabaga root > peel > pulp. The sulfoxide 
to sulfone ratio in rutabagas ranged from 0.4 



30 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



to 1.5 and in carrots from 1.7 to 7.6. This 
phenomenon is thought to be due to active 
oxidative enzyme systems present in rutaba- 
gas. Dimethyl phosphorothioic acid, but not 
dimethyl phosphoric acid, was detected (max 
1.33 ppm) in some rutabaga samples but not 
in carrots. 

Effect of copper (0, 100, 200, 500, and 
1000 ppm) on the degradation of fensul- 
fothion in an organic soil was examined in a 
greenhouse study. Copper was rapidly ad- 
sorbed by the soil. The half-life of fensul- 
fothion was 30-40 days with sulfone as the 
main derivative formed. During the first 30 
days, soil with low copper levels degraded 
fensulfothion slightly faster. However, by day 
52, there was no significant difference in the 
levels of fensulfothion in all the treatments. 

Soil-bound 14 C residues were absorbed by 
the oat plants grown in an organic soil treated 
with l4 C-ring-labeled prometryn. The roots 
contained more extractable l4 C residues 
(75.0%) than did shoots (51.1%). The major- 
ity of extractable 14 C residues in the plant 
tissue was present in the form of conjugates. 
Plant-bound 14 C-unextractable residues were 
lower in roots (19.9%) but greater in shoots 
(40.2%). Mono- and di-TV-dealkylated metab- 
olites of prometryn were present in the plant- 
bound 14 C residues. A major bound- 14 C resi- 
due in plant tissues was associated with lignin. 

Other studies demonstrated that time and 
method of atrazine application (pre-plant 
incorporated, preemergence, postemergence), 
and the presence of oil-surfactant additives in 
the herbicide formulation had no long-term 
effect on persistence. However, postemer- 
gence application, along with the presence of 
additives, resulted in slightly greater initial 
degradation rate of atrazine. In all treat- 
ments, application of atrazine at less than 
phytotoxic amounts and hydroxyatrazine 
persisted into the next growing season. Resi- 
dues from the field-treated soil were taken up, 
metabolized, and conjugated by oats seeded in 
the following spring. 

Pesticides in farm animals. Incubation of 
deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine with 
the soluble fraction (105 000 x g) from 
goose liver homogenates resulted in formation 
of the corresponding hydroxy analogues. No 
dealkylation of hydroxyatrazine occurred 
when incubation was carried out with the 
enzyme preparation. These data suggest that 
in the metabolism of atrazine by the soluble 



fraction from liver homogenates, the forma- 
tion of 2-hydroxy partially TV-dealkylated 
metabolites occurs by the hydrolysis of the 
respective 2-chloro analogues rather than by 
partial TV-dealkylation of hydroxyatrazine. 

Analytical methodology and chemistry of 
pesticides. The performance of a range of 
element-selective detectors was studied using 
chlorpyrifos as a standard. Similar linear 
ranges were observed when standards contain- 
ing one specific heteroatom were compared on 
different element-selective detectors. Because 
of the latter fact and its sensitivity to these 
detectors, chlorpyrifos was recommended as a 
common standard for the evaluation of gas 
chromatography detectors. 

The hydrolysis of fenitrothion was studied 
in buffered distilled water, natural lake water, 
and buffered lake water. Above pH 8, the 
formation of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol was 
demonstrated, whereas below pH 7 demethyl- 
fenitrothion was also detected. The half-lives 
for disappearance of fenitrothion at 23°C and 
pH 7.5 in natural lake water kept in the dark 
and in field plots were 49.5 and 1.5-2 days, 
respectively. This difference suggests that 
photolysis and microbiol processes are the 
main degradative routes of fenitrothion in 
natural aquatic systems. 

Identification of cultivars by pyrolysis gas 
chromatography. Pyrograms of four Cana- 
dian oat cultivars were obtained using a 
Curie-point pyrolyzer and capillary column 
gas chromatography. Fifty-seven peaks in 
each chromatogram were normalized and 
used as variables. The occurrence of a number 
of missing values in one or another replicate, 
and singularities in the covariance matrix, 
resulted in the use of only 10 variables for 
discriminant analyses. Four variables were 
sufficient for the correct identification, given 
the classification functions obtained. This 
approach to automated cultivar identification 
in oats shows promise but will require further 
investigation. 



SOIL CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY 

Soil chemistry and mineralogy 

Exchangeable aluminum in soils. The 
ability of five extractants (NaCl, KC1, 
NH 4 N0 3 , NH 4 C1, and CaClj to measure 
exchangeable aluminum in soils was investi- 
gated. Ammonium salt solutions consistently 
extracted greater amounts of Al than did the 



CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



other solutions. The extra Al could have come 
from sources other than exchangeable Al. 
Orthic Ferro-Humic Podzol soils yielded more 
Al from nonexchangeable sites than did 
Orthic Luvic Gleysol soils. Corrections for 
contributions of Al from nonexchangeable 
sites need to be made if meaningful assess- 
ments of exchangeable Al in acid soils are 
required. 

The aqueous and exchange chemistry of Al 
in selected soils was investigated by equili- 
brating the soils with 10~ 2 M solutions of 
CaCl 2 and CaS0 4 . Total Al was higher in the 
S0 4 system, whereas Al(III) was higher in the 
CI system. The ion activity product Al(OH) 3 
was found to be higher in the CaS0 4 than in 
the CaCl 2 solution. Differences in ion activity 
products indicate changes in solid phases 
which control the products. 

Mineralogy of Arctic soils. The mineralog- 
ical characteristics of 12 horizons, taken from 
five soil profiles on Ellef Ringnes Island, 
N.W.T., were determined. Little soil differ- 
entiation was found between parent materials 
and surface horizons. One of the Arctic soils 
contained a 7Â iron-rich trioctahedral layer 
silicate, whose occurrence in soils is unusual. 
A detailed analysis showed that this mineral 
was berthierine with an intermediate ferrous- 
ferric composition. Apparently the severely 
restricting weathering environment in the 
Arctic region contributed to the preservation 
of berthierine in this soil. 

Cemented soil horizons. Chemical dissolu- 
tion methods were found to be useful for the 
characterization of cemented soil horizons. 
Cementing agents ranged from inorganic 
amorphous substances containing Si, Al, and 
Fe to Al-Fe-organic matter and clay-organic 
matter complexes. In some soils imogolite was 
found to act as a cementing agent. 

Separating amorphous from crystalline 
soil components. The separation of amor- 
phous from crystalline components improves 
the sensitivity of X-ray diffraction methods 
for the quantification of soil minerals. Four 
dissolution methods, making use of solutions 
of Tiron, NaOH, Na 2 C0 3 and citrate-dithio- 
nite, were tested. Dissolution with Tiron was 
found to be the most efficient procedure for 
this purpose. 

Microbial formation of jarosites. The 
microbial formation in the laboratory of Rb- 
and Cs-jarosites was investigated. Crystalline 
Rb-jarosite was formed rapidly, only slightly 



more slowly than jarosite but much faster 
than were NH 4 - and natro-jarosites. Cs- 
jarosite did not form under these conditions, 
probably because of the comparatively large 
ionic size of Cs. 

Mineralogical analysis service 

Some 1100 X-ray diffractograms were 
recorded on a wide variety of soils and 
minerals. In addition, 250 diffraction film 
patterns from Guinier, Gandolfi and Debye- 
Scherrer cameras were developed along with 
their densiometer patterns. A total of 65 
thermal analyses were done. Some 325 infra- 
red curves were recorded on soil minerals and 
mineral-organic complexes, and 50 
Môssbauer spectra were recorded and ana- 
lyzed for calibration and mineral identifica- 
tion purposes. Four least-square computer 
programs were purchased and used for assig- 
ning crystallographic indexes and for calcu- 
lating X-ray diffraction patterns. 

Soil organic matter and organic soils 

'Unknown' soil nitrogen. Of 10 fractions 
separated from two soils by sedimentation, 
the silt- 1 fraction (2-5 /xm) was found to 
contain an unusually high 80% 'unknown' N, 
compared with only 52 and 30% 'unknown' N 
in the two adjacent fractions. The C:N ratio 
of the silt- 1 fraction was 3. Môssbauer and 
electron spin resonance spectra showed that 
the organic matter in this fraction occurred as 
a Fe - organic matter complex with which the 
'unknown' N appeared to be associated. 
Biodégradation experiments with soil mi- 
crobes showed that the N in the silt- 1 fraction 
was less available than the N in the two 
adjacent fractions. 

The behavior toward mild chemical oxida- 
tion with peracetic acid of the N in one fulvic 
and three humic acids was similar. There 
were decreases in amino acid N and 'un- 
known' N but increases in NH 3 -N, NO,-N, 
and N gases. Between 16.6 and 59.1% of the 
'unknown' N was converted to NH 3 and N 
gases, indicating that the 'unknown' N was 
not inert. Proportions of 'unknown' N in soils 
and humic materials were found to be af- 
fected by the method of hydrolysis. The most 
suitable method for obtaining reliable esti- 
mates of the 'unknown' N was continuous 
hydrolysis for 24 h with hot 6N HC1. 

Chemistry of humic and fulvic acids. 
Significant new information was obtained on 
the fluorescence and viscosity behavior of 



32 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



fulvic acid and its copper and iron complexes 
under widely differing experimental condi- 
tions. Fluorophore groups in the fulvic acid 
were found to participate in formation of 
metal complexes. The molecular flexibility of 
fulvic acid decreased with increasing forma- 
tion of metal complexes. Some of the com- 
plexed metals formed bridges between fulvic 
acid molecules, thus bringing the macromo- 
lecular segments closer to each other. Fulvic 
acid was found to be more reactive at pH 6 
than at pH 4 because of a reduction in 
intramolecular hydrogen bonding at the 
higher pH, which allowed the fulvic acid to 
interact more freely with metal ions. 

Interactions of 1 1 metal ions, namely 
Hg(II), Fe(III), Al, Cr(III), Pb, Cu, Ni, Cd, 
Zn, Co, and Mn, with humic and fulvic acids 
under a variety of experimental conditions 
were investigated. Orders of sorption and of 
formation of water-insoluble precipitates were 
established. The data provided useful infor- 
mation on the fixation, release, transport, and 
immobilization of metals in terrestrial and 
aquatic environments. 

Organic soils 

To assess effects of incubation on the 
carbohydrate composition of organic soils, 
four peat samples were incubated for 1 yr at 
room temperature in the greenhouse. Bitumen 
and lignin-humic fractions increased during 
incubation but hemicelluloses and celluloses 
decreased. Xylose degraded most rapidly, 
whereas relative proportions of glucose in- 
creased. 

Experiments on four sets of microplots on 
organic soils at Ste. Clothilde, Que., and 
Holland March, Ont., showed that yields of 
radishes, onions, and celery were not affected 
by the application of four times the recom- 
mended rate of copper. A net gain of up to 3 
cm in soil height was noted in microplots 
started in 1978. The addition of copper 
appeared to adversely affect degradative soil 
enzymes in the microplots on which the crops 
were grown. 



SYMBIOTIC NITROGEN FIXATION 

Competition between Rhizobium meliloti 
strains 

The ability of inoculum strains of Rhizobia 
to survive in soil and compete with less active 
nitrogen-fixing strains is a critical property 
which determines the effectiveness of inocula 



to colonize the roots of legume forage crops. 
Methods have been developed for determina- 
tion of the competitive ability of the many 
naturally occurring strains of R. meliloti to 
establish symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on 
the roots of alfalfa. 

Heterologous serological reactions of four 
R. meliloti strains, selected on the basis of 
differences in their nitrogenase activities, 
showed that they can be identified through gel 
diffusion tests. Plant passage of these strains 
did not change their immunodiffusion pat- 
terns. 

Tests to determine the susceptibility of R. 
meliloti strains to a wide range of antibiotics 
indicate that the strains may be grouped on 
the basis of their antibiotic resistance or 
sensitivity. Although many of the strains 
possessed similar sensitivity patterns, the 
unique response of others to one or more 
specific antibiotics provides an additional aid 
for positive identification during studies to 
evaluate competitive ability for nodulation in 
alfalfa. 

A third method of characterization which 
utilizes the specificity of infection of various 
strains by bacteriophages has been developed. 
Preliminary experiments showed that when 
indigenous strains of R. meliloti were each 
used as an inoculum and applied to freshly 
germinated alfalfa seedlings at 100 times the 
concentration normally found in soil, all of the 
test plants were fully nodulated at 9 wk of 
growth. However, bacteria isolated from 
individual nodules of these plants were found 
to be genetically different from those used as 
inoculum when characterized by rhizophage 
infection. The inoculant cells apparently were 
not effective as competitors against the other 
indigenous strains in the soil. This approach 
will allow selection of highly competitive 
strains for inoculation in the future. 

Plant breeding 

In collaboration with scientists at the 
Ottawa Research Station, a program was 
initiated for selection and propagation of 
individual alfalfa clones having outstanding 
nitrogen fixation activity in symbiotic growth 
with selected R. meliloti strains. Selection 
criteria will be based on screening tests 
previously developed as well as on conven- 
tional criteria such as root morphology and 
dry weight yield. Possible new criteria for 



CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



33 



selection based on measurement of photosyn- 
thetic rates, efficiency of utilization of photo- 
synthate for nitrogen fixation, and diurnal 
variations in nitrogenase activity of alfalfa 
seedlings are under investigation. 

Rhizobium genetics 

Nodulation and nitrogen-fixation-defective 
mutants of R. meliloti obtained by the 
insertion of M/u, bacteriophage were charac- 
terized. Although these mutants contained 
M/u- bacteriophage as evidenced by DNA- 
DNA hybridization and by the transfer of 
M fi from these mutants to E. coli, they were 
incapable of production of the phage particles. 
Their ability to stably maintain and to 
transfer M/u, to other organisms was progres- 
sively lost with time. Electron-microscopic 
examination showed that the defects in abnor- 
mal nodules infected with these mutants are 
quite different compared with the abnormali- 
ties in nodules obtained following alfalfa 
infection with Rhizobium mutants obtained 
by ethylmethane sulfonate treatment. 

Work aimed at mobilization of genes for an 
uptake hydrogenase system in Alcaligenes 
eutropus progressed slowly. Procedures were 
modified and a new class of auxotrophic 
mutants was obtained. These mutants were 
incapable of growth on C0 2 and H 2 conditions 
and were deficient in hydrogen uptake. Analy- 
ses of DNA content and type must be made to 
determine the basis of this defect and to 
understand the intracellular localization of 
hydrogen uptake genes. This project will 
possibly lead to construction of new strains of 
R. meliloti having the capability of recycling 
hydrogen gas which is formed as a byproduct 
of nodular nitrogenase activity. A new staff 
member has joined the program to provide the 
expertise in recombinant DNA and genetic 
engineering techniques that are important in 
developing such genetic approaches to inocu- 
lant improvement. To achieve success with 
these approaches, new information is needed 
concerning the location and organization of 
the genes for nitrogen fixation and symbiotic 
traits on very large plasmids. 

Nutritional requirements for optimal growth 
and nitrogen fixation 

Immature alfalfa seedlings do not utilize 
symbiotically fixed nitrogen effectively in 
support of early growth as compared with 
added nitrogen fertilizers. There appears to be 
a switch over to NH 4 + utilization at about 23 



days of growth. Alteration of this pattern to 
encourage early growth on symbiotic nitrogen 
may require both genetic alteration (plant 
breeding) and induction by nutritional man- 
agement. Nutritional factors other than fixed 
nitrogen which influence the development of 
high nitrogenase activity in root nodules have 
been identified. The balance of cation concen- 
trations have proven to be important factors 
in this regard. Concentrations of Mg 2+ and 
Ca 2 + , which produce maximal nitrogen fix- 
ation and growth, have been identified. 
Studies of the bacteroid membrane physical 
properties suggested that divalent cations are 
essential for maintenance of the membrane in 
a state which supports optimal energy supply 
to the nitrogenase enzyme system. 



WINTERHARDINESS 

Field and controlled environment studies 

Winter survival of 10 winter cereal culti- 
vars was assessed from plantings established 
at seven different sites to determine suitable 
cultivars for production in Eastern Ontario. 
Survival was high in all regions due to an 
unusually open winter in 1979-1980, and 
significant cultivar differences were not ob- 
served at most sites. Low survival was re- 
corded only from samples taken from com- 
mercial winter wheat plantings under natural 
ice cover and in extremely exposed locations. 
Snow mold damage was minimal in test plots 
and commercial fields due to low snow accu- 
mulation. Seventy-five lines of wheat and 
triticale from Guelph, Harrow, and Ottawa 
were ice encased in the field in January. 
Seventeen of the lines tested were found to be 
significantly more tolerant to ice encasement 
than the commercially grown check variety 
Fredrick. Investigations of the promotive 
effect of prior flooding on subsequent survival 
of winter cereals after ice encasement impli- 
cated increased levels of alcohol dehydro- 
genase produced during prior flooding in this 
promotive effect. Forage grasses were found 
to be more susceptible to freezing injury but 
more resistant to ice-encasement injury than 
winter wheats. Studies on changes in toler- 
ance to winter stresses of cereal plants due to 
virus infection showed that infected plants of 
two wheat cultivars dehardened less than 
noninfected plants under warm temperature 
regimes used for virus infection and disease 
development. Also, uninfected plants rehar- 
dened more readily than those infected with 



34 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



virus on further exposure to hardening tem- 
peratures. Inhibition to rehardening increased 
as the virus incubation period in the plants 
was increased. Infected plants were 2-3°C 
less hardy than the healthy plants. 

Cellular and membrane studies 

Electron spin resonance spectroscopy was 
employed to examine changes in the proper- 
ties of cellular membranes during cold accli- 
mation and freezing of winter cereals. During 
freezing, membranes of protoplasts obtained 
from hardened and nonhardened rye seedlings 
respond in a manner similar to that of egg 
yolk lecithin liposomes subjected to either 
freezing or dehydrative stress. Membrane 
packing caused by extracellular freezing was 
most pronounced near the polar head groups 
of the phospholipid bilayer, and the rigid limit 
of the membrane was reached at -12°C in 
both hardened and nonhardened protoplast 
membranes. Measurements of the fluidity of 
membrane lipids from wheat seedlings of 
contrasting freezing tolerance demonstrated a 
lack of correlation between changes in mem- 
brane fluidity and cultivar hardiness. These 
observations suggest that changes in the 
physical properties of membrane lipids may 
not be a prerequisite to the development of 
freezing tolerance in winter cereals. 

Methods were developed for the successful 
isolation of single mesophyll cells from hardy 
and nonhardy rye seedlings. These cells retain 
the freezing and dehydrative resistance prop- 
erties of intact seedlings and will be used for 
biophysical studies of freezing phenomena. 
Ultrastructural studies on frozen and ice- 
encased winter wheat crowns fixed in the 
frozen state showed that lethal damage by low 
freezing temperatures is accompanied by 
severe cell disorganization, whereas little 
structural damage occurs during lethal injury 
by ice encasement just below the freezing 
point. 

Desiccation studies 

Considerable progress has been made in 
attempts to develop a method for rapid 
screening of large numbers of cereal lines for 
cold hardiness, based on the close relationship 
between cold and drought tolerance. The 24-h 
induction of freezing tolerance by desiccation 
stress, and the concomitant protoplasmic 
augmentation, has been confirmed. In several 
cultivars, tolerance to freezing developed 
under normal low temperature acclimation 



was closely correlated with that developed in 
24 h by desiccation. If this correlation is 
found to apply to a wide range of cereal 
cultivars of contrasting hardiness, this method 
could eliminate the need for cold conditioning 
equipment and protracted periods of condi- 
tioning normally required for assessing hardi- 
ness potential of cereal lines. 



ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 
SERVICES 

The Analytical Chemistry Services contin- 
ued to provide Branch establishments with a 
comprehensive service in analyzing materials 
as part of research programs. A method for 
rapid estimation of sulfide in rumen and blood 
with a sulfide-specific electrode was devel- 
oped. The method is now being used routinely 
for the determination of free sulfide in rumen 
fluid and acid-labile sulfide in blood. 

The four subunits of the Analytical Chem- 
istry Services completed more than 88 000 
analyses. The Amino Acid Laboratory carried 
out 2494 protein hydrolysates and 633 physio- 
logical fluid samples analyses. The Instrumen- 
tation Centre used capillary column GC-MS 
as a routine analytical technique for separa- 
tion of some components in complex biolog- 
ical samples. The Centre produced 1664 
spectra consisting of 236 nuclear magnetic 
resonance, 208 infrared, and 2057 mass 
spectra. The Micro Analytical Laboratory 
carried out 6739 organic elemental micro- 
analyses. The Technical Service Unit per- 
formed 60 642 analyses for a wide variety of 
constituents. The Unit consistently employed 
the two computer Datacom 400 terminals 
which improved the calculations, compilation, 
and sorting of analytical data. The Glassblow- 
ing Service Unit processed more than 100 
orders for various Branch establishments. 



ELECTRON MICROSCOPE CENTRE 

Sixty professional and technical staff of six 
institutes, five research stations, three univer- 
sities, and four outside agencies made use of 
the personnel and facilities of the Centre. The 
Postal Service responded to requests by 
research workers at the Harrow and St. 
John's West research stations and at L'As- 
somption and Smithfield experimental farms. 

The Centre contributed to research papers 
in a number of diverse disciplines including 
biosystematics; microbiology; plant pathology; 



CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



35 



and plant, animal, soil, and food sciences. 
Particulars of these publications appear under 
the listings of the institutes and stations in 
this report. 

In-house research projects included the 
development of techniques for high-resolution 



studies on the structure and arrangement of 
plant and bacterial DNA; the development of 
replica techniques for viewing the macromo- 
lecular configuration of soil organic matter 
polymers; and the assessment of imposed 
insults on the nature of eggshell fractures. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Barran, L. R. 1980. The methylating system for 
3,54-phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in Fu- 
sarium oxysporum. Can. J. Microbiol. 26:774- 
777. 

Barran, L. R. 1980. Effect of heat, freeze-thaw 
cycling and desiccation on the survival of 
spores of Fusarium sulphureum. Trans. Br. 
Mycol. Soc. 75:305-309. 

Behki, R. M.; Lesley, S. M. 1979. Uptake of 
exogenous DNA by carrot cell protoplasts. In 
Vitro 15:851-856. 

Behki, R. M.; Lesley, S. M. 1980. Shoot regenera- 
tion from leaf callus of Lycopersicon esculen- 
tum. Z. Pflanzen. Physiol. 98:83-87. 

Benzing-Purdie, L. 1980. Identification of 2-amino- 
2,6-dideoxygalactose hydrochloride in soil hy- 
drolysate. J. Agric. Food Chem. 28:1315-1317. 

Biederbeck, V. O.; Campbell, C. A.; Bowren, K. E.; 
Schnitzer, M.; Mclver, R. N. 1980. Effect of 
burning cereal straw on soil properties and 
grain yields in Saskatchewan. Soil Sci. Soc. 
Am. J. 44:103-1 11. 

Birch, M. C; Light, D. M.; Wood, D. L.; Brown, L. 
E.; Silverstein, R. M.; Bergot, B. J.; Ohloff, G.; 
West, J. R.; Young, J. C. 1980. Pheromonal 
attraction and allomonal interruption of Ips 
pini in California by the two enantiomers of 
ipsdienol. J. Chem. Ecol. 6:703-717. 

Cochrane, W. P.; Maybury, R. B.; Greenhalgh, R. 
1979. Comparative study of the linearity and 
sensitivity of electron capture and flame photo- 
metric detectors used in pesticide residue 
analysis. J. Environ. Sci. Health B 14:197-212. 

Eady, R. R.; Imam, S.; Lowe, D. J.; Miller, R. W.; 
Smith, B. E.; Thornely, R. N. F. 1980. The 
molecular enzymology of nitrogenase. Proc. 
Phytochem. Soc. Eur. 18:19-34. 

Foster, T. S.; Khan, S. U.; Akhtar, M. H. 1980. 
Metabolism of deethylatrazine, deisopropyla- 
trazine and hydroxyatrazine by the soluble 
fraction (105 000 x g) from goose liver 
homogenates. J. Agric. Food Chem. 28:1083- 
1085. 



Gamble, D. S. 1980. Potentiometric measurement 
of H + concentrations for aluminum ortho- 
phosphate titration curves. Can. J. Chem. 
58:2150-2157. 

Gamble, D. S.; Underdown, A. W.; Langford, C. H. 
1980. Copper(II) titration of fulvic acid ligand 
sites with theoretical, potentiometric, and 
spectrophotometric analysis. Anal. Chem. 
52:1901-1908. 

Ghosh, K.; Schnitzer, M. 1979. Some recent ad- 
vances in the chemistry and reactions of humic 
substances. J. Indian Chem. Soc. LVL1090- 
1093. 

Ghosh, K.; Schnitzer, M. 1979. UV and visible 
absorption spectroscopic investigations in rela- 
tion to macromolecular characteristics of hu- 
mic substances. J. Soil Sci. 30:735-745. 



Ghosh, K.; Schnitzer, M. 
structures of humic 
129:266-276. 



1980. Macromolecular 
substances. Soil Sci. 



Ghosh, K.; Schnitzer, M. 1980. Fluorescence exci- 
tation spectra of humic substances. Can. J. Soil 
Sci. 60:373-379. 

Ghosh, K.; Schnitzer, M. 1980. Effects of pH and 
neutral electrolyte concentration on free radi- 
cals in humic substances. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 

44:975-978. 

Greenhalgh, R.; Baron, R. L.; Desmoras, J.; Engst, 
R.; Esser, H. O.; Klein, W. 1980. Persistence. 
Pure Appl. Chem. 52:2563-2566. 

Greenhalgh, R.; Baum, B. R. 1980. Feasibility 
study of the identification of cultivars by 
pyrolysis gas chromatography using oat {Av- 
enu) seed kernels. Seed Sci. Technol. 8:407- 
414. 

Greenhalgh, R.; Cochrane, W. P. 1980. Use of 
chlorpyrifos as an evaluation standard for gas 
chromatographic detectors. J. Chromatogr. 
188:305-313. 

Greenhalgh, R.; Dhawan, K. L.; Weinberger. P. 
1980. Hydrolysis of fenitrothion in model and 
natural aquatic systems. J. Agric. Food Chem. 
28:102-105. 



36 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Griffith, S. M.; Silver, J.; Schnitzer, M. 1980. 
Hydrazine derivatives at Fe 3+ sites in humic 
materials. Geoderma 23:299-302. 

Ihnat, M.; Gordon, A. D.; Gaynor, J. D.; Berman, 
S. S.; Desaulniers, A.; Stoeppler, M.; Valenta, 
P. 1980. Interlaboratory analysis of natural 
fresh waters for copper, zinc, cadmium and 
lead. Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 8:259-275. 

Ihnat, M.; Thompson, B. K. 1980. Acid digestion, 
hydride evolution atomic absorption spectro- 
photometric method for determining arsenic 
and selenium in foods: Part II. Assessment of 
collaborative study. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 
63:814-839. 

Ivarson, K. C. 1980. Enhancement of uranous-iron 
oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Curr. 
Microbiol. 3:253-254. 

Ivarson, K. C; Ross, G. J.; Miles, N. M. 1980. The 
microbiological formation of basic ferric sul- 
fates. 3. Influence of clay minerals on crystalli- 
zation. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:137-140. 

Kerndorff, H.; Schnitzer, M. 1980. Sorption of 
metals on humic acid. Geochim. Cosmochim. 
Acta 44:1701-1708. 

Khan, S. U. 1980. Plant uptake of unextracted 
(bound) residues from an organic soil treated 
with prometryn. J. Agric. Food Chem. 
28:1096-1098. 

Khan, S. U. 1980. Determining the role of humic 
substances in the fate of pesticides in the 
environment. J. Environ. Sci. Health B 
15:1071-1090. 

Khan, S. U. 1980. Pesticides in the soil environ- 
ment. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., 
Amsterdam. 

Khan, S. U.; Morris, G. F.; Hidiroglou, M. 1980. 
Rapid estimation of sulfide in rumen and blood 
with a sulfide-specific ion electrode. Mi- 
crochem. J. 25:388-395. 

Kodama, H.; Schnitzer, M. 1980. Effect of fulvic 
acid on the crystallization of aluminum hy- 
droxides. Geoderma 24:195-205. 

Kowalenko, K. C; Ross, G. J. 1980. Studies on the 
dynamics of 'recently' clay fixed NH 4 using 
l5 N. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:60-70. 

Lesley, S. M.; Maretzki, A.; Mickel, L. G. 1980. 
The incorporation and degradation of l4 C- and 
3 H-labeled thymidine by sugarcane cells in 
suspension culture. Plant Physiol. 65:1224- 
1228. 

Madhosingh, C. 1980. Isoenzymes in isolates of 
Fusarium oxysporum causing spinach dis- 
eases. Phytopathol. Z. 87:56-67. 



Madhosingh, C. 1980. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. 
spinaciae: A biochemical comparison of race 1 
and race 2. Phytopathol. Z. 98:27-39. 

Mathur, S. P.; Bélanger, A.; Hamilton, H. A.; 
Khan, S. U. 1980. Influence on microflora and 
persistence of field-applied disulfoton, per- 
methrin and prometryn in an organic soil. 
Pedobiologiya 20:237-242. 

Mathur, S. P.; Hamilton, H. A.; Vrain, T. C. 1980. 
The influence of some field-applied nemati- 
cides on microflora and mineral nutrients in an 
organic soil. J. Environ. Sci. Health B 15:61- 
76. 

Mathur, S. P.; Lévesque, M. P. 1980. Relationship 
between acid phosphatase activities and de- 
composition rates of twenty-two virgin peat 
materials. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 
11:155-162. 

Mathur, S. P.; MacDougall, J. I.; McGrath, M. 
1980. Levels of activities of some carbohy- 
drases, protease, lipase, and phosphatase in 
organic soils of differing copper content. Soil 
Sci. 129:376-385. 

Mathur, S. P.; Sanderson, R. B. 1980. The partial 
inactivation of degradative soil enzymes by 
residual fertilizer copper in Histosols. Soil Sci. 
Soc. Am. J. 44:750-755. 

McNeil, J. S.; Greenhalgh, R.; McLeod, J. M. 
1979. The persistence and accumulation of 
fenitrothion residues in jack-pine foliage and 
their effects on the swaine jack-pine sawfly 
Neodiption swainei. Environ. Entomol. 8:752- 
755. 

Miller, R. W. 1980. Temperature induced physical 
changes in fungal plasma membranes. Can. J. 
Biochem. 58:1138-1143. 

Miller, R. W. 1980. Homeostatic control of mem- 
brane and lipid properties. In Kates, M.; 
Kuksis, A., eds. Membrane fluidity. Fusarium. 
The Humana Press, Clifton, NJ.pp. 327-348. 

Miller, R. W.; Robson, R. L.; Yates, M. G.; Eady, 
R. R. 1980. Catalysis of exchange of terminal 
phosphate groups of ATP and ADP by purified 
nitrogenase proteins. Can. J. Biochem. 58:542- 
548. 

Morita, H. 1980. Total phenolic content in the 
pyrophosphate extracts of two peat soil pro- 
files. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:291-297. 

Morita, H. 1980. Changes in phenolic composition 
of a peat soil due to cultivation. Soil Sci. 
130:326-329. 

Morita, H.; Lévesque, M. 1980. The monosaccha- 
ride composition of peat fractions based on 
particle size. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:285-289. 



CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



37 



Morita, H.; Lévesque, M.; Mills, G. F. 1980. The 
deoxy-sugars and other neutral monosaccha- 
rides derived from Riverton, Manitoba, orga- 
nic soil profiles. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:21 1-217. 

Ozkan, A. I.; Ross, G. J. 1979. Ferruginous deidel- 
lites in Turkish soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 
43:1242-1248. 

Paliwal, Y. C. 1980. Relationships of wheat streak 
mosaic and barley stripe mosaic viruses to 
vector and nonvector eriophyid mites. Arch. 
Virol. 63:123-132. 

Paliwal, Y. C. 1980. Transmission of barley yellow 
dwarf virus isolates by the cereal root aphid 
Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis. Can. J. 
Plant Pathol. 2:90-92. 

Ross, G. J. 1980. Mineralogical, physical, and 
chemical characteristics of amorphous consti- 
tuents in some Podzolic soils from British 
Columbia. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:31-43. 

Schnitzer, M.; Hindle, D. A. 1980. Effect of 
peracetic acid oxidation on N-containing com- 
ponents of humic materials. Can. J. Soil Sci. 
60:541-548. 

Schnitzer, M.; Kerndorff, H. 1980. Effects of 
pollution on humic substances. J. Environ. Sci. 
Health B 15:431-456. 

Schnitzer, M.; Kodama, H.; Ivarson, K. C. 1980. 
Effects of clay surfaces on the adsorption and 
biological decomposition of proteinaceous com- 
ponents of fulvic acid. Z. Pflanzenernaehr. 
Bodenkd. 143:334-343. 

Singh, S. S. 1980. Thermodynamic properties of 
synthetic basic aluminite 

[Al 4 (OH), SO 4 -5H,O] from solubility data. 
Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:381-384. 

Singh, J.; Miller, R. W. 1980. Spin label studies of 
membrane in rye protoplasts during extracellu- 
lar freezing. Plant Physiol. 66:349-352. 

Sinha, R. C; Chiykowski, L. N. 1980. Transmis- 
sion and morphological features of my- 
coplasma-like bodies associated with peach 
X-disease. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 2:1 19-124. 

Sinha, R. C; Madhosingh, C. 1980. Proteins of 
mycoplasma-like organisms purified from clo- 
ver phyllody and aster yellows-affected plants. 
Phytopathol. Z. 99:294-300. 

Sinha, R. C; Peterson, E. A. 1980. Homologous 
serological analysis of Rhizobium meliloti 
strains by immunodiffusion. Can. J. Microbiol. 
26:1157-1161. 

Stevenson, I. L. 1980. The removal of eggshell 
membranes by enzyme treatment to facilitate 
the study of shell microstructure. Poultry Sci. 
59:1959-1960. 



Sugden, E. A.; Greenhalgh, R.; Petit, J. R. 1980. 
Characterization of neurotoxic triaryl phos- 
phates by analysis of trifluoracetylated pheno- 
lic moieties. Environ. Sci. Technol. 14:1498- 
1501. 

Wilson, A. C; Barran, L. R. 1980. Effect of 
temperature on the biosynthesis of 3-s«-phos- 
phatidylcholine by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. 
lycopersici. Kates, M.; Kuksis, A., eds. Mem- 
brane fluidity. Biophysical techniques and 
cellular regulation. The Humana Press, Clif- 
ton, NJ. pp. 297-305. 

Miscellaneous 

Andrews, C. J. 1980. The effects of flooding on 
survival in ice encasement of winter cereals. 
Can. Soc. Plant Physiol. Proc. 3. 

Andrews, C. J. 1980. The role of ice encasement in 
winter survival of wheat in the northeast. Hard 
Red Winter Wheat Workers Conf. Proc. 
15:12. 

Andrews, C. J. 1980. Environmental effects on cold 
hardiness and winter survival in the eastern 
winter wheat area. Hard Red Winter Wheat 
Workers Conf. Proc. 15:36. 

Andrews, C. J.; Pomeroy, M. K. 1980. Flooding 
and winter survival of wheat. Annu. Wheat 
Newsl. 26:54. 

Burrows, V. D.; Andrews, C. J. 1980. Routine use 
of gibberellic acid to break the dormancy of 
freshly harvested oat seeds. Oat Newsl. 30:121. 

Coote, D. R.; Siminovitch, D.; Singh, S. S.; Wang, 
C. 1980. The significance of the acid rain 
problems to agriculture in Eastern Canada. 
Research Branch Report, Agriculture Canada. 

Ihnat, M. 1980. Atomic spectrometry in agricul- 
ture. Abstracts, 7th Annual Meeting of the 
Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spec- 
troscopy Societies, Philadelphia, PA (28 Sept. 
-3 Oct. 1980). Abstract 201. 

Ivarson, K. C; Sojak, M. 1980. Plugging of soil 
drains by microorganisms. Can. Agric. 25:19- 
21. 

Lévesque, M. P.; Morita, H.; Schnitzer, M.; 
Mathur, S. P. 1980. The physical, chemical, 
and morphological features of some Quebec 
and Ontario peats. Monograph, Research 
Branch, Agriculture Canada. 

Mathur, S. P. 1980. A report on visits to various 
agricultural establishments in France, Ger- 
many and Sweden. An International Science 
and Technology Mission Report. Research 
Program Service, Agriculture Canada. Publ. 
No. XCH80-3. 



3 s 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Mathur, S. P.; Lévesque, M. P.; Preston, C. M.; 
Millette, J. A. 1980. Recent progress on 
investigations of the possible use of moderate 
amounts of copper for mitigating the excess 
decomposition and subsidence of some Histo- 
sols. United States Department of Agriculture 
NCR-59 Technical Committee Meeting 
(abstract). 

Mathur, S. P.; Preston, C. M. 1980. Plant-available 
N and residual fertilizer copper in muck soils. 
Ontario Vegetable Research Committee, An- 
nual Report 9. 

McMurchie, E. J.; Pomeroy, M. K. 1980. Ion- 
stimulated ATPase activity associated with 
plant cell membranes. Proc. Aust. Biochem. 
Soc. 13:104. 

Miller, R. W. 1980. Nitrogen fixation. Bio-Joule 
12. 

Morita, H. 1980. Peat as a future source of organic 
raw materials. Chem. Can. 32:18-27. 

Paliwal, Y. C; Andrews, C. J. 1980. Effects of 
infection with barley yellow dwarf and wheat 
spindle streak mosaic viruses on cold hardiness 
of winter cereals. Proceedings American Win- 
ter Wheat Conference (1979), Denver, CO. p. 
16. 

Pierce, R. C; Mathur, S. P.; Williams, D. T.; 
Roddington, M. J. 1980. Phthalate esters in 
the aquatic environment. Monograph pub- 
lished by the National Research Council. 
NRCCNo. 17583. 108 pp. 



Pomeroy, M. K.; McMurchie, E. J. 1980. Isolation 
and properties of ion-stimulated ATPase activ- 
ity associated with cauliflower cell membranes. 
Proc. Aust. Soc. Plant Physiol. 21:4. 

Preston, C. M.; Mathur, S. P.: Rauthan, B. S. 1980. 
Long-term effects of copper on soil nitrogen 
distribution in muck soils. Ontario Vegetable 
Research Committee, Annual Report 9. 

Preston, C. M.; Valk, M.; Knibbe, E. M.; Mathur, 
S. P.; Millette, J. A. 1980. Copper application 
trials. Ontario Vegetable Research Committee, 
Annual Report 9. 



Schnitzer, M. 
25:9-10. 



1980. Soil nitrogen. Can. Agric. 



Schnitzer, M. 1980. Book review: Sugars for the 
soil scientist. Nature 287:372. 

Schnitzer, M.; Kerndorff, H. 1980. Sorption of 
metals on humic acid. Agronomy Abstracts, p. 
159. 

Singh, S. S. 1980. Effect of acid rain on agricultural 
soils and crops. Proceedings of the subcommit- 
tee on acid rain of the Standing Committee on 
Fisheries and Forestry 

Young, J. C. 1980. Ergot contamination of feeds 
and food. Can. Agric. 25:25-28. 



CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



39 



Engineering and Statistical Research 

Institute 

Ottawa, Ontario 



PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



P. W. Voisey, F.I., Mech.E. 
K. B. Mitchell 



Director 
Administration 



Energy 



P. Van Die, B.Sc. (Eng.), M.Sc. 
R. D. Hayes, B.Sc, M.Sc. 
H. A. Jackson, B.Sc. (Eng.), M.Sc. 
D. Marshall, B.Sc. (Eng.) 



Head of Section; Energy 
Biomass and food 
Greenhouses 
Conservation 



Food Engineering 

G. E. Timbers, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 
D. McGinnis, B.Sc. (Agr.) 



Head of Section; Food-process 
engineering 
Food-process engineering 



Research Service 



E. J. Brach, D.E.E., Dip. Mil. Electronics 
D. J. Buckley, B.E., M.Sc. 



Head of Section; Electronics 
Electronics 



Structures and Mechanization 



M. Feldman, B.E., M.Sc. 

K. W. Lievers, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. 

D. Massé, B.Sc. 

G. F. Montgomery, B.Sc. (Agr.) 
J. A. Munroe, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
P. A. Phillips, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 
W. S. Reid, B.Sc (Agr.), M.Sc. 



Head of Section; Mechanization 
Systems analysis 
Canada Plan Service, Design 
engineering 
Mechanization 
Structures 

Animal environment 
Mechanization 



ENGINEERING AND STATISTICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



J. E. Turnbull, B.S.A., M.S.A. 



Director, Canada Plan Service; 
Farm structures 



Statistical Research 



G. P. Poushinsky, B.Sc, M.Sc. 


Head of Section; Statistics 


M. R. Binns, M.A., Dip.Stat. 


Statistics 


G. Butler, B.Math., M.Math. 


Statistics 


P. Y. Jul, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Statistics 


L. P. Lefkovitch, B.Sc. 


Statistics 


C. S. Lin, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Statistics 


P. M. Morse, M.A. 


Statistics 


B. K. Thompson, B.Sc, M.Math., Ph.D. 


Statistics 


C. J. Williams, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Statistics 


M. S. Wolynetz, B.Math., M.Math., Ph.D. 


Statistics 


W. Watt, B.A. 


Head, Systems and programming 


K. Heng, B.Sc, M.App.Sc 


Systems and programming 


J. D. Hobbs, B.Sc. 


Systems and programming 


Technical Services 


J. G. Caron 


Head of Section 



Departures 



D. K. Hodgins, B.Sc. 

Transferred 
S. A. Kinsey, B.Math. 

Transferred 
J. Wu, B.Sc. 

Resigned August 1980 



Head, Systems and programming 
Systems and programming 
Systems and programming 



42 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



INTRODUCTION 



In 1980 the Institute was reorganized to reflect the changes in programs to meet 
departmental priorities. Staff in various sections working on energy research and development 
(R & D) were assembled to form an energy section to better coordinate the work in this 
increasingly important area. The remainder of the staff working on agricultural engineering R 
& D in the Mechanization and Systems and the Structures and Environment sections were 
assembled to form a single section, called Structures and Mechanization. This reflects the focus 
of the agricultural engineering program on structures and mechanization and the reduced 
emphasis on systems and environnmental engineering. A new Food Engineering Section was 
formed to expand this program in response to the departmental priority on the processing, 
distributing, and retailing sectors of the agribusiness system. 

The diverse activities of the Institute in engineering and statistics involved 216 projects, of 
which 56 were completed during the year. The internal work was supplemented by 66 research 
contracts on energy, buildings, and mechanization, of which 19 were completed. The 
contracted work now represents 20% of the total program. The outcome resulted in the release 
of 93 publications; those that are published are listed at the end of this report. Further 
information is available upon request from the Engineering and Statistical Research Institute, 
Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ont. K1A 0C6. 



Peter W. 
Director 



Voisey 



ENERGY 

All the R & D work was contracted out in 
1980 and plans were completed for a consid- 
erable expansion of this activity under the 
national energy program. In-house R&D 
was also initiated. 

The program included work on energy 
conservation in mechanization, farm build- 
ings, greenhouses, and food processing. Appli- 
cation of solar technology to greenhouses, 
crop drying, and farm buildings was also 
studied. Studies on renewable energy from 
biomass focused on methane from manure, 
direct combustion of residues, and fuel alco- 
hol from residues, culls, and crops. A review 
of the fuel alcohol potential from the agribusi- 
ness system was completed. 

To date the results from the program are 
contained primarily in unpublished contrac- 
tors' reports, which are available on a loan 
basis (or as microfiche copies) from the 
Institute. Summaries of these reports were 
published to indicate the information 
available. 



FOOD ENGINEERING 

The program concentrates on process and 
equipment development and on the study of 
the fundamental properties of foodstuffs. A 



new process for separating y-globulins from 
swine blood was developed using differential 
salting out of proteins, centrifugation, and 
electrodialysis. Continuous microwave 
processing of oilseed to inactivate myrosinase 
was found promising. A computer simulation 
of heat transfer in retortable food pouches 
and instrumentation to monitor pilot scale 
experiments were developed. 

A number of techniques and the necessary 
instruments were developed for measuring 
food quality. Factors measured included 
graininess of tomato juice, wheat hardness, 
and dough development. The past work in this 
area is coming to fruition, with a number of 
Canadian food companies adopting the 
techniques. 



RESEARCH SERVICE 

Work on the development of instruments 
and equipment to support research operations 
across the Branch continued and produced a 
range of equipment for use in both research 
and regulatory work of the department. 

Plot equipment included a rainfall simula- 
tor, a portable herbicide sprayer, a string - 
spaced seeder for cereals, a tobacco leaf 
lamina punch, a cereal sample bag aeration 
punch, an oat dehuller, an oat classifier, an 



ENGINEERING AND STATISTICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



43 



oat thresher and polisher, a scutcher vacuum 
dust collector, and a soybean seed cleaner. 

Laboratory equipment included an auto- 
matic cigarette diameter control, a spore 
counter, an electronic heat sink for micro- 
scopes, and an automatic weighing system for 
a micro flour mill. 

Scientific instruments included an open 
path C0 2 analyzer. Flight tests showed its 
capability for measuring variations in C0 2 
flux over crops, forests, water, and terrain. A 
ground coverage and leaf wetness measuring 
system was also developed. Work was carried 
out on the development of remote sensing 
techniques using field spectroscopy to detect 
yield, disease, stress, variety, and crop. Field 
tests continue to demonstrate the potential for 
the techniques as a research and crop estima- 
tion tool. 



STRUCTURES AND 
MECHANIZATION 

Structures 

The Canada Plan Service continued to 
work according to national committee priori- 
ties. Emphasis was on beef cattle, swine, and 
dairy cattle; completed were 49 trusses, 7 
plans, and 18 revisions, with 63% of the plans 
now in metric measurements. 

An up-to-date index of plans and leaflets 
was published. Listed are 13 plan sets and 32 
leaflets on beef cattle facilities; 24 plan sets 
and 31 leaflets on dairy cattle; 27 plan sets 
and 32 leaflets on swine; 16 plan sets and 33 
leaflets on sheep; 9 plan sets and 8 leaflets on 
poultry; 10 plan sets and 12 leaflets on fruit 
and vegetable storage; 15 plan sets and 16 
leaflets on grain, forage, and feed storage; 21 
plan sets and 25 leaflets on special structures; 
and 4 plan sets and 15 leaflets on building 
engineering. Generally the plans and leaflets 
are available in English or French and in 
Imperial or metric measures, except that 
Imperial measure is progressively being 
phased out. Also, 13 departmental bulletins 
on farm buildings have been published. Cop- 
ies of the index are available from: Informa- 
tion Services, Agriculture Canada, Sir John 
Carling Building, Ottawa, Ont. Kl A 0C7. 

A new, improved sandwich-design wall 
panel was developed. Multiple-shear, nailed 
joints were analyzed. Expanded data collec- 
tion on snow loads commenced. Friction 



angles for corn were measured, and new silo- 
erection equipment was designed. Tests 
showed failure loads lower than expected for 
long-span wood trusses. 

Two major projects on manure handling 
and land application were completed. Effect 
on crop growth and groundwater quality were 
defined. With handling costs at 25% of the 
nutrient value, and winter land application 
unacceptable, good management is necessary. 
Materials for floating covers were tested, and 
the covers were found to suppress odors from 
liquid manure tanks. 

Silo foundation settlement data were re- 
corded for another empty-fill cycle, and a 
study showed that silo foundation costs can be 
reduced considerably. 

Mechanization 

Work on narrow-row seeding and bed- 
seeded vegetables produced two new seeders, 
a modified harvester, and three tested toppers. 
Two other improved seeders are in use by 
clients. 

In harvesting horticultural crops, a new 
juice-apple sweeper prototype was built and 
was found to work well in Ontario and 
Quebec orchards. Height control was im- 
proved on a tomato harvester, and a sensing 
shoe was built for possible field use. A spinach 
harvester was developed and is in production, 
and a leek harvester was improved. Work has 
started on a multiple picking cucumber 
harvester and a cauliflower tier. 

Silage distributors were evaluated and 
improvements suggested, fans to purge silo 
gas were evaluated, and gas detectors and gas 
production are being studied. Development of 
a round bale processor has progressed to 
preproduction prototypes. 

Work on grain storage and drying included 
evaluating a belt dryer; adjustments were 
determined that increased capacity 20% and 
efficiency 15% while drying corn acceptably. 

In Burley and cigar tobacco mechanization, 
racks were made lighter and less expensive in 
a new rack wagon. 

New design tracks were installed to im- 
prove performance of the peatland tractor. 

Modifications to a manure injector were 
made to overcome problems in operation in 
sod, and the unit is in operation at Kapuskas- 
ing. 

Under the project research applicable in 
industry (PRAI) program and the industry 
research assistance program (IRAP), an 



44 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



elementary combine feed rate control was 
developed, and testing and market develop- 
ment continued on sickle knives. 

The agricultural engineering computerized 
data base of technical and scientific informa- 
tion continued to expand. 

STATISTICS 

Statistical support was provided to many 
research areas through collaborative work, 
particularly in poultry research and the study 
of toxins, trace element metabolism, disease 
resistance in sheep, and swine and cattle 
research. Bioassay studies of mixtures of slow- 
and fast-acting agents, and mixtures to obtain 
synergistic effects, were designed and inter- 
preted. A coordinated approach to support 
tobacco research involves studies of field 
conditions, genetic and chemical parameters, 
manufacturing processes, health aspects, 
yield, and sampling methods at the research 
stations at Delhi (cigarette tobacco) and 



L'Assomption (cigar tobacco). Crop-loss esti- 
mation procedures are being investigated for 
corn and soybeans. A general study is being 
made of genotype x environment interaction. 
Support is being provided for the barley 
breeding program and for the potato program 
at the Research Station at Fredericton. 

Statistical software was implemented on 
the new departmental computer network 
(AgNet) that will handle 60-80% of the 
analyses needed by researchers. In addition, 
software has been implemented to simplify 
data input and preparation of analyses. 



TECHNICAL SERVICES 

Technical services continued to provide a 
service for the fabrication and maintenance of 
scientific equipment. A preventive mainte- 
nance program for scientific equipment (e.g. 
growth chambers and centrifuges) was initi- 
ated. During the year, 1900 work orders were 
completed. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Bostanian, N. J.; Paradis, R. O.; Pitre, D.; Price, K. 
R. 1980. Action de nouveaux pesticides contre 
le tetranyque a deux points, Tetranychus 
urticae Koch, sur les fraisiers en serre. Phyto- 
protection61(l):30-34. 

Brach, E. J.; Fejer, S. O. 1980. Holographie 
inteferometry to differentiate the morphology 
of various cereal crops. Phyton Rev. Int. Bot. 

Exp. 38(l):37-47. 

Cave, N. A.; Williams, C. J. 1980. A chick assay 
for availability of lysine in wheat. Poult. Sci. 
59(4):799-804. 

Fraser, D.; Aurther, D.; Morton, J. K.; Thompson, 
B. K. 1980. Aquatic feeding by moose Alces 
alces in a Canadian lake. Holartic Ecol. 

3(3):218-223. 

Hamilton, R. M. G.; Thompson, B. K. 1980. Effects 
of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio in 
practical-type diets on blood gas levels in three 
strains of white leghorn hens and relationships 
between acid-base balance and egg shell 
strength. Poult. Sci. 59(6): 1 294- 1 303. 

Harcourt, D. G.; Binns, M. R. 1980. A sampling 
system for estimating egg and larval popula- 
tions of Agromyza frontella. Can. Entomol. 
112:375-385. 



Harcourt, D. G.; Binns, M. R. 1980. Sampling 
techniques for the soil-borne stages of Agro- 
myza frontella (Rond.) (Diptera: Agro- 
myzidae). Great Lakes Entomol. 1 3(3): 1 59- 
164. 

Hidiroglou, M.; Williams, C. J. 1980. Fate of 
isotopically labeled cholecalciferol and 25- 
hydroxycholecalciferol in sheep. J. Dairy Sci. 
63(6):945-950. 

Hollands, K. G.; Grunder, A. A.; Williams, C. J. 
1980. Response to five generations of selection 
for blood cholesterol levels in white leghorns. J. 
Poult. Sci. 59:1316-1323. 

Hollands, K. G.; Grunder, A. A.; Williams, C. J.; 
Gavora, J. A. 1980. Plasma creatine kinase as 
an indicator of degenerative myopathy in live 
turkeys. Br. Poult. Sci. 21:161-169. 

Hudson, A.; Lefkovitch, L. P. 1980. Two species of 
the Amathes c-nigrum complex (Lepidoptera: 
Noctuidae) distinguished by isozymes of a 
denylate kinase and by selected morphological 
characters. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 
82(4):587-598. 

Ihnat, M.; Thompson, B. K. 1980. Acid digestion, 
hydride evolution atomic absorption spectro- 
photometric method for determining arsenic 
and selenium in foods: part II. Assessment of 
collaborative study. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 
63(4):814-839. 



ENGINEERING AND STATISTICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



45 



Jordan, W. A.; Thompson, B. K.; Ivan, M.; Hidiro- 
glou, M. 1980. Effects of dietary cernent kiln 
dust supplements on growth of lambs. Can. J. 
Anim. Sci. 60:87-91. 

Jui, P. Y.; Friars, G. W. 1980. Performance of 
crosses of selected lines of Tribolium casta- 
neum. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 22:129-136. 

Langford, G. A.; Marcus, G. J.; Hackett, A. J.; 
Ainsworth, L.; Wolynetz, M. S. 1980. Influ- 
ence of estradiol- 1 7/3 on fertility in confined 
sheep inseminated with frozen semen. J. Anim. 
Sci. 51(4):91 1-916. 

Lefkovitch, L. P. 1980. Conditional clustering. 
Biometrics 36:43-58. 

Mack, A. R.; Brach, E. J.; Rao, V. R. 1980. 
Changes in spectral characteristics of cereal 
crops with physiological development. Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:411-417. 

McKeague, J. A.; Wolynetz, M. S. 1980. Back- 
ground levels of minor elements in some 
Canadian soils. Geoderma 24:299-307. 

Millette, J. A.; Bernier, R.; Hergert, G. B. 1980. 
Baby carrot production system on organic soils. 
Can. Agric. Eng. 22:175-178. 

Morse, P. M. 1980. Synergism v. cost benefit. 
Nature (Lond.) 284(3):394. 

Paton, D.; Robertson, G. D.; Timbers, G. E.; 
Spratt, W. A. 1980. Laboratory food extru- 
sion — the design of a horizontal split barrel. J. 
Food Sci. 45(2):224-227. 

Raymond, D. P.; Randall, C. J.; Voisey, P. W. 
1980. Functionality of native and denatured 
egg white and beef in a meat emulsion system. 
Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 13:174-177. 

Reid, W. S.; Buckley, D. J.; Nicholls, C. F.; Cave, 
N. A. G. 1980. An automatic feed dispensing 
system for ooultry in floor pens. Can. J. Anim. 
Sci. 60:193-195. 

Sibbald, I. R.; Barrette, J. P.; Price, K. R. 1980. 
Predicting true metabolizable energy, gross 
energy, carbohydrate and proximate analysis 
values by assuming additivity. Poult. Sci. 
59(4):805-807. 

Sibbald, I. R.; Barrette, J. P.; Price, K. R. 1980. 
True metabolizable energy values for poultry 
of commercial diets measured by bioassay and 
predicted from chemical data. Poult. Sci. 
59(4):808-811. 

Sibbald, I. R.; Price, K. R. 1980. Variability in 
metabolic plus endogenous energy losses of 
adult cockerels and in the true metabolizable 
energy values and rates of passage of dehy- 
drated alfalfa. Poult. Sci. 59(6): 1275- 1279. 



Voisey, P. W.; Kloek, M. 1980. Methods of record- 
ing dough development curves from electronic 
recording mixers. Cereal Chem. 57:442-444. 

Miscellaneous 

Arsenault, R. H.; Grandbois, M. A.; Chornet, E.; 
Timbers, G. E. 1980. Pyrolysis of agricultural 
residues in a rotary kiln. Thermal conversion of 
solid wastes and biomass. Am. Chem. Soc. 
130:337-350. 

Brach, E. J. 1980. Variety identification by means 
of spectroscopy. Engineering and Statistical 
Research Institute, Agriculture Canada. Rep. 
No. 1177. 

Brach, E. J.; Elgazzar, S.; Mack, A. R. 1980. 
General software flowchart to normalize spec- 
tral curves of various agricultural crops. Engi- 
neering and Statistical Research Institute, 
Agriculture Canada. Rep. No. 6842 1-62. 

Clayton, R. E.; DeVries, H.; Stevenson, R.; Hayes, 
R.; Turnbull, J. E. 1980. Experiences with 
floating covers for cylindrical concrete manure 
storages. Engineering and Statistical Research 
Institute, Agriculture Canada. Rep. No. 1229. 

Colwell, H. T. M.; Van Die, P.; Hayes, R. D.; Finn, 
P. J. 1980. Alternatives to our present use of 
fossil fuels in the agricultural and food system. 
Canadian Outlook Conference, Ottawa, Ont. 
(Dec). 

DeVries, H.; Stevenson, R.; Hayes, R.; Turnbull, J. 
E.; Clayton, R. E. 1980. Experiences with 
floating covers for manure storages. Canadian 
Society of Agricultural Engineering Annual 
Meeting. No. 80-218. 

Farnworth, E. R.; Kramer, J. K. G.; Thompson, B. 
K. 1980. Qualitative and quantitative analysis 
of neutral lipids on iatroscan chromarodes. 
Abstracts of the Symposium on analytical 
chemistry of rapeseed and its products. 

Feldman, M., editor. 1980. Summary of 1978-79 
contract reports of the Agricultural Engineer- 
ing Research and Development (AERD) Pro- 
gram/Resume des rapports des travaux faits 
sous contrat en 1978-79 dans le cadre du 
programme de recherche et de développement 
en Génie Rural (RDGR). Engineering and 
Statistical Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada. Rep. No. 1212. 

Grunder, A. A.; Thompson, B. K.; Hollands, K. G.; 
Hamilton, R. M. G. 1980. Egg shell strength 
at oviposition and 3 hours later. Poult. Sci. 
59:1615 (abstract). 

Hamilton, R. M. G.; Grunder, A. A.; Thompson, B. 
K.; Hollands, K. G. 1980. Relationship 
between blood ionized calcium levels and 
eggshell strength. Poult. Sci. 59:1617 
(abstract). 



46 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Hamilton, R. M. G.; Thompson, B. K. 1980. 
Variation in feed intake and eggshell strength 
during a 14 day period. Poult. Sci. 59:1617 
(abstract). 

Hamilton, R. M. G.; Voisey, P. W. 1980. Egg shell 
strength: a nightmare in experimental mechan- 
ics from a poultry scientist's viewpoint. Pro- 
ceedings of the Symposium on Eng. Appl. 
Mech., University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont. 
(June), pp. 155-159. 

Hayes, R. D. 1980. Farm-scale production and use 
of fuel alcohol: opportunities and problems/ 
Production et utilisation d'alcool combustible à 
la ferme — possibilités et obstacles. Agric. Can. 
Publ. 1712. 

Hayes, R. D. 1980. Agricultural resources for 
ethanol production. Proceedings of the Cana- 
dian National Power Alcohol Conference. The 
Biomass Energy Institute Inc. XIX- 1 -XIX- 12. 

Hayes, R. D. 1980. Resources agricoles pour la 
production d'ethanol. Engineering and Statisti- 
cal Research Institute, Agriculture Canada. 
Rep. No. 1201. 

Hayes, R. D.; Timbers, G. E. 1980. Alcohol fuels 
from agriculture. Engineering and Statistical 
Research Institute, Agriculture Canada. Rep. 
No. 7534 1165. 

Hergert, G. B. 1980. Harvesting Jerusalem arti- 
choke tubers. Engineering and Statistical Re- 
search Institute, Agriculture Canada. Rep. 
No. 7746 190. 

Hergert, G. B. 1980. Compaction and reduction of 
chopped whole plant tobacco. Engineering and 
Statistical Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada. Rep. No. 7311 1240. 

Hergert, G. B. 1980. Project 7708: Report of field 
testing in Newfoundland. Peat News 2(3):27- 
39. 

Hergert, G. B. 1980. A narrow row soybean planter 
for experimental plots. Engineering and Statis- 
tical Research Institute, Agriculture Canada. 
Rep. No. 7527 1230. 

Hergert, G. B. 1980. Metric grain test weight 
determination for research samples. Engineer- 
ing and Statistical Research Institute. Agricul- 
ture Canada. Rep. No. 7410 1239. 

Hergert, G. B. 1980. Tractors for agricultural 
development on peat lands and wet lands. Peat 
News2(4):47-53. 

Hergert, G. B.; Compton, B. 1980. A tractor for 
agricultural development of peat soils. Cana- 
dian Society of Agricultural Engineering An- 
nual Meeting. No. 80-301. 



Jaii, E. Z.; Feldman, M.; Robertson, J. A.; Lievers, 
K. W. 1980. Drying and storage of chopped 
hay in a hay tower. Canadian Society of 
Agricultural Engineering Annual Meeting. 
No. 80-220. 

Jordan, W. A.; Thompson, B. K.; Ivan, M.; Hidiro- 
glou, M. 1980. Lambs fail to improve with 
cement kiln dust supplements. Feedstuff's 
51(32):33-34. 

Jui, P., editor. 1980. Proceedings of the statistical 
workshop for Research Branch statisticians, 
Ottawa, Ont. Engineering and Statistical Re- 
search Institute, Agriculture Canada. Rep. 
No. 1252. 

Juneja, S.; Neale, R.; Overend, R.; Pneumaticos, 
S.; Timbers, G. E. 1980. Canada's bioenergy 
programs. Proceedings of the Biomass Con- 
gress, Atlanta, Georgia. 

Kloek, M. 1980. Measuring high frequency signal 
fluctuations in dough mixing tests. Engineering 
and Statistical Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada. Rep. No. 1188. 

Kloek, M.; Mohr, W. P. 1980. Tomato juice 
graininess measurements. Engineering and 
Statistical Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada. Rep. No. 7820 1228. 

Kramer, J. K. G.; Farnworth, E. R.; Corner, A. H.; 
Thompson, B. K. 1980. Evidence that myocar- 
dial lesions in male albino rats fed high fat 
diets is related to certain dietary fatty acids. 
Proceedings of the Int. Seifen Fettwissen- 
schaft/American Oil Chemists Society World 
Congress (abstract). 

Laporte, A. N.; Caron, J.; Lemieux, M. 1980. A 
kiln for curing small experimental plots of flue 
cured tobacco. The Lighter 50(3):28-31. 

LeRoux, E. J. 1980. Energy in agriculture/Energie 
en agriculture. Engineering and Statistical 
Research Institute, Agriculture Canada. Rep. 
No. 1180. 

Ogilvie, J.; Laporte, G.; Hergert, G. B. 1980. 
Mechanization of harvesting and curing of 
stalk cut air cured tobacco. The Lighter 
50(3):17-25. 

Pella, R. 1980. General metric fact sheets. Engi- 
neering and Statistical Research Institute, 
Agriculture Canada. Rep. No. 1-14. 

Phillips, P. A. 1980. Selecting manure loading and 
transport systems. Farm Equip. Q. 2:8, 10. 

Phillips, P. A. 1980. Manure handling case study of 
a 1 50-cow Ottawa valley dairy farm. Proceed- 
ings of International Symposium on land and 
water. Amarillo, TX. 



ENGINEERING AND STATISTICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



47 



Phillips, P. A.; Young, B. A.; McQuitty, J. B. 1980. 
Weight response of growing-finishing swine to 
acute cold stress. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:557 
(abstract). 

Stemshorn, B. W.; Buckley, D. J.; St. Amour, G.; 
Duncan, J. R.; Nielson, K. H. 1980. A com- 
puter-interfaced photometer and micro-plate 
enzyme-immunoassay variation. Annual con- 
ference of research workers in animal disease 
(abstract). No. 198. 

Timbers, G. E.; Caron, J. G.; Stark, R.; Cummings, 
D. B. 1980. Pilot-plant steam blancher. Engi- 
neering and Statistical Research Institute, 
Agriculture Canada. Rep. No. 7327 606. 

Turnbull, J. E. 1980. Construction of milking 
centers for northern regions. Engineering and 
Statistical Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada. Rep. No. 1234. 

Turnbull, J. E. 1980. Alternatives in manure 
storage and handling. Engineering and Statis- 
tical Research Institute, Agriculture Canada. 
Rep. No. 1183. 

Turnbull, J. E.; Lefkovitch, L. P.; Lowe, D. 1980. 
Multi-laminated nailed truss connections. Ca- 
nadian Society of Agricultural Engineering 
Annual Meeting. No. 80-202. 

Turnbull, J. E.; Riley, V; Rasins, P. 1980. Precast 
fiber-reinforced concrete sandwich walls for 
farm buildings. Canadian Society of Agricul- 
tural Engineering Annual Meeting. No. 80- 
201. 



Van Die, P. 1980. Energy— implications for agri- 
culture in the 80's. Engineering and Statistical 
Research Institute, Agriculture Canada. Rep. 
No. 1176. 

Van Die, P., editor. 1980. 1979 Meeting of the 
Canada Committee on Agricultural Engineer- 
ing Services report. Research Branch, Agricul- 
ture Canada. 

Van Die, P. 1980. Summary of Agriculture Can- 
ada's energy research and development con- 
tract reports. Engineering and Statistical Re- 
search Institute, Agriculture Canada. Rep. 
No. 1233. 

Van Die, P.; Timbers, G. E.; Hayes, R. D. 1980. 
Potential of liquid mobile fuel from Canadian 
agriculture/Possibilité de production de car- 
burants liquides par l'agriculture canadienne. 
Engineering and Statistical Research Institute, 
Agriculture Canada. Rep. No. 8007 1172. 

Winfield, R. G.; Munroe, J. A. 1980. Solar assisted 
animal housing ventilation for northern lati- 
tudes. Canadian Society of Agricultural Engi- 
neering Annual Meeting. No. 80-217. 

Winfield, R. G.; Turnbull, J. E. 1980. Saving 
energy by interlocking heating/ventilating con- 
trols in livestock housing. Canadian Society of 
Agricultural Engineering Annual Meeting. 
No. 80-222. 

Zilkey, B. F.; Binns, M. 1980. Effect of leaf 
ripeness and genotype on agronomic, physical 
and chemical measurements of flue-cured to- 
bacco and tobacco smoke. 34th Tobacco 
Chemists Research Conference. 



4S 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Food Research Institute 
Ottawa, Ontario 

PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



J. Holme, B.A., M.A. 
E. Larmond, B.Sc. 

J. SCHAFER 



Ph.D. 



Director 

Assistant Director 

Acting Administrative Officer 



Food Processing 



D. Paton, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

B. Ooma, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

R. Sinha, B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 

D. F. Wood, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. 



Ph.D. 



Program Leader; Cereal processing 
Cereal processing 
Lactic acid bacteria genetics 
Meat processing 



Food Quality 



E. Larmond, B.Sc. 



D. Froelich, B.Sc, M.Sc 

M. Kalab, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

C. Y. Ma, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

R. C. McKellar, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

I. R. Siddiqui, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D., D.Sc 

C. G. Zarkadas, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



F.R.I.C. 



Assistant Director; Program 
Leader; Sensory evaluation 
Sensory evaluation 
Electron microscopy 
Protein functionality 
Microbiology 
Carbohydrates 
Meat proteins 



Food Safety and Nutrition 



R. A. Holley, B.Sc, (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

W. J. Mullin, L.R.I.C, Ph.D. 

A. C. Nunes, B.Sc 

A. Paquet, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

F. Russell, B.Sc, M.Sc. 



Microbiology 
Analytical methodology 
Nutrient analysis 
Organic synthesis 
Nutrient analysis 



Food Ingredients and New Products 



P. J. Wood, B.Sc, Ph.D. 
FOOD research institute 



Program Leader; Carbohydrates 



49 



F. W. Collins, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

D. B. Emmons, B.S.A., M.S., Ph.D. 
V. R. Harwalkar, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
J. D. Jones, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.I.C. 
H. W. Modler, B.S.A., M.S., Ph.D. 

G. Paquette, B.Sc, (Agr.) 

M. Sahasrabudhe, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
J. Weisz, B.Sc 



Plant phenolics 
Dairy products 
Milk proteins 
Oilseeds 
Dairy products 
Dairy products 
Lipids 
Carbohydrates 



Departures 



D. Dobson 

Promoted to new position 
John R. Quinn, B.S.A., M 

Deceased July 1980 



August 
, Ph.D. 



1980 



Administrative Officer 
Meat processing 



50 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



INTRODUCTION 



The Food Research Institute (FRI) was pleased in making substantial progress in its 
staffing activities during 1980. Several additions to professional staff were realized, which 
permitted the Institute to attain most of its goals in research in the year. The Institute 
welcomes all these new members. Dr. C. Y. Ma has initiated projects on the physical-chemical 
and functional properties of food proteins. Dr. B. Oomah has joined the cereal processing 
program and is engaged in research on oat fractionation and functional assessment of fractions 
therefrom. Dr. W. Collins came to FRI from Biosystematics and has renewed research on the 
phenolic constituents of cereals and oilseeds. D. Froehlich joined the food quality team, where 
she will be further developing the sensory evaluation area of our program. F. Russell has begun 
her research on the nutrient data base for Canadian fruits and vegetables. G. Paquette has 
joined the dairy research group and he has taken on duties for administering our large contract 
research program in that area. J. Weisz was promoted to the professional staff and will be 
operating the Institute's new carbohydrate analytical laboratory and continuing his research on 
carbohydrates. 

The Department and the Institute were deeply saddened by the untimely death of Dr. 
John Quinn, who had maintained a valuable research program in meat and plant proteins over 
several years with FRI. 

During the year Dr. John Mullin began a transfer of work at the Food Research Institute 
in Norwich, England, where he will be studying new methodologies in glucosinolate analysis 
and nutrient composition determination. 

The Institute's programs in utilization of agricultural resources progressed well in 1980 
with continued growth of contract research, addition of new in-house projects, and expanded 
collaboration with industry in most areas of its program. Institute staff continued to serve on 
important national and international committees endeavoring to coordinate research and 
development (R & D) activities and to detail future R&D needs. 

Highlights of the year's results are described in this report. Inquiries for more information 
should be directed to the Food Research Institute, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 
Ottawa Ont., Kl A 0C6. 

John Holme 
Director 



FOOD PROCESSING 

Extrusion cooking 

Outside interest in FRI research directed 
toward the measurement of the degree of cook 
of extruded cereal products has resulted in the 
formation of a Technical Committee of the 
American Association of Cereal Chemists to 
evaluate this and other related methodology. 

Mechanisms of cake baking 

Extensive layer cake baking experiments 
have been conducted using a novel oven 
design which monitors the net internal forces 
during the development of a baking cake. 
Such measurements are responsive to formu- 
lation-ingredient changes. It has been shown 
that sugar and oil act in opposition to the 
protein and starch components; sugar and oil 
lower the net internal forces, whereas protein 



and starch increase them. A fully baked layer 
cake shows a moderate net positive force 
development. The wheat flour used in cake 
baking is normally chlorinated to give cake 
improvement; it has been shown that a 
chlorinated flour when used in a cake formu- 
lation gives rise to a consistently higher net 
internal force value than does an unchlori- 
nated wheat flour. These findings further 
corroborate the well-known roles which have 
been previously established for the cake 
system. 

Meat products 

The changes in heat stability of beef protein 
during processing of meat into sausage batters 
has been studied using differential scanning 
calorimetry (DSC). Neither the mechanical 
work done nor the presence of fat affected the 
protein structural stability, but the presence 



FOOD RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



51 



of NaCl drastically lowered the temperature 
of denaturation. This effect was partly revers- 
ible upon dialysis. Rabbit and pork muscle 
behaved in a similar fashion. The role of salt 
in decreasing the temperature of denaturation 
may be critical to the manufacture of batter- 
type meat products. Through contracts, meth- 
odology has been developed for microscopic 
examination of meat batters and for deter- 
mining least-cost formulations of poultry 
meat-sausage blends. 



FOOD QUALITY 

Dairy products 

Yogurt. Yogurts were manufactured in 
which the hydrocolloids were replaced with a 
variety of dairy-based proteins and then 
subjected to physical and sensory evaluation 
tests. The objective was to prepare an all- 
dairy yogurt that would utilize more milk 
solids or protein or both. Three whey protein 
concentrates (WPC), one milk protein con- 
centrate (MPC), casein, and skim milk pow- 
der (SMP) were tested at the 0.5, 1.0, and 
1.5% levels of addition. All products had 
levels of syneresis which exceeded the gelatin 
control, with casein at 1.5% having the least 
syneresis. Products with firmness similar to 
gelatin control were unacceptable in terms of 
syneresis; however, all products were equal to 
or better than the control with respect to 
flavor. The ultrafiltrated-WPC (1.5%) and 
MPC (1.5%) had thicker consistencies than 
the control, whereas the remaining samples 
were the same as or thinner than the control. 
Three products, ion exchange - WPC at the 
1.0% level and electrodialyzed-WPC at the 
1.0 and 1.5% levels, had a texture comparable 
to gelatin. The remaining 15 formulations 
scored higher in terms of smoothness, with 
casein being the superior product. An overall 
ranking of ingredients revealed that 9 of 18 
treatments were acceptable in all respects, 
except for syneresis. Six of the nine products 
contained casein. 

Generally it can be concluded that products 
containing casein (MPC, SMP, and casem- 
ates) at levels of 1.0 to 1.5% are acceptable 
substitutes for gelatin and can be faulted only 
on the basis of syneresis. The whey protein 
concentrates used at 1.0% and casein contain- 
ing products at 0.5% produce one or more 
serious defects in yogurt. 



Milk quality. The survival of heat-stable 
extracellular protease of microbial origin in 
processed milk presents a serious shelf-life 
problem. Studies were initiated to determine 
the correlation between proteolysis and the 
development of off-flavors in milk, with a view 
to developing a rapid test for proteases. 

The addition of crude proteases to ultra 
high temperature (UHT) and pasteurized 
milk resulted in the breakdown of milk 
proteins as measured by the increase in 
trichloroacetic acid soluble free amino groups 
using trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and by the 
development of off-flavors. Proteolysis could 
be detected in milk samples that had received 
insufficient protease to cause off-flavor. Sig- 
nificant off-flavor was detected at various 
levels of proteolysis for each of the three 
enzymes tested. Long-term studies are in 
progress to determine if trinitrobenzene sulfu- 
ric acid can be used to monitor stored UHT 
milk. 

Protein functionality 

The effect of chemical modification on the 
physicochemical and functional properties of 
food proteins was studied. Succinylated wheat 
gluten, rapeseed protein concentrate, and oat 
protein were found to have improved solubil- 
ity, emulsification capacity, and water hydra- 
tion capacity. Succinylated egg albumin has 
distinct physicochemical properties and is 
more resistant to heat coagulation. Data 
suggest that ionic interaction is essential for 
thermocoagulation of egg white proteins, with 
disulfide and hydrophobic interactions playing 
a role in the initial stages. 

Microstructure 

A technique was developed for high-resolu- 
tion electron microscopy of dried milk pro- 
ducts. It is based on coating the dried product 
with platinum while the specimen is rotated, 
backing the coating with carbon, and separat- 
ing the double layer in the form of a replica 
which is subsequently cleaned and examined 
under a transmission electron microscope. 
Submicellar ultrastructure of casein micelles 
was visualized in this way. 

Differences in the microstructures of tradi- 
tional and newly formulated cream cheeses 
were found by electron microscopy. Fat 
globules remained almost intact in the tradi- 
tional products but were coalesced in the 
newly formulated products. Manufacturing 



52 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



processes were found responsible for the 
different microstructures. 

In collaboration with Utah State Univer- 
sity, we detected crystals of emulsifying salts 
in process cheeses by electron microscopy. 
The results suggested that the use of salt 
solutions might be more efficient than the 
current practice of adding salt in the crystal- 
line form. Because only the salts solubilized in 
the cheese curd contribute to the emulsifica- 
tion of fat, the portion of crystalline salt that 
remains undissolved is not being utilized. 

Carbohydrates 

A systematic fractionation of lower molecu- 
lar weight tobacco carbohydrates by various 
chromatographic techniques has led to the 
recognition and characterization of a number 
of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides: 
D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose, myoinositol, 
D-xylose, D-ribose, D-psicose, D-sorbitol, malt- 
ose, gentiobiose, glucopyranosyl-myoinositol, 
di-D-glucopyranosyl-myoinositol, gentianose, 
and erose. Some of these were not previously 
known to occur in tobacco. 

Tobacco contains a number of alkaloids, of 
which nicotine predominates. The recognition, 
quantitation, and characterization of l-(l'-2'- 
5-nornicotino)- 1 -deoxy- /?-D-fructose from 
Canadian tobacco (Delhi 76) is a first attempt 
to discover bound nornicotine in a good- 
quality Canadian tobacco. The Cherry Red 
strain of Bright Yellow tobacco, an inferior 
variety that contains nornicotine as a princi- 
pal alkaloid, contains the nornicotine-fructose 
derivative at around 1% of dry weight. The 
Delhi 76 contains 0.3-0.4% of this compound, 
which is regarded as an undesirable leaf 
component because it imparts a disagreeable 
taste to smoke. Additionally, based on the 
presence of both secondary amines and oxides 
of nitrogen, it is feasible that interaction 
between these compounds could produce 
nitrosamines, which would account for the 
implication of tobacco smoke in tumor 
growth. Indeed nitroso derivatives of nornico- 
tine have been shown to be carcinogenic in 
laboratory animals. 

Natural back mutation of nicotine-type 
tobacco to Cherry Red type has been known 
to occur about 0.8% in a generation. It 
appears that Delhi 76 is undergoing such 
mutation. Obviously the Delhi figure of 2.75— 
3% total alkaloids with 95% nicotine for Delhi 
76 needs to be reevaluated in view of the 



presence of this bound nornicotino/fructose 
Amadori product. 

Sensory evaluation 

Sensory evaluation has been conducted in 
support of several projects within and outside 
FRI and also outside the government. Product 
characteristics evaluated include milk flavor, 
butter flavor, veal quality, chicken quality, 
and beef tenderness. 

Electrical stimulation 

The effect of electrical stimulation (ES) on 
the sensory quality of Al, CI, and Dl grades 
of Canadian beef cattle was determined. 
Fifteen animals from each grade were split at 
about 30 min postslaughter and half of each 
carcass was stimulated (600 V, 2.18 A) with 
17 pulses of 2-s duration followed by 1-s 
pauses. Steaks from the loin and round were 
evaluated for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and 
overall acceptability; Warner-Bratzler shear 
values were also determined. No positive 
improvements were found for any of the 
parameters studied, as a result of the ES 
treatment. 

Milk-fed versus grain-fed veal quality 

Samples were obtained from the loin and 
round of grain-fed and milk-fed veal. The 
sensory attributes tested were: raw and 
cooked color, tenderness, flavor, juiciness, and 
overall acceptability. Warner-Bratzler shear 
force was also determined. These attributes 
were determined for fresh veal and for 
duplicate cuts of each muscle which had been 
frozen at -20°C and held 4 mo before 
evaluation. The fresh grain-fed veal cuts were 
judged to be significantly more red in color 
and significantly less tender by Warner- 
Bratzler shear. However, the panelists did not 
detect the tenderness difference and rated 
both milk-fed and grain-fed cuts equal in 
overall acceptability. The freezing did not 
appear to affect the quality, as panel scores 
for the frozen samples were similar to those 
for the fresh veal. 

Contracts 

Fat levels in ground beef. A survey of fat 
levels in ground beef at the retail level 
revealed that in most cases fat levels are well 
below regulatory limits. This is a reflection of 
the inadequacy of current fat determination 
techniques for in-store use. Methodology and 



FOOD RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



53 



regulations have been reviewed and recom- 
mendations are being developed for both 
government and industry. 

Mechanically deboned meat. The rheology 
and bone strength of chicken, beef, and pork 
meat have been determined. The data ob- 
tained are to be used in modifying deboning 
equipment in order to improve end product 
texture. 

Meat proteins 

The new amino acid methodology recently 
developed in this laboratory for the determi- 
nation of the myofibrillar and connective 
tissue contents of meats and composite meat 
products was successfully applied to a variety 
of composite meat samples. The determina- 
tion of the TV^-methylhistidine and 5-hy- 
droxylysine contents of selected composite 
meat products was carried out by this chemi- 
cal approach with an accuracy of 0-3%. The 
method has also been successfully used for an 
accurate nutritional assessment of novel pro- 
tein supplements, such as fish and crab meals 
and potato waste products, in broiler poultry 
diets. Further application of the method has 
shown previously unreported methylation in 
certain important purified muscle proteins. 



FOOD SAFETY AND NUTRITION 

Microbiology 

Mold inhibition on salami casings. Potas- 
sium sorbate and natamycin (pimaricin) were 
used to prevent uncontrolled surface mold 
growth on several types of raw-cured Italian 
dry salami during ripening under commercial 
production conditions. Salamis were dipped 
into, or sprayed with, natamycin or they were 
given a combined organic acid plus potassium 
sorbate treatment. Acetic and citric acids 
potentiated the inhibitory effects of potassium 
sorbate significantly, but lactic and succinic 
acids showed no effect. At 10% potassium 
sorbate on all types of salami and 2.5% 
sorbate on Casalingo salami, visual inhibition 
of mold growth was observed. Natamycin 
spray (2 x 1000 mg/L) was as effective or 
slightly better than 2.5% potassium sorbate, 
but greater concentrations of each were 
required to satisfactorily inhibit surface mold 
growth during the 25- to 50-day ripening 
period. The lowest most effective concentra- 
tion of potassium sorbate was 5% when 



applied as two separate 60-s dips at day and 
day 5 of curing. 

Sorbic acid methodology. A method for 
determining sorbic acid in dry salami was 
developed and used to follow the sorbate 
penetration into the salami after treatment. It 
was found that the residual sorbic acid in 
slices of these salamis was directly related to 
the concentration of the dipping solution used 
and inversely related to the diameter of the 
salami. Salametti salami, dipped twice into 
5% potassium sorbate, contained 332 mg 
sorbic acid per kilogram after 25 days of 
ripening. Natural casings tended to retain 
more sorbic acid after dipping than did 
regenerated collagen casings. 

Contracts. Four contracts were completed 
during the past year with the main highlights 
being as follows. 

(a) Catalase destruction can be used to 
monitor the extent of cooking of sausage 
batters. The method will be used in the plant. 

(b) Water flow rate and methods of sanita- 
tion of poultry chillers need to be standard- 
ized and controlled. A report was sent to all 
Agriculture Canada personnel across Canada. 

(c) Many organisms isolated from cheeses 
showing late gas were screened and C. tyro- 
butyricum was not found. 

(d) Sampling of bird feathers prior to 
shipment was found to be a reliable indicator 
of Salmonella status of broiler flocks. 

Amino acid derivatives 

The synthesis of new essential amino acid 
derivatives was terminated. Biological testing 
showed a variety of potential uses for some of 
these compounds. Methionine, tryptophan, 
and threonine derivatives were found to 
exhibit strong biostatic activity toward several 
strains of bacteria (zone inhibition studies). 

Nitrosamine analysis 

Two contracts are currently in place. The 
first is to develop an improved method for 
nitrosamine analysis which does not need 
extremely expensive detection systems, and 
the second is to determine the source of 
extremely low, but consistent, levels of di- 
methylnitrosamine in cured meat products. 

Vitamin analysis 

Folic acid. A number of improvements 
have been developed for the standard micro- 
biological assay procedure. Data have been 



54 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



accumulated for several broccoli and spinach 
varieties over two different growing seasons. 

Vitamins A and C. The vitamin A and 
vitamin C contents of a number of cultivars of 
spinach, carrots, and cabbage have been 
determined. The loss of vitamin C on storage 
of spinach at 4°C has also been determined. 
Up to 80% of the vitamin C content of 
spinach may be lost during 10 days storage at 
4°C. Mini carrots were found to contain about 
75% of the amount of vitamin A found in 
regular carrots. 

Glucosinolate studies 

An improved method for the high pressure 
liquid chromatographic determination of glu- 
cosinolates has been developed and success- 
fully applied to quality control of mustard and 
horseradish. 



NEW FOOD INGREDIENTS 



Oats 



Carbohydrates. Studies have continued to 
establish that the dyes Congo Red and 
Calcofluor may be used to specifically locate 
cereal /3-glucans histochemically (collabora- 
tor: Dr. R. G. Fulcher, Ottawa Research 
Station). Staining of oat, wheat, and barley 
aleurone and endosperm cell walls by Congo 
Red and Calcofluor is largely removed after 
treatment with a /3-glucanase specific for the 
/3(l->4)(l-K})-D-glucan of cereal cell walls. 
Crude cell wall extracts, wheat pentosan 
preparations, and wheat arabinogalactan- 
peptide either did not interact with dye in 
solution or did not interact with dye following 
removal of contaminating /3-glucan. 

Loss of /3-glucan interaction with dyes 
during incubation with /3-glucanases parallels 
loss in viscosity, and can thus be used to 
follow endo-/3-glucanase activity. The tech- 
nique employed for routine endo-/3-glucanase 
assay utilizes the concentration dependence of 
rate of radial diffusion of enzyme into a 
substrate-bearing gel slab. The area of diffu- 
sion, which is proportional to the logarithm of 
enzyme concentration, can be visualized by 
means of interaction of Congo Red with 
undergraded substrate. The technique is 
suitable for routinely monitoring a large 
number of samples for /3-(l->4)-, (l->3)-, and 
/?-(l->4)(l->-3)-glucanase activity by use of 



CM-cellulose, CM-pachyman, and oat /3-glu- 
can, respectively, as substrate. Cereal ex- 
tracts, both germinated and ungerminated, 
malt, and a large number of fungal enzyme 
sources have been examined in this fashion. 

Phenolics. Fluorescence microscopy of 
hand-sectioned oat grains (cultivar Hinoat) 
using the flavone-flavonol fluorochrome, di- 
phenyborinic acid, ethanolamine complex has 
revealed flavonoid-like compounds in the 
aleurone and subaleurone layers. The embryo 
and central endosperm tissues are devoid of 
this type of phenolic reaction. The flavonoid- 
like constituents are only partly extracted 
from the tissues using standard aqueous 
alcohol extraction procedures. Examination of 
the extractable components by preparative 
column chromatography and high-resolution 
thin-layer chromatography revealed a com- 
plex mixture of as many as 25 different 
flavonoids. Kaempferol and quercetin (3,5,7,- 
4'- and 3,5,7,3',4'-OH-flavone) have been 
identified from this mixture, which marks the 
first reported occurrence of 3-OH-flavones in 
the cereals. The major components of the 
flavonoid mixture were tightly bound to 
anionic exchange columns, suggesting that 
the majority of oat flavonoids may be substi- 
tuted with free acidic functions and may be 
ionically bound to cationic substrates in the 
tissues. 

Fluorescence microscopy of hand-sectioned 
oat grains indicated that the peripheral region 
of the grain contained /wa-dimethylamino- 
cinnamaldehyde-positive components. The 
distinctive long ultraviolet-stimulated red 
orange fluorescence in the grain is character- 
istic only of aromatic primary amines. In vitro 
testing of a wide number of aminophenols and 
aminobenzoic acids using cellulose and poly- 
amide adsorbents to simulate the in vivo 
staining matrix of the grain suggests the 
reactive substance contains an orf/jo-amino- 
phenol function. In thin sections, the amino- 
phenol-like material was restricted to the 
aleurone layer and within these cells was 
confined to the protein bodies. 

In view of the high redox potential and 
propensity to form highly colored oxidation 
products, the structure and properties of these 
oat components are of potential importance in 
evaluating color quality of processed oat 
ingredients. 

Lipids. A simple microquantitative method 
for the estimation of lipase activity in cereal 
grains has been developed. The method is 



FOOD RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



55 



based on the colorimetric estimation of free 
fatty acids hydrolyzed from the endogenous 
neutral lipid. 

Oilseeds 

Progress has been achieved in evaluation of 
the FRI 1975 process to produce rapeseed oil 
and meal of improved quality, but further 
improvements in technology are required 
before commercialization. 

A contract study at the University of 
Toronto on an improved process for rapeseed 
protein isolate preparation has shown an 
insoluble by-product to contain 26-33% pro- 
tein, 23-34% fiber, and no detectable gluco- 
sinolate, and to possess good nutritional value. 
Waste-disposal problems associated with the 
whey-protein by-product was effectively re- 
duced by bentonite treatment, which allowed 
recovery of a soluble protein fraction. 

A contract study at Laval University on 
proteolytic products from plant and animal 
proteins as nutritional indicators showed that 
casein and animal proteins (controls) gave the 
highest nutritional values. Of rapeseed, soya, 
and wheat concentrates, rapeseed protein 
concentrate (RPC) had the highest nutri- 
tional value and was equal to that of casein. 
Autoclaving improved the nutritional value of 
the 2 S plus 1 1 S fraction of soya but the 
fractionated proteins had significantly lower 
value than the unfractionated. Admixtures of 
different plant proteins generally increased 
the nutritional value above that of the individ- 
ual components, but addition of wheat al- 
bumin - globulin and glutenin to RPC 
significantly decreased the nutritional value of 
RPC. 

Contracted investigations to study the 
effect of heat processing on canola proteins 
showed that the precooking and steam-desol- 
ventization steps decreased the protein solu- 
bility of the meals. 

A contract to evaluate, with rapeseed, a US 
patent for preparing an oil-protein complex 
(from soybean) was unsuccessful in obtaining 
an oil-protein complex from the rapeseed. 

Whey protein 

To gain understanding of the differences in 
functionality of whey protein concentrates 
(WPC) prepared by heating before (heat-UF) 
or after (UF-heat) ultrafiltration, proteins of 



WPC were further evaluated by the determi- 
nation of intrinsic viscosity [17] and fluores- 
cence emission spectra. The [17] of denatured 
proteins, soluble at pH 2.5, generally in- 
creased with pH of heat treatment in both the 
methods of preparation. This is indicative of 
greater unfolding at the higher pH's of 
heating. The viscosity data correlated with the 
increased water binding capacity of WPC 
prepared by heating at higher pH. The 
fluorescence intensity decreased with the 
increased extent of denaturation, indicating 
changing hydrophobic conditions for the 
residues causing fluorescence. 

In model systems, /3-lactoglobulin (/3-lg) 
denaturation was examined by susceptibility 
to proteolysis and by fluorescence spectros-* 
copy. /3-Lactoglobulin, thermally denatured 
at pH 2.5, showed increased rate of hydrolysis 
by pepsin. Changes in fluorescence emission 
spectra in 1, 2, 4, and 8 M urea were 
examined. The emission maximum (Xmax) 
increased from 334 nm to 349 nm in the 
presence of 8 M urea. A similar red shift was 
not observed with lower concentration of urea 
(excitation was at 285 nm). However, inten- 
sity of fluorescence, as indicated by peak 
height, decreased with increasing urea con- 
centration, although width at half height 
showed change only with 8 M urea. Heat 
denaturation of /3-1 g also causes a decrease in 
peak height and increase in Xmax from 333 
nm to 337 nm but no change in width at half 
height. The differences in fluorescence behav- 
ior between different concentrations of urea 
and between urea and heat denaturation of 
y3- 1 g arise from a different degree of unfold- 
ing and are consistent with the previously 
reported viscosity and optical rotation data. 

White bean 

Four varieties of white bean were analyzed 
for proximate and amino acid composition 
and air-classified into high-protein and low- 
protein fractions. The lipids, oligosaccharides, 
and minerals were concentrated in the high- 
protein fraction. More than 80% of protein 
was soluble at pH 7.5. Functional properties 
of the protein were comparable to those of 
other vegetable proteins. The starch from the 
low-protein fraction contained 30% amyiose 
and gave torque-temperature curves typical 
of legume starches. 



56 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Emmons, D. B.; Lister, E. E.; Beckett, D. C; 
Jenkins, K. J. 1980. Quality of protein in milk 
replacers for young calves. V. Effect of method 
of dispersing fat on curd formation and whey 
syneresis. J. Dairy Sci. 63:417-425. 

Emmons, D. B.; Kalab, M.; Larmond, E.; Lowrie, 
R. J. 1980. Milk gel structure. X. Texture and 
microstructure in cheddar cheese made from 
whole milk and from homogenized low fat 
milk. J. Texture Stud. 11:15-34. 

Harwalkar, V. R. 1980. Measurements of thermal 
denaturation of /3-lactoglobulin at pH 2.5. J. 
Dairy Sci. 63:1043-1051. 

Harwalkar, V. R. 1980. Kinetics of thermal denatu- 
ration of /3-lactoglobulin at pH 2.5. J. Dairy 
Sci. 63:1052-1057. 

Harwalkar, V. R.; Kalab, M. 1980. Milk gel 
structure. XI. Electron microscopy of glucano- 
d-lactone-induced skim milk gels. J. Texture 
Stud. 11:35-49. 

Hidiroglou, M.; Siddiqui, I. R.; Khan, S. U.; 
Williams, C. J. 1979. Amino acid and glyco- 
saminoglycan composition of epiphysical carti- 
lage of neonate and osteoporotic lambs. Int. J. 
Vit. 

Holley, R. A.; Millard, G. E. 1980. Sorbic acid 

determination in dry fermented sausage by 

ultraviolet spectrophotometry. J. Assoc. Off. 
Anal. Chem. 63:1332-1335. 

Jenkins, K. J.; Emmons, D. B. 1979. Effect of fat 
dispersion method on performance of calves 
fed high-fat milk replacers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 
59:713-720. 

Ju, H.-Y.; Chong, C; Bible, B; Mullin, W. J. 1980. 
Seasonal variation in glucosinolate composition 
of rutabaga and turnip. Can. J. Plant Sci. 
60:605-612. 

Kalab, M. 1980. Decayed lactic bacteria — a possi- 
ble source of crystallization nuclei in cheese. J. 
Dairy Sci. 63(2):301 -304. 

Kalab, M. 1980. Possibilities of an electron micro- 
scopic detection of buttermilk made from 
sweet cream in adulterated skim milk. Scan- 
ning Electron Microsc. 111:645-652. 

Larmond, E.; Hulan, H. W.; Proudfoot, F. G. 1980. 
Cooking characteristics of eating quality of 
broiler chickens fed squid meal. J. Poult. Sci. 
59:2564-2566. 

Ma, C. Y.; Nakai, S. 1980. Carboxyl-modified 
pepsin: Properties and reactions with milk and 
caseins. J. Dairy Sci. 63:705-714. 



Ma, C. Y.; Nakai, S. 1980. Chemical modification 
of carboxyl groups in porcine pepsin. J. Agric. 
Food Chem. 28:834-839. 

Modler, H. W.; Muller, P. G.; Elliot, J. I.; Emmons, 
D. B. 1980. Economic and technical aspects of 
feeding whey to livestock. J. Dairy Sci. 63:838- 
855. 

McKellar, R. C; Charles, A. M.; Butler, B. J. 
1980. Some properties of adenylate kinase 
from chemolithotrophically grown Thiobacil- 
l us novel 7 us. Arch. Microbiol. 124:275-284. 

Paquet, A. 1980. Preparation of some long chain 
A / -acyl derivatives of essential amino acids for 
nutritional studies. Can. J. Biochem. 58:573- 
576. 

Paquet, A.; Sarwar, G. 1980. Determination of 
bioavailability of some long chain A-substi- 
tuted derivatives of L-methionine and L-lysine. 
Can. J. Biochem. 58:577-580. 

Paton, D.; Robertson, G. D.; Tibers, G. E.; Spratt, 
W. A. 1980. Laboratory food extrusion — 
design of a horizontally split barrel. J. Food 

Sci. 45:227. 

Quinn, J. R.; Raymond, D. P.; Harwalkar, V. R. 
1980. Differential scanning calorimetry of 
meat proteins as affected by processing treat- 
ment. J. Food Sci. 45:1 146-1 149. 

Rayan, A. A.; Kalab, M.; Ernstrom, C. A. 1980. 
Microstructure and rheology of process cheese. 
Scanning Electron Microsc. 111:635-643. 

Sahasrabudhe, M. R.; Mullin, W. J. 1980. Dehy- 
dration of horseradish roots. J. Food Sci. 
45:1440-1443. 

Shah, B. G.; Giroux, A.; Belonje, B; Jones, J. D. 
1980. Evaluation of rapeseed protein concen- 
trate as a source of protein in a zinc supple- 
mented diet for young rats. J. Agric. Food 
Chem. 28:36-39. 

Siddiqui, I. R. 1980. A convenient procedure for 
producing gram quantities of brucine L-guluro- 
nate and brucine D-manuronate. Carbohydr. 
Res. 80:343-345. 

Sinha, R. P. 1980. Alteration of host specificity to 
lytic bacteriophages in Streptoccocus cremo- 
sis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40:326-332. 

Sprott, G. D.; McKellar, R. C. 1980. Composition 
and properties of the cell wall of Methanospi- 
rillum hungatii. Can. J. Microbiol. 26:115- 
120. 

Stanley, D. W.; Emmons, D. B.; Modler, H. W.; 
Irvine, D. M. 1980. Cheddar cheese made with 
chicken pepsin. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. 
J. 13:97-102. 



FOOD RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



57 



Wood, P. J. 1980. The interaction of direct dyes 
with water soluble substituted celluloses and 
cereal /3-glucans. Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. 
Dev. 19:19-23. 

Wood, P. J. 1980. Specificity in the interaction of 
direct dyes with polysaccharides. Carbohydr. 
Res. 85:271-287. 

Miscellaneous 

Beckett, D. C; McGugan, W. A.; Emmons, D. B.; 
Nichols, D.; Brackenridge, P. 1979. Denatura- 
tions of skim milk powder with anise oil. 
International report to Canadian Dairy Com- 
mission. 79-1 1-16. 

Fulcher, R. G.; Wood, P. J. 1980. Microchemical 
differentiation of cell wall constituents in 
cereals and cereal products. American Associ- 
ation of Cereal Chemists 65th Annual Meet- 
ing, Chicago, IL. 

Harwalkar, V. R.; Kalab, M. 1980. Rheological 
properties of gels by acidulating skim milk at 
0-90°C. J. Dairy Sci. 63(Suppl. 1):50. 

Harwalkar, V. R.; Sibbitt, D. 1980. A study of 
thermal denaturation of individual proteins in 
whey by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. J. 
Dairy Sci. 63(Suppl. 1):48. 

Harwalkar, V. R.; Kalab, M. 1980. Rheological 
properties and microstructure of gels made by 
acidulating skim milk at 0-90°C. J. Dairy Sci. 
63(Suppl.l):50. 

Holley, R. A. 1980. The potential hazard from 
botulism in cured meats. 60th Annual Meeting 
Meat Packers Council of Canada, Toronto, 
Ont. (Feb.). 

Jenkins, K. J.; Lessard, J. R; Emmons, D. B. 1980. 
Improving the curdforming potential of calf 
milk replacers. Canadex 401.55 (Aug.). 

Klein, K. K.; Salmon, R. E.; Larmond, E. 1980. A 
computer model for assessing the economic 
value of Candle canola meal in diets for 
growing turkeys. 6th Progress Report, Re- 
search on canola seed, oil, meal and meal 
fractions. Canola Council of Canada, Winni- 
peg, Man. Publ. 57:23-26. 

Larmond, E.; Salmon, R. E.; Klein, K. K. 1980. 
Sensory evaluation of turkeys fed diets con- 
taining Candle canola meal. 6th Progress 
Report, Research on canola seed, oil, meal and 
meal fractions. Canola Council of Canada, 
Winnipeg, Man. Publ. 57:103-105. 

Ma, C. Y.; Nakai, S. 1980. Identification of vitamin 
A degradation products responsible for the 
occurrence of hay-like flavor in low-fat milks. 
23rd Annual Meeting Canadian Institute of 
Food Science and Technology. 



Modler, H. W. 1980. Profitability of feeding whey 
to beef cattle. Presented at the Speciality 
Cheese Seminar, University of Guelph, 
Guelph, Ont. (1 May 1980). 

Modler, H. W. 1980. Design features and charac- 
teristics of ultrafiltration equipment commonly 
used in North America. Presented at the 
Canadian Institute of Food Science and Tech- 
nology workshop on membrane technology for 
the food industry, Edmonton, Alta. (May). 

Modler, H. W. 1980. Industrial application of 
membrane processes. Presented at the Cana- 
dian Institute of Food Science and Technology 
workshop on membrane technology for the 
food industry, Edmonton, Alta. (May). 

Modler, H. W. 1980. Recovery and functional- 
properties of ultrafiltered whey protein concen- 
trate prepared by heating under acidic condi- 
tions. Presented at the American Dairy Sci- 
ence Association, Blacksburg, VA. (10 June 
1980). 

Modler, H. W. 1980. Using whey for animal feed 
can lower production costs. Food Can. 40:25. 

Ooma, B.; Reichert, R. D.; Youngs, C. G. 1979. 
Sorghum/millet milling and quality. Interna- 
tional Development Research Centre Project 
File 3-P-78-0008. Progress report #1(15 Jan. 
1979- 15 Aug. 1979). 

Paquet, A. 1980. Long chain acylamino acids for 
potential use as poor quality protein supple- 
ments. Preparation and biological evaluation. 
Paper delivered to the American Chemical 
Society, Las Vegas, NV. (24-29 Aug.). 

Poon, H. H.; Altosaar, I.; Fulcher, R. G; Wood. P. 
J. 1980. A histochemical study of rapeseed. 
American Association of Cereal Chemists 65th 
Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL. (Sept.). 

Proudfoot, K. G.; Mullin, W. J. 1979. Glucosinolate 
content of rutabaga cultivars. Crucifer Im- 
provement Conference, Mount Vernon, WA. 
(July). 

Rayan, A.; Ernstrom, C. A.; Kalab, M. 1980. 
Microstructure and rheology of pasteurized 
process cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 63(Suppl. 1 ):61. 

Salmon, R. E.; Klein, K. K.; Larmond, E. 1980. 
Nutritive value of Candle canola meal in 
turkey broiler diets of varying nutrient densit\ . 
6th Progress Report, Research on canola seed, 
oil, meal and meal fractions. Canola Council of 
Canada, Winnipeg, Man. Publ. 57:1922. 

Siddiqui, I. R. 1980. The stability of L-guluronic 
acid under decarboxylation and hydrolytic 
conditions. Published by the 10th International 
Symposium on carbohydrate chemistry. Syd- 
ney, Australia (July). Abstract Th 10. 



58 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Wood, D. F. 1980. Review of color substitutes for 
nitrite in cured meats. Proceedings of the 60th 
Annual Meeting of Canada Meat Council. 

Wood, D. F.; Froehlich, D. 1980. The effect of 
electrical stimulation on the sensory and physi- 
cal properties of steaks from three grades of 
Canadian beef. Proceedings of a seminar day 
on electrical stimulation of beef carcasses. 
Alberta Department of Agriculture, Edmon- 
ton, Alta. 

Wood, P. J.; Fulcher, R. G. 1980. Applications of 
the interaction of direct dyes with polysaccha- 
rides, in particular cereal y3-glucans. American 



Association of Cereal Chemists 65th Annual 
Meeting, Chicago, IL. (Sept.). 

Zarkadas, C. G. 1979. New methods for studying 
muscular dystrophy and connective tissue dis- 
orders. Abstracts of the 11th International 
Congress of Biochemistry, Toronto, Ont. 
(July) (refereed conference proceedings), p. 
6SH. 

Patents 

Canadian Patent — Acylation of amino acids 1,084,- 
586 (2 Sept. 1980). Listed previously as Patent 
Application, filed 22 Mar. 1977. 



FOOD RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



59 



Land Resource Research Institute 
Ottawa, Ontario 



PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



J. S. Clark, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. Director 

J. C. van Schaik, M.Sc, Ph.D. Deputy Director 

M. B. Trudel Administrative Officer 



Soil Resource Inventory and Mapping 

J. H. Day, B.S.A., M.S. A. Head of Section; Correlation 

J. L. Nowland, B.A., M.Sc. Soil correlation — Eastern 

J. A. Shields, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. Soil correlation— Great Plains 

C. Tarnocai, B.S.F., M.S. Soil correlation — British Columbia 

and North 

Atlantic Soil Survey (Truro) 

G. J. Beke, B.S.A., B.Sc, Ph.D. Head of Unit 

F. Hender, B.Sc. Party leader, Newfoundland 
P. K. Heringa, B.Sc, M.Sc. Party leader, Newfoundland 

D. A. Holmstrom, B.S.A. Party leader, Nova Scotia 

J. I. MacDougall, B.Sc, B.Sc. (Agr.) Party leader, Prince Edward Island 

K. T. Webb, B.Sc, M.Sc. Party leader, Nova Scotia 

R. E. Wells, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. Party leader, New Brunswick 

Quebec Soil Survey (Sainte-Foy) 

J. M. Cossette, B.Sc Head of Unit 

L. Grenon, B.S.A. Party leader 

L. Lamontagne, B.Sc. Party leader 

M. C. Nolin, B.Sc, M.Sc. Party leader 

R. Simard, B.S.A., M.Sc. Party leader 

Ontario Soil Survey (Guelph) 

C. J. Acton, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. Head of Unit 

B. H. Cameron, B.Sc. (Agr.) Party leader 

R. K. Jones, B.Sc, M.Sc. Party leader 

E. W. Presant, B.S.A., M.Sc Party leader 

G. J. Wall, B.S.A., Ph.D. Party leader 

LAND RESOURCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE 61 



Manitoba Soil Survey (Winnipeg) 



R. 


E. 


Smith, B.S.A., 


M.Sc. 




Head of Unit 


R. 


Eilers, B.S.A., M.Sc. 




Party 


leader 


W 


. R 


. Fraser, B.Sc 


., M.Sc 




Party 


leader 


W 


. Michalyna, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Party 


leader 


H. 


Veldhuis, Ing. 






Party 


leader 








Saskatchewan Soil S 


Purvey (Saskatoon) 


D. 


F. 


Acton, B.S.A. 


, M.Sc 


, Ph.D. 


Head of Unit 


A. 


K. 


Ballantyne, 


B.S.A., 


M.Sc 


Party 


leader 


L. 


M. 


Kozak, B.S.A 


., M.Sc 


., Ph.D. 


Party 


leader 


G. 


Padbury, B.S.A., 


M.Sc. 




Party 


leader 


H. 


P. 


W. Rostad, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Party 


leader 


W 


. E. 


Souster, B.A 


., B.S.^ 


,., M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Party 


leader 


H. 


B. 


Stonehouse, ] 


3.S.A., 


M.Sc. 


Party 


leader 










Alberta Soil Survey (Edmonton) 




W 


W 


. Pettapiece, ] 


B.S.A., 


M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Head of Unit 


G. 


M. 


Coen, B.Sc, 


M.Sc, 


Ph.D. 


Party 


leader 


A. 


A. 


Kjearsgaard 


, B.Sc. 




Party 


leader 


T. 


W. 


Peters, B.Sc, 


M.Sc 




Party 


leader 


J. 


Ta. 


iek, Eng. 






Party 


leader 








British Columbia Soil 


Survey (Vancouver) 


T. 


M. 


Lord, B.S.A. 






Head of Unit 


A. 


J. 


Green, B.S.A., 


M.Sc 




Party 


leader 


D. 


E. 


Moon, B.Sc. 






Party 


leader 


K. 


W. 


G. Valentini 


I, B.S.A 


„ M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Party 


leader 


L. 


J. 


P. van Vliet, 


B.S.A., 


M.Sc 


Party 


leader 



Soil Classification 



J. A. McKeague, B.A., B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

C. A. Fox, B.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

J. C. W. Keng, B.S., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

P. E. M. Levesque, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 

G. C. Topp, B.S.A., M.S., Ph.D. 

C. Wang, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

G. Wilson, B.Sc, M.Sc, D.I.C. 



Head of Section; Classification 

Micromorphology 

Physics structure 

Organic soils 

Physics and water 

Chemistry 

Engineering 



Land Use and Evaluation 



J. Dumanski, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

D. R. Coote, M.S., Ph.D. 

J. Culley, B.Sc, M.Sc. 

R. DeJong, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

B. Kloosterman, B.S.A., Ph.D. 



Head of Section 
Degradation 
Water quality 
Water use 
Data system 



62 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



K. B. MacDonald, B.S.A. 
K. Switzer-Howse, B.Sc. 



M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Evaluation 
Information 



Agrometeorology 



A. 


R. Mack, B.S.A. , M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Acting Head of Section; Remote 
sensing 


R. 


L. Dejardins, B.Sc, M.A., Ph.D. 


Micrometeorology 


L. 


M. Dwyer, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Agrometeorology 


S. 


N. Edey, B.Sc. 


Climatology 


H. 


N. Hayhoe, B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 


Biomathematics 


D. 


W. Stewart, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Micrometeorology 



Departures 

W. B. Baier, Diplomlandwirt, Dr. agr., M.Sc. 

Seconded to Branch Coordination and Evaluation 

Directorate, 18 August 1980 
C. E. Ouellet, B.A., B.Sc.A., M.Sc 

Retired 29 December 1980 
R. B. Stewart, B.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Transferred to Regional Development and 

International Affairs, Crop Production Division, 28 

November 1980 



Head of Agrometeorology Section 

Ecoclimatology 
Applications 



VISITING SCIENTIST 



O. Iizuka, Ph.D. 

Transfer of work from College of Agriculture, 
Nikon University, Tokyo, Japan 



Soil classification 



LAND RESOURCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



63 



INTRODUCTION 



The Land Resource Research Institute (LRRI) was established in 1978 to bring together 
the main professional disciplines involved in agricultural land resource studies in Agriculture 
Canada. In 1980, the second year of operation for the Institute, activities continued to focus on 
(/) the assembly and integration of information on land forms, soils, and climate and their 
interactions relative to the evaluation of land resources for potential agricultural and related 
uses; (2) the collection and synthesis of information on the seasonal dynamics of weather and 
its effects on land use and food production; and (5) the undertaking of research as required to 
meet the needs of the first two functions. Regional programs have been maintained through 
regional soil survey units working in cooperation with provincial survey agencies. 

This report briefly outlines the activities and achievements during 1980. Requests for 
details should be addressed to: Land Resource Research Institute, Agriculture Canada, 
Ottawa, Ont. Kl A 0C6. 

J. S. Clark 
Director 



INSTITUTE ROLES 

The activities of LRRI include research, 
development, and services related to Canada's 
land resources. These activities not only 
support other' research within the Research 
Branch but also provide information essential 
to policy and decision making for regional and 
national levels of governments, educational 
institutions, and agribusiness. The Institute in 
pursuit of these activities provides leadership 
and is responsible for a number of national 
programs related to land including those 
outlined below. 

Soil inventory. Soil mapping is done by 
LRRI staff in cooperation with provincial and 
university personnel throughout the nation, 
and correlation provides quality control on 
soil maps and reports. Maps are prepared 
showing the distribution of soils and land 
capability for various potential uses. 

Canada Soil Information System (Can- 
SIS). Soil survey, soil management, crop 
yield, and cartographic data are stored in a 
computerized system so as to be available to 
users throughout Canada. 

Soil taxonomy and interpretations. Im- 
provements are developed in taxonomic and 
interpretive soil classification systems through 
research and integration of information from 
many sources. 

Land evaluation. Soils, climate, agronomic, 
and economic data are being integrated to 
develop improved methodology for predicting 



crop yield potentials and assessing the quality 
of the land resources of Canada for various 
uses. 

Agrometeorological data archive. Agrome- 
teorological data and processing services are 
provided. 

Crop information system and agroelimatic 
resources. Procedures are developed for moni- 
toring the areal distribution of growing 
conditions and crop production prospects from 
meteorological, environmental, remotely 
sensed agroelimatic, and crop statistical data. 
Agroelimatic resources are assessed as a 
means of providing information for efficient 
management of agricultural resources. 

Committees 

LRRI contributes to the integration of 
land-related activities of Agriculture Canada 
and other federal and provincial agencies 
through participation in a number of commit- 
tees. These include: 

• Canada Committee on Land Resource 
Services (CCLRS) and the associated 
expert committees 

• Provincial agricultural services coordinat- 
ing committees and soil survey commit- 
tees 

• Canada Committee on Ecological Land 
Classification 

• Interdepartmental Committee on Land 
Use 

• Interdepartmental Committee on Water 



64 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



• Geotechnical Committee of the National 
Research Council and the Peatland Sub- 
committee 

• Canada Advisory Committee on Remote 
Sensing 

• Committee on Great Lakes Water Qual- 
ity 

• Interdepartmental Committee on Air 
Surveys. 



INSTITUTE PROGRESS AND 
ACHIEVEMENTS DURING 1980 

Soil resource inventory and mapping 

The soil resource inventory and mapping 
program involves personnel of the soil survey 
units throughout Canada and a group at 
headquarters of the Land Resource Research 
Institute in Ottawa concerned with soil corre- 
lation and cartography. The survey projects 
are conducted in cooperation with personnel 
of provincial agencies according to priorities 
that are established in the provinces through 
consultation and mutual agreements. Many of 
the federal soil survey units share offices and 
other facilities with their provincial counter- 
parts. The report that follows includes only 
the resource inventory and mapping carried 
out by the federal soil survey staff. 

Newfoundland. The introductory sections 
of the Gander Lake report, and the soil and 
capability maps, as well as the manuscript 
report and maps for the Terra Nova develop- 
ment area, were completed. The field work in 
Red Indian Lake - Burgeo was completed. 
The Bonavista report was edited and revised. 
The Codroy report was published. 

Prince Edward Island. Manuscript maps 
were compiled and the 1:10 000 maps were 
generalized to 1:75 000 for the remainder of 
Prince County, and the preparation of the 
accompanying soil report is in progress. 
Observation wells at five sites were installed 
and monitored. 

Nova Scotia. A high-intensity pilot soil 
survey project in Kings County was orga- 
nized; 2400 ha were mapped for land plan- 
ning. Mapping in Pictou County was com- 
pleted. In addition, the Cape Breton 
Development Corporation site near Sydney 
was mapped and a draft report compiled. 
Preliminary photo interpretation was com- 
pleted for Hants County. Erosion plots and 
wells were monitored. 



New Brunswick. The soil report for the 
Richibucto-Rogersville area was revised. The 
draft report and preliminary map for the 
Sussex project (phase 1) was completed and 
part of the phase 2 area was mapped. Field 
checking and map compilation was completed 
in the Chipman-Harcourt area. Soils were 
mapped and sampled in the St. John River 
valley area as part of a contribution to the 
study of soil erosion in the province. The soil 
report for Madawaska County was published. 

Quebec. Saint-Hyacinthe County was 
mapped (1:20 000 scale), and manuscript 
maps were compiled for the north half. 
Reconnaissance-intensity mapping was con- 
ducted in parts of Richelieu County in order 
to establish the mapping legend for the 
detailed survey to be initiated in 1981. In 
addition, 30 observation wells were installed 
and monitored. 

Ontario. The report for the Ottawa urban 
fringe was published, as was a field manual 
for describing soils. Mapping was completed 
in Ottawa-Carleton. Checking and correla- 
tion was completed in Norfolk-Haldimand, 
and 90% of the mapping was completed in 
Ottawa-Carleton regional municipalities. All 
interim maps and legends were completed, 
and manuscript reports are being prepared for 
both areas. Specifications for Niagara and 
Durham projects were completed and prepa- 
rations for fieldwork were initiated, such as 
transects of representative landscapes. In 
addition, half of the Timmins-Rouyn-No- 
randa report was completed, as well as parts 
of the Brant report, of the Sudbury legend, 
and of the Sault Ste. Marie - Blind River 
extended legend. Draft reports for Dryden- 
Kenora, Fort Frances - Rainy River, Ville 
Maire - North Bay, and Gogoma sheets were 
completed. Guidelines were established for 
soil suitability interpretations for tobacco and 
woodlands, and others are under development 
for horticultural crops. Methodology was 
developed for interpretation of erosion poten- 
tial of soils, and Brant County soils were rated 
accordingly. A cooperative program with the 
Ministry of Natural Resources to develop 
mapping and classification systems suitable 
for forestry purposes was further developed; 
staff was trained, and 250 plots were charac- 
terized and sampled. 

Manitoba. Approximately 107 000 ha in 13 
selected areas of southern Manitoba were 
resurveyed. This included mostly urbanizing 



LAND RESOURCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



65 



areas, land around small rural townsites, and 
provincial parks. Reports and maps were 
published for 14 areas including Ste. Rose du 
Lac, Minnewasta, Killarney, Rockwood, 
Glenboro, Sandy Lake, north shore Lac du 
Bonnet - Bird River, Paint Lake, Cranberry 
Portage, Beauséjour, Matlock-Gimli-River- 
ton, Dauphin, West Interlake, and organic 
study areas near Hadashville. Soil landscape 
and physiographic region maps at a scale of 
1:1 000 000 were compiled. 

Saskatchewan. The manuscript of the 
Swift Current report was completed. The 
Hudson Bay - Swan Lake report has pro- 
gressed to the editing stage. Mapping was 
conducted on 376 000 ha in the Melville - 
Riding Mountain area, and five preliminary 
rural municipality maps were printed and 
distributed in those municipalities. In addi- 
tion, eight maps were compiled. In the 
Battleford area work was conducted to estab- 
lish a mapping legend and to compile a pilot 
map and report of the distribution in the 
region of acid soils for use by extension 
specialists. Monitoring of saline soil and 
groundwater sites has shown that reclamation 
of salt-affected soils will be a slow if not 
impossible task with normal agronomic man- 
agement practices. Deep-plowing experiments 
have shown that yield increases are possible. 

Alberta. The report for Newell County was 
completed and submitted for publication. The 
survey of Warner County is 80% completed; 
preliminary soil maps were released to the 
Irrigation Division of the Alberta Department 
of Agriculture. For the Banff-Jasper national 
parks project the maps and legends were 
completed and submitted for processing. The 
Yoho National Park biophysical map was 
submitted for printing; a report is nearly 
completed. A small-scale map of Solonetzic 
soils was completed. Another small-scale map 
of physiographic areas of the province was 
compiled and amended. 

British Columbia. The Taseko Lakes maps 
were completed. Quesnel area soil maps and 
report are in the process of publication. The 
Lac La Hache - Clinton report was pub- 
lished. The Horsefly and Barkerville reports 
were compiled. Soil-vegetation relationships 
were reported for the Cariboo Wetlands and 
Power River project areas. The Mill-Wood- 
fibre creeks report was completed and submit- 
ted for editing. Gulf Islands phase 1 maps and 
interim report were completed. Mapping was 



conducted in priority areas of Saltspring 
Island (part of Gulf Islands phase 2). New 
plots were installed to measure erosion losses 
in the Peace River area. Soil and wheat 
suitability maps were submitted to cartogra- 
phy and a draft report was completed for 
Basuto and Balangida-Lelu sheets in 
Tanzania. 

Ottawa. Soil correlation studies were con- 
ducted in cooperation with regional correla- 
tors in many areas: Valemount, McBride, and 
south Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands 
(B.C.); selected areas in the Yukon; Melville 
area (Sask.); Warner area (Alta.); Portage la 
Prairie and Morden (Man.); and 16 other 
areas in Eastern Canada. Soil reports were 
edited for Port au Port, Cormack, Prince 
Edward Island, Bonavista, Iosegun, Hudson 
Bay, Newell. Recommended soil correlation 
procedures were tested; modification of the 
procedures was undertaken. The soil tempera- 
ture installation at Inuvik was serviced and a 
report on soil temperatures was completed. A 
paper on soil temperatures in northcentral 
Keewaten was published. Mapping was com- 
pleted in the Firth and Horton rivers area; the 
map and report compilation is under way. An 
outline was completed for a proposed "Man- 
ual of soil survey procedures." 

Cartography. Maps completed were: soils 
62, special projects 136, miscellaneous LRRI 
65, other agencies 87. A total of 93 maps were 
added to the CanSIS system, 82 maps were 
completed, and 142 derived maps were gener- 
ated. In addition, 46 maps were completed for 
the Canada Land Inventory (CLI) and Land 
Use Information. An index to soil surveys and 
a soil map color specification book were 
published. A change in priorities by Lands 
Directorate saw nine maps of a coastal zone 
resource folio completed in lieu of CLI maps. 
The French edition of Canada's Resource 
Lands Atlas was completed. 

Soil classification 

Research of the soil classification section is 
related to soil inventory and soil interpreta- 
tions. It contributes to increased understand- 
ing of soil genesis and behavior and to 
improved classification and interpretations of 
soils for various uses. Progress is outlined for 
each of the three projects: organic soils, 
mineral soils, and soil water-structure. 

Organic soils. A monograph was published 
on the basic properties of some organic soils 



66 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



from Quebec and Ontario. The most useful 
properties were identified for differentiation 
and classification of these soils. Greenhouse 
studies were completed on the effects of lime 
and copper added to organic soil material on 
plant growth and composition, and on peat 
decomposition. Grasses grew well on peat 
limed only to pH 3.6 and subsidence of this 
peat could be reduced by addition of copper. 
Plants grown on the copper-enriched soil were 
not excessively enriched in copper. Work at 
the University of Montreal supported by an 
Energy, Mines, and Resources grant showed 
that the botanical origin of peat materials can 
be determined by study of partly decomposed 
fragments. Five research and two miscella- 
neous articles were published on characteri- 
zation, subsidence, chemistry, and botany of 
organic soils. 

Mineral soils. Results from this project 
contribute to the basic knowledge of Cana- 
dian soils, and to improved mapping, interpre- 
tation, and classification. The transect method 
for assessing the variability of soils was tested 
further and it is being used by several soil 
survey units to improve the quality of soil 
surveys. The pedotechnical system of inter- 
preting soil survey information for engineer- 
ing applications was revised and it is being 
tested by three soil survey units. The sensitiv- 
ity to acid rain of soils in Eastern Canada was 
evaluated, and a map and report were pre- 
pared. Micromorphological analysis of Cryo- 
solic soils (shallow permafrost) showed new 
microfabric features related to cryoturbation 
(frost churning). Podzolic soils developed in 
situ from granite in New Brunswick were 
found to contain gibbsite in the horizons least 
affected by pedogenesis. Energy-dispersive 
X-ray analysis was used in determining the 
composition of unknown features seen in thin 
sections of soils from British Columbia; pyrite 
and sponge spicules were identified in a 
marine soil. Imogolite, a fibrous, tubular, 
microcrystalline, hydrous aluminum silicate, 
was identified in the clay fraction of cemented 
horizons of some British Columbia soils. 
Eluvial horizons (Ae) of some Gleysolic soils 
were found to be as markedly depleted of Mn, 
Co, Ni, and Cu as those of Podzolic soils. A 
total of eight research and five miscellaneous 
papers were published on specific topics in the 
field of soil characterization, interpretation, 
taxonomy, and genesis. 



The Service laboratory analyzed some 3300 
samples (total of some 20 000 determina- 
tions) mainly for the Atlantic Provinces soil 
survey unit and for projects at LRRI, Ottawa. 
Other clients were the Ottawa Research 
Station and other federal agencies without 
facilities for soil analysis. Improvements of 
methods and organization of the laboratory 
resulted in increased efficiency. 

Soil water-structure. Time domain reflec- 
trometry (TDR) was developed further as a 
convenient, versatile technique for measuring 
soil water both in the field and in laboratory 
experiments. Results showed that the TDR 
method measures the total quantity of liquid 
water regardless of soil type, density, salt 
content, or temperature. A variety of probe 
configurations designed to suit experimental 
requirements were tested and used success- 
fully in determining soil water in the field and 
laboratory. The technique is beginning to be 
used by several research agencies in both 
Canada and the United States. 

The spatial variability of soil water proper- 
ties, such as hydraulic conductivity and 
desorption properties, was found to be very 
large within similar map units in the Ottawa 
area. For the soils studied, structure appeared 
to be the dominant feature determining the 
magnitude of hydraulic conductivity. Rela- 
tionships between soil structure and soil water 
properties are being studied at four sites; 
three of these were instrumented for measure- 
ment of precipitation, water table, water 
content, and temperature. Comparisons were 
made of measurements of saturated hydraulic 
conductivity by three methods, and descrip- 
tions were made of macroporosity, micropo- 
rosity, and structure with a view to relating 
porosity to hydraulic conductivity. Data of 
laboratory studies of water flow and retention 
in columns of structured soils are being 
analyzed and related to the data on porosity 
and hydraulic conductivity. 

Land use and evaluation 

The land use and evaluation program is 
directed to the development of new and 
improved systems for integrating and inter- 
preting soil climate, landform, agronomic and 
economic data, for evaluating the production 
potential of land for various alternate agricul- 
tural uses. Activities and progress within each 
of the four projects that make up the program 
are as follows. 



LAND RESOURCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



67 



Canada Soil Information System (Can- 
SISj. Improvements were made in the com- 
puter system for storage and retrieval of soil 
map data, experimental yield data, and soil 
site data. Testing has been completed on some 
data base management software packages: 
RAPID, EASYTRIEVE, SAS, and 
DREAM. These have been adopted for use 
and several computer files can now be interro- 
gated simultaneously. This constitutes a 
major development toward a fully opera- 
tional, computerized soil information system. 
Work is ongoing to convert all existing files to 
this system. 

Computerized procedures have been com- 
pleted for logging soil maps through the 
system, a routine was developed to plot 
unedited map data, and analyses were com- 
pleted to accommodate the input for very 
large soil maps. Two papers were prepared 
dealing with procedures for producing derived 
maps and the development of computerized 
extended legends. A report was published 
describing a standard computerized format 
for polygon data exchange between large 
geographic information systems. 

A standardized output has been developed 
for the performance/management file, and a 
software package that plots the geographic 
location of data stored in various files was 
instituted. The Soil Names and Atlantic 
Daily files were revised. The soil, wildlife, and 
vegetation data files maintained for Parks 
Canada were improved. 

Procedures have been developed to initiate 
standard requests (output) through remote 
terminals. A general user's manual describing 
all required commands is being drafted, and 
training procedures are being developed for 
new nonspecialist users. These procedures will 
make CanSIS available to all users 
throughout Canada. 

Crop production potentials. A special 
paper on spring wheat production potentials 
was prepared for the Prairie Production 
Symposium. Experimental and actual crop 
yield data contained in CanSIS were used to 
calculate cr yield potentials for Ontario. 
Equations for predicting soil physical proper- 
ties were assessed for regional application. 
Agroclimatic maps for the Great Plains were 
completed (1:1 000 000) and these are cur- 
rently being evaluated. A bulletin on lime 
requirements for soils was prepared. Work is 
in progress to produce a manual describing 



soil and climate requirements for economi- 
cally important crops in Canada. 

Resource protection. Bulletins were pre- 
pared on land degradation in Canada, land 
management practices for pollution abate- 
ment in the Great Lakes basin, and on the 
effects of pipeline construction on farmland 
productivity. A series of scientific papers were 
compiled on agriculture and water quality; 
nitrogen, phosphorus, and liquid manure 
runoff to the Great Lakes; and the deteriora- 
tion of Canadian soil resources. Also, two 
reports on acid rain in Eastern Canada were 
prepared. New studies were initiated on 
unlined manure-storage, phosphorus and ni- 
trate leaching through tile drains, and soir 
erodibility. 

Land use and socioeconomic evaluation. A 
report describing Canadian crop production 
potentials for spring wheat, corn, potato, 
soybean, and phaseolus bean has been pub- 
lished, using results compiled from a com- 
puterized national land potential data base. 
Work is ongoing to prepare a user's manual 
for the data base so as to make these data 
available through remote terminals in all 
regions in Canada. Agricultural land use 
systems maps have been published for the 
Ottawa-Carleton area; similar maps for the 
Melville region, Saskatchewan, are being 
prepared. The Niagara agricultural land use 
survey has been completed, and maps are 
being prepared. A report entitled "Impacts of 
energy supplies on land needs for agriculture 
in Ontario" has been prepared by the Univer- 
sity of Guelph land evaluation research team. 
This is the first of a series of reports that will 
be prepared by the team. 

AGROMETEOROLOGY 

Agrometeorology is concerned with the 
interaction of hydrometeorological factors 
and soils as they affect agriculture and food 
supply. Discovery and definition of these 
relationships and application of this informa- 
tion toward more effective land use and crop 
production are of primary concern. Progress 
reported for 1980 is as follows. 

Applications. The Soil Moisture Evaluation 
Project (SMEP) was used for the preparation 
of a number of special reports relative to the 
1980 drought in Western Canada. Documen- 
tation of the Versatile Soil Moisture Budget 
was completed and a scientific paper pub- 
lished. A climatic analysis was made of data 



6 s 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



from nine stations in northern Ontario. Two 
technical reports were prepared relative to 
fieldwork days in Canada and the weather 
risk in harvesting hay. Data processing sup- 
port was provided to a number of projects to 
include soil moisture, grasshopper prediction, 
soil temperature, yield prediction, and crop- 
weather modeling. Progress was made in 
developing an interactive computer-ased agro- 
meteorological information service for on-line 
usage in Agriculture Canada's AGNET 
system. 

Crop information. Yield estimates for 
wheat, barley, and oats for the crop districts 
in Western Canada were provided in 1980 on 
a weekly basis from May to 31 July 1980 to 
the Commodity Markets Analyses Division, 
Marketing and Economics Branch (formerly 
Production and Marketing Branch). Produc- 
tion estimates in July based on derived yields 
and estimated hectarage agreed well with the 
final harvest estimates provided by Statistics 
Canada in November. Landsat imagery of 
major wheat growing areas was obtained to 
estimate cereal production. Microwave imag- 
ery was acquired at the Central Experimental 
Farm and Guelph radar test sites under the 
Interdepartmental Sursat Program to evalu- 
ate its suitability for analytical all-weather 
crop assessment. 

The soil moisture estimation component of 
a wheat yield model was improved by testing 
statistical procedures to simulate soil water 
uptake by plant roots, taking into account root 
density. A site was set up at the Central 
Experimental Farm to obtain measurements 
related to latent heat and frost depth to 
provide data for modeling soil temperatures 
for snow-covered and snow-free areas. 

Agroclimatic resources. Computer map- 
ping of various agroclimatic variables for the 
Canadian Great Plains was carried out. The 
climatic data was mapped at a scale 
1:1 000 000 for the Great Plains Region (18 
sheets). A model for assessing general winter 
survival conditions for alfalfa across Canada 



wa's completed. This study utilized survival 
conditions at 43 locations for over 10 years. 
Twenty-two new maps for inclusion in the 
Agroclimatic Atlas were completed. They 
involved mean soil temperatures at various 
depths for all of Canada and mean dates when 
soil tempertures at 20 cm rise or fall below 
0°C in Eastern Canada. The climatic normals 
from 1941 to 1970 for the prairies are now 
available for: a) mapping the weather deficit 
(irrigation requirements) at the 50% probabil- 
ity for each of four soil texture classes; b) 
mapping the Aridity Indices for annual spring 
wheat production for four soil texture classes. 

Crop-weather analyses. The exchange of 
C0 2 and water vapor with the adjacent 
atmosphere over a corn crop were measured 
using the eddy-correlation technique for 
developing a system to evaluate absorption of 
C0 2 and transpiration of water from a crop. 
Measurements were made on site for small 
areas and on board an aircraft for larger 
areas. Supplementary measurements were 
made to compare C0 2 and water exchange 
with growth rates and growing conditions 
(leaf area index, yield, temperature, soil 
moisture, and biomass). 

Spectral measurements using a data 
processing system were made on several crops 
and crop densities in order to obtain a rapid 
measurement of leaf area index. A laboratory 
version of a microprocessor-based system for 
measuring soil moisture was completed and a 
report on the description of the unit was 
written. 

Water extraction patterns were obtained 
under several soil textures and environmental 
growing conditions for application in testing 
an évapotranspiration model to clarify 
changes in leaf water potential with respect to 
atmospheric and soil water conditions. 

Scientific and technical papers were also 
published on overwintering of nursery plants 
in containers, on litter decomposition, on 
nonlinear least square analysis, and on de- 
scription of an open-path C0 2 analyzer that 
will be used to measure the rate of growth of 
crops directly. 



LAND RESOURCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



69 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Achuff, P.; Coen, G. M. 1980. Subalpine Cryosolic 
soils in Banff and Jasper national parks. Can. 
J.SoilSci.60(3):579-582. 

Ballantyne, A. K. 1980. Ameliorating effect of 
dolomite on soils that had received heavy 
applications of potassium refinery dust. Can. J. 
Soil Sci. 60:23-29. 

Ballantyne, A. K.; Anderson, D. W.; Stonehouse, 
H. B. 1980. Problems associated with extract- 
ing Fe and Al from Saskatchewan soils by 
pyrophosphate and low speed centrifugation. 
Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:141-143. 

Coote, D.; Hore, F. R. 1979. Contamination of 
shallow groundwater by an unpaved feedlot. 
Can. J. Soil Sci. 59:401-412. 

DeJong, R.; Shaykewich, C. F.; Reimer, A. 1980. 
The calculation of the net radiation flux. Arch. 
Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 
28:353-363. 

DeJong, R.; Shaykewich, C. F.; Reimer, A. 1980. 
The net radiation flux and its prediction at 
Pinawa, Manitoba. Agric. Meteorol. 22:217- 
225. 

Desjardins, R. L.; Chong, C. 1980. Unheated 
environments for overwintering nursery plants 
in containers. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:895-902. 

Desjardins, R. L.; Ouellet, C. E. 1980. Determina- 
tion of the importance of various phases of 
wheat growth on final yield. Agric. Meteorol. 
J. 22:129-136. 

Dumanski, J.; Marshall, I. B.; Huffman, E. C. 
1979. Soil capability analysis for regional land 
use planning — a study of the Ottawa urban 
fringe. Can. J. Soil Sci. 59:363-379. 

Dumanski, J.; Pawluk, S.; Vucetich, C. G.; Lindsay, 
J. D. 1980. Pedogenesis and tephrochronology 
of loess derived soils, Hinton, Alberta. Can. J. 
Earth Sci. 17:52-59. 

Dyer, J. A.; Baier, W. 1979. An index for soil 
moisture drying patterns. Can. Agric. Eng. 
21:117-118. 

Dyer, J. A.; Baier, W. 1979. Weather-based estima- 
tion of field workdays in fall. Can. Agric. Eng. 
21:119-122. 

Dyer, J. A.; Baier, W. 1980. The influence of zones 
in budgeting plant available soil moisture. Can. 
Agric. Eng. 22:65-70. 

Hayhoe, H. N. 1980. Calculation of workday 
probabilities by accumulation over subpcriods. 
Can. Agric. Eng. 22:71-75. 



Lévesque, M.; Dinel, H.; Marcoux, R. 1980. Evalu- 
ation des critères de différenciation pour la 
classification de 92 matériaux tourbeux du 
Québec et de l'Ontario. Can. J. Soil Sci. 
60:479-486. 

Mack, A. R.; Brach, E. J.; Rao, V. R. 1980. 
Changes in spectral characteristics of cereal 
crops with physiological development. Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:41 1-417. 

Mathur, S. P.; Lévesque, M. 1980. Relationship 
between acid phosphatase activities and de- 
composition rate of twenty-two virgin peat 
materials. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 
11:151-162. 

McKeague, J. A.; Guertin, R. K.; Valentine, K. W. 
G.; Bélisle, J.; Bourbeau, G. A.; Howell, A.; 
Michalyna, W.; Hopkins, L.; Page, F.; Bres- 
son, L. M. 1980. Estimating illuvial clay in 
soils by micromorphology. Soil Sci. 129:386- 
388. 

McKeague, J. A.; Protz, R. 1980. Cement of duric 
horizons, micromorphology and energy disper- 
sive analysis. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:45-52. 

McKeague, J. A.; Sheldrick, B. H. 1980. Micro- 
morphology and energy dispersive X-ray anal- 
ysis of features of a soil from Vancouver 
Island. Soil Sci. 130:258-263. 

McKeague, J. A.; Wang, C. 1980. Micromorphol- 
ogy and energy dispersive analysis of ortstein 
horizons of Podzolic soils from New Brunswick 
and Nova Scotia, Canada. Can. J. Soil Sci. 
60:9-21. 

McKeague, J. A.; Wolynetz, M. S. 1980. Back- 
ground levels of minor elements in some 
Canadian soils. Geoderma 24:299-307. 

Morita, H.; Lévesque, M. 1980. Monosaccharide 
composition of peat fractions based on particle 
size. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:285-289. 

Morita, H.: Lévesque, M.; Mills, G. F. 1980. The 
deoxy-sugars and other neutral monosaccha- 
rides derived from Riverton Manitoba organic 
soil profiles. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:21 1-217. 

Tarnocai, C. 1980. Summer temperatures of Cryo- 
solic soils in the norlhcentral Keewaten. 
N.W.T. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:31 1-327. 

Tinker, R. W.; Brach, E. J.; LaCroix, L. J.; Mack, 
A. R.; Oushinsky. G. 1979. Classification of 
land use and crop maturity, types and diseases 
status by remote reflectance measurements. 
Agron. J. 71:992-1000. 

Topp, G. C; Davis, J. L.; Annan. E. P. 1980. 
Electromagnetic determination of soil water 
content: Measurements in coaxial transmission 
lines. Water Resour. Res. 16:574-582. 



70 



Rl SI ARCH BRWC H RI PORT 1980 



Topp, G. C; Zebchuk, W. D.; Dumanski, J. 1980. 
The variation of in situ measured soil water 
properties within soil map units. Can. Soil Sci. 
60:497-509. 

Valentine, K. W. G.; Chang, D. 1980. Map units in 
controlled and uncontrolled legends on some 
Canadian soil maps. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:51 1- 
516. 

Valentine, K. W. G.; Fladmark, K. R.; Spurling, B. 
E. 1980. The description, chronology and 
correlation of buried soils and cultural layers in 
a terrace section, Peace River Valley, British 
Columbia. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:185-197. 

Van Vliet, L. J. P.; Mackintosh, E. E.; Hoffman, D. 
W. 1979. Effects of land capability on apple 
production in Southern Ontario. Can. J. Soil 
Sci. 59:163-175. 

Van Vliet, L. J. P.; Wall, G. J. 1979. Comparison of 
predicted and measured sheet and rill erosion 
losses in Southern Ontario. Can. J. Soil Sci. 
59:211-213. 

Wang, C; Rees, H. W. 1980. Characteristics and 
classification of noncemented sandy soils in 
New Brunswick. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:7 1-81. 

Miscellaneous 

Acton, D. J. 1980. Nonagronomic soil interpreta- 
tions. Minutes 2nd Annual Meeting Expert 
Committee Soil Survey, Ottawa, Ont., Land 
Resource Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada, pp. 1 12-127. 

Acton, D. F.; Dumanski, J.; Stewart, R. B. 1980. 
Land resources of the Prairie Provinces for 
grain production. Prairie Production Sympo- 
sium, Canadian Wheat Board Advisory 
Committee. 

Acton, D. F.; Padbury, G. A.; Kraft, S. 1980. A 
multicategorical classification of agricultural 
land in Saskatchewan: A base for land evalua- 
tion. Minutes 2nd Annual Meeting Expert 
Committee Soil Survey, Ottawa, Ont., Land 
Resource Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada, pp. 266-292. 

Baier, W. 1979. Planning for the future in agricul- 
tural meteorology. World Meteorol. Org. Bull. 
29(l):21-23. 

Baier, W.; Mack, A. R.; Shields, J. A. 1979. Crop 
information systems. Minutes 1st Annual 
Meeting Expert Committee Soil Survey, Ot- 
tawa, Ont., Land Resource Research Institute, 
Agriculture Canada, pp. 50-60. 

Bélisle, J. 1980. Field manual for describing soils. 
Ontario Institute Pedology, University of 
Guelph, Guelph, Ont. 



Brennan, V.; Buchanan, J.; MacDonald, K. B. 
1980. Spatial display plot package, use manual 
and examples. Internal Report. 1 1 pp. 

British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture. 1979. 
Soil erosion in British Columbia Peace River 
region. Van Vliet, L. J. P., in cooperation with 
the Peace River Soil Conservation Committee. 

Chagarlamudi, P.; Schubert, J. S.; Mack, A. R. 
1980. Mapping growing conditions of crops 
from Landsat data. 1980 Machine Processing 
of Remotely Sensed Data Symposium. Purdue 
University (abstract), p. 121 

Coote, D. R., editor. 1980. CANCID Newsletter, 
Canadian National Committee on Irrigation 
and and Drainage, Agriculture Canada. No. 
15, July. 11 pp. 

Coote, D. R. 1980. Agriculture and water quality in 
the Canadian Great Lakes Basin/L'Agricul- 
ture et la qualité de l'eau dans le bassin des 
Grands Lacs. Can. Agric. 25( 1 ):3-6/7- 1 1 . 

Coote, D. R. 1980. Soil degradation in Canada: 
Assessment of location and extent. Minutes 
2nd Annual Meeting Expert Committee Soil 
Survey, Ottawa, Ont., Land Resource Re- 
search Institute, Agriculture Canada, pp. 301- 
303. 

Coote, D. R. 1980. The deterioration of agricultural 
land. Agrologist 9(4): 12-14. 

Crown P. H.; Mack, A. R. 1979. Proceedings 8th 
Meeting Agriculture Working Group of the 
Canadian Advisory Committee on Remote 
Sensing. Nova Scotia Land Survey Institute, 
Lawrencetown, N.S. 86 pp. 

Day, J. H. 1980. Establishment of terms of refer- 
ence for survey projects. Minutes 2nd Annual 
Meeting Expert Committee Soil Survey, Ot- 
tawa, Ont., Land Resource Research Institute, 
Agriculture Canada, pp. 148-155. 

Day, J. H. 1980. Minutes 2nd Annual Meeting 
Expert Committee Soil Survey, Ottawa, Ont., 
Land Resource Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada. 305 pp. 

Desjardins, R. L.; Stewart, D. W.; Dwyer, L. M. 
1980. Crop-weather analysis — Objective and 
methodology. Agronomy Abstracts, American 
Society of Agronomy. 10 pp. 

Dumanski, J. 1980. The agricultural land resource. 
Agrologist 9(5): 15- 17. 

Dumanski, J.; Stewart, R. B. 1980. Crop produc- 
tion potentials for land evaluation in Canada. 
Land Resource Research Institute Technical 
Bulletin, Agriculture Canada. 79 pp. 

Dyer, J. A. 1980. Fall field workdays in Canada. 
Agrometerology Section, Research Branch, 
Agriculture Canada. Tech. Bull. 92. 60 pp. 



LAND RESOURCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



Dyer, J. A. 1980. Weather risks for harvesting hay 
at selected sites in Canada. Agrometeorology 
Section, Research Branch, Agriculture 
Canada. Tech. Bull. 91. 66 pp. 

Dyer, J. A.; Baier, W. 1980. Weather and farm 
field work. Can. Agric. 25( 1 ):26-28. 

Dwyer, L. M.; Desjardins, R. L; Stewart, D. W. 
1980. Biological observations in a corn field. 
Agrometeorology Section, Research Branch, 
Agriculture Canada. Misc. Bull. 16. 22 pp. 

Dwyer, L. M.; Desjardins, R. L.; Stewart, D. W. 
1980. Meteorological factors influencing a corn 
crop. Agrometeorology Section, Research 
Branch, Agriculture Canada. Misc. Bull. 17. 
33 pp. 

Eilers, R. G. 1 980. Status of soil salinity research in 
Manitoba. Presentation to Saskatchewan Soil 
Salinity Workshop No. 8, 20 Feb. 1980. 
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. 

Eilers, R. G.; Halstead, B. E. 1980. Soils of the 
Dauphin Area. Canada-Manitoba Soil Survey 
Report No. D34, Department of Soil Science, 
University of Manitoba. 

Energy, Mines, and Resources. 1979. Standard 
format for the transfer of geocoded informa- 
tion in spatial data polygon files. Canada 
Council on Remote Sensing. Prepared by the 
Interdepartmental Spatial Data Transfer 
Committee. Canada Centre for Remote Sens- 
ing, Ottawa, Ont. Res. Rep. 79-3. 63 pp. 

Fraser, W. R.; Veldhuis, H.; Mills, G. F. 1980. 
Soils of the Bird River - North Shore Lac du 
Bonnet Area. Canada-Manitoba Soil Survey, 
Department of Soil Science, University of 
Manitoba. Soils Rep. Nos. D29 and D30. 50 
pp. and map. 

Fraser, W. R.; Veldhuis, H.; Mills, G. F. 1980. 
Whiteshell project — Preliminary maps, legend, 
and interpretations. Canada-Manitoba Soil 
Survey, Department of Soil Science, Univer- 
sity of Manitoba. Rep. No. D40. 

Garron, L. 1980. Status of the operational yield 
model used in forecasting cereal crop yields for 
the Canadian prairies. Agrometeorology Sec- 
tion, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada. 
Internal Rep. 38. 20 pp. 

Geib, P. C; Crown, P. H.; Mack, A. R. 1980. 
Bibliography on application of remote sensing 
and aerial photography to agricultural crops, 
soil resource and land use. Supplement to 
1978. Agrometeorology Section, Research 
Branch, Agriculture Canada. 1 30 pp. 

Halstead, R. L.; Dumanski, J. 1980. A strategy for 
agricultural land resource research for 
Canada. Special Publication Canadian Com- 
mittee Land Resource Service, Agriculture 
Canada. 31 pp. 



Hayhoe, H. N. 1980. Mathematical model of plant 
root systems and soil-water uptake. Proceed- 
ings 2nd International Conference Mathemati- 
cal Modelling, pp.937-946. 

Hayhoe, H. N. Solar radiation and sunshine dura- 
tion relationship. Agric. Can. Misc. Rep. 20. 

Hayhoe, H. N.; Sharp, W. R. 1980. Markov chain 
probability modelling computer program. 
Agrometeorology Section, Research Branch, 
Agriculture Canada. Tech. Bull. 89. 58 pp. 

Hopkins, L.; Smith, R. E. 1980. Organic soil study 
of the Hadashville area. Canada-Manitoba 
Soil Survey, Department of Soil Science, 
University of Manitoba. Rep. No. D38. 

Keng, J. C. W.; Lin, C. 1980. Two straight line 
approximation of hydraulic conductivity - 
pressure head function in structured soils. 
Titles and abstracts, Annual Meeting Cana- 
dian Society of Soil Science, Edmonton, Alta. 
pp. 15, 16. 

Kozak, L. M. 1980. The soils of the Swift Current 
sewage effluent irrigation research project. 
Saskatchewan Institute of Pedology. No. M52. 

Langmaid, K. K.; MacMillan, J. K.; Losier, J. G. 
1980. Soils of Madawaska County, New 
Brunswick. New Brunswick Department of 
Agriculture and Rural Development, Box 
6000, Fredericton, N.B. 

Lévesque, M. 1980. Report on organic soil condi- 
tioners prepared from mixed wood bark. Sub- 
mitted to Domtar Co. in Cornwall, Ont. 

Lévesque, M.; Mathur, S. P. 1980. Uptake of 
copper by oats grown on a muck soil containing 
high level of Cu, and on mixtures of the muck 
with various mineral sublayers. 1980 Meeting 
Ontario Vegetable Research Committee 
(Dec). 

Lévesque, M.; Morita, H.; Schnitzer, M.; Mathur, 
S. P. 1980. The physical, chemical, and mor- 
phological features of some Quebec and On- 
tario peats. Land Resource Research Institute. 
Agriculture Canada. Publ. 62. 70 pp. 

MacDonald, K. B. 1980. Development of basic 
levels of output from the soil performance and 
management. File of CanSIS. Minutes 2nd 
Annual Meeting Expert Committee Soil Sur- 
vey, Ottawa, Ont., Land Resource Research 
Institute, Agriculture Canada, pp. 294-300. 

MacDonald, K. B.; Leuty, R. 1980. Map interpre- 
tations and computerized extended legends. 
Minutes 2nd Annual Meeting Expert Commit- 
tee Soil Survey, Ottawa, Ont., Land Resource 
Research Institute, Agriculture Canada, pp. 
255-264. 



72 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT I^SO 



Mack, A. R. 1980. Operational applications for 
analysis of agricultural crops and cultural 
practices. Proceedings 6th Canadian Sympo- 
sium Remote Sensing, Halifax, N.S. 5 pp. 

Mack, A. R. 1980. Remote sensing data-system 
developments in Agriculture: Selected 
highlights by Agriculture Canada. Presented 
to the Federal-Provincial Committee Agric. 
Stat. (Mar.). Agrometeorology Section, Re- 
search Branch, Agriculture Canada. Internal 
Rep. 15.21 pp. 

Mack, A. R. 1979. Report on the Working Group 
on Agriculture. The 1979 Report of the Cana- 
dian Advisory Committee on Remote Sensing. 
Energy, Mines, and Resources. Sect. 5.1. 7 pp. 

Mack, A. R. 1980. Use of land resource and 
meteorological satellite data for agriculture. 
Review paper presented at Atmospheric En- 
vironment Service Workshop on Agmet, Uni- 
versity of Guelph. Internal Rep. 37. 32 pp. 

Mack, A. R.; Garron, L. H. 1979. Summary of the 
1977-78 contracts for research into the devel- 
opment of a crop information system. Report 
1. Agrometeorology Section, Research Branch, 
Agriculture Canada. Misc. Bull. 1 3. 27 pp. 

Mack, A. R.; Halstead, R. L. 1980. Remote sensing 
developments in agriculture in Canada. A 
review paper prepared for Tripartite (UK, 
USA, Canada) discussions on research in 
agriculture. Agriculture Canada. 40 pp. 

Mack, A. R.; King, G. J. 1979. Improving Cana- 
dian information on world crop statistics. The 
crop information system based on remotely 
sensed and weather data. A summary of 
presentations made at a seminar on the Crop 
Information System — A review. King, G. J., 
ed. Commodity Market Analysis Division, 
Policy, Planning, and Economics Branch, Agri- 
culture Canada. 144 pp. 

Mack, A. R.; Shields, J. A. 1979. Thematic digital 
terrain maps (DTM) for crop classification 
analysis of Landsat data. Proceedings Seminar 
Digital Terrain Models, University of Guelph 
(5-7 Oct.), Guelph, Ont. Tech. Rep. 126-50- 
1980. pp. 91-96. 

Marshall, I. B.; Dumanski, J.; Huffman, E. C; 
Lajoie, P. G. 1979. Soils, capability and land 
use in the Ottawa urban fringe. Ontario Minis- 
try Agriculture and Food, Toronto, Ont. On- 
tario Soil Survey Rep. No. 47, 59 pp. (plus 
microfiche, three maps, and a land use report). 

Mathur, S. P.; Lévesque, M.; Preston, C. M.; 
Millette, J. A. 1980. Recent progress on 
investigations of the possible use of moderate 
amounts of copper for mitigating the excess 
decomposition and subsidence of some histo- 
sols. 1980 meeting of the U.S. Department of 



Agriculture. NCR. 59 Technical Committee on 
Soil Organic Matter. Ottawa, Ont. 

McKeague, J. A. 1980. Checking the composition 
of soil nodules by SEM-EDXRA. Agron. 
Abstr. 193. 

McKeague, J. A. 1980. Citation classic. Curr. 
Contents 11(16):14. 

McKeague, J. A. 1979. Taxonomic classification. 
Minutes 1st Annual Meeting Expert Commit- 
tee Soil Survey, Ottawa, Ont., Land Resource 
Research Institute, Agriculture Canada, pp. 
33-37. 

McKeague, J. A.; Tarnocai, C; Nowland, J. L.; 
Wang, C; Dumanski, J.; Shields, J. A. 1980. 
Letter to the editor. Can. Geogr. 24(2): 195. 

Michalyna, W. 1980. Soil criteria and water quality 
for evaluating irrigation suitability in Mani- 
toba. Proceedings Manitoba Agronomists An- 
nual Conference, University of Manitoba (lu- 
ll Dec). 

Michalyna, W. 1980. Soils of the Glenboro area 
and interpretations for agriculture, engineering 
and recreation uses. Canada-Manitoba Soil 
Survey, Department of Soil Science, Univer- 
sity of Manitoba. Rep. No. D24. 

Michalyna, W. 1980. Use and management inter- 
pretations of soil survey information. Paper 
presented at Soil, Land Use and Soil Classifi- 
cation Seminar, Agriculture Extension Center, 
Brandon, Man. (1 1 Dec). 

Michalyna, W.; Holmstrom, D. 1980. Soils of the 
Killarney study area. Canada-Manitoba Soil 
Survey, Department of Soil Science, Univer- 
sity of Manitoba. Rep. No. D22. 

Michalyna, W.; Holmstrom, D. 1980. Soils of the 
Sandy Lake area. Canada-Manitoba Soil Sur- 
vey, Department of Soil Science, University of 
Manitoba. Rep. No. D25. 

Michalyna, W.; Podolsky, G. 1980. Soils of the 
Matlock-Gimli-Riverton area. Canada-Mani- 
toba Soil Survey, Department of Soil Science, 
University of Manitoba. Rep. No. D23. 

Nowland, J. L. 1980. Correlog.: A correlation 
record. Minutes 2nd Annual Meeting Expert 
Committee Soil Survey, Ottawa, Ont., Land 
Resource Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada, pp. 166-196. 

Nowland, J. L. 1980. Restoration of urban water 
bodies. Report to the Subcommittee on Urban 
Terrain Problems, Associate Committee on 
Geotechnical Research, National Research 
Council. 



LAND RESOURCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



7 3 



Nowland, J. L. 1980. Soils and on-site sewage 
systems. Contribution to course on Environ- 
mental Hygiene for the Public Health Inspec- 
tor, St. John's, Nfld., conducted by Institute of 
Public Affairs, Dalhousie University. 

Nowland, J. L. 1980. Soils water regime classifica- 
tion 1980. Minutes 2nd Annual Meeting Ex- 
pert Committee Soil Survey, Ottawa, Ont., 
Land Resource Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada, pp. 36-56. 

Presant, E. W.; Young, R. I. 1980. Soil map of area 
annexed by Waterloo Region from Hamilton- 
Wentworth region. Ontario Ministry Agricul- 
ture and Food, Toronto, Ont. 

Schubert, J.; Shields, J. A.; Chagarlamudi, P.; 
Mack, A. R. 1980. Stratification of Landsat 
data by uniform productivity of soils. Machine 
processing of remotely sensed data and soil 
survey systems. Buroff, P. G.; Morrison, P. B., 
eds. Purdue University. 

Shields, J. A. 1980. Proposed framework for corre- 
lation procedures in Canada. Minutes 2nd 
Annual Meeting Expert Committee Soil Sur- 
vey, Ottawa, Ont., Land Resource Research 
Institute, Agriculture Canada, pp. 156-165. 

Shields, J. A.; Goodfellow, C. 1980. Temporal 
analysis of Landsat data for land use mapping. 
Machine processing of remotely sensed data 
and soil survey systems. Burroff, P. G.; Morri- 
son, P. B. eds. Purdue University. 

Shields, J. A.; Sly, W. K. 1980. Aridity indices 
derived from soil and climatic parameters. I. 
Perennial crops. Land Resource Research 
Institute, Agriculture Canada. 

Sonzogni, W. C; Chesters, G.; Coote, D. R.; Jeffs, 
D. N.; Konrad, J. C; Ostry, R. C; Robinson, 
J. B. 1980. Pollution from land runoff. J. 
Environ. Sci. Tech. 1 4(2): 1 48- 1 53. 

Stewart, D. W. 1980. Using a non-linear least 
squares method to analyze yield data. The 
program and abstracts of Workshop on crop 
simulation (4-6 Mar.) (abstract). 

Stewart, D. W.; Desjardins, R. L.; Dwyer, L. M. 
1980. The crop-weather analysis project objec- 
tives and methodology. Agrometeorology Sec- 
tion, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada. 
Misc. Bull. 18. 10 pp. 

Tarnocai, C. 1980. Book review: Forest soils — 
properties and processes. Armson, K. A. Can. 
Field-Nat. 94:357. 

Tarnocai, C. 1980. Canadian wetland registry. 
Proceedings of a Workshop on Canadian Wet- 
lands. Rubec, C. D. A.; Pollet, F. C, compilers 
and editors. Environment Canada, Ecological 
Land Classification Series. 12:9-38. 



Tarnocai, C. 1980. Report of the subcommittee on 
soil classification. Minutes 2nd Annual Meet- 
ing Expert Committee Soil Survey, Ottawa, 
Ont., Land Resource Research Institute, Agri- 
culture Canada, pp. 68-72. 

Tarnocai, C. 1979. Soil resource inventories: their 
methods, approaches and interpretations. Pro- 
ceedings Resource Inventory Workshop, Yu- 
kon Territory, pp. 111-118. 

Tarnocai, C. 1980. Soil temperatures of the Inuvik 
area, N.W.T. An interim report. Land Re- 
source Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada. 35 pp. 

Tarnocai, C; Zoltai, S. C. 1978. Soils of the 
Northern Canadian peatlands: their charac- 
teristics and stability. Proceedings 5th North 
American Forest Soils Conference. Young- 
berg, C. T., ed. pp. 433-448. 

Valentine, K., chairman. 1979. Mapping Systems 
Working Group. A proposed soil mapping 
system for Canada. Report submitted to 
Canada Expert Committee on Soil Survey, 
Ottawa, Ont., Land Resource Research Insti- 
tute, Agriculture Canada. 60 pp. 

Valentine, K. W. G.; Schori, A. 1980. Soils of the 
Lac la Hache - Clinton area, British Colum- 
bia. British Columbia Soil Survey, Research 
Branch, Agriculture Canada. Rep. No. 25. 118 
pp. (plus soil map and microfiche). 

Van Vliet, L. J. P.; Brierley, A.; Green, A. J. 1980. 
Soils of Valdes, Thetis, Galiano Islands. Soil 
maps and extended legends. Part of resource 
folio for Gulf Islands. Terrestrial Studies 
Branch, British Columbia Ministry of the 
Environment, Victoria, B.C. 

Veldhuis, H. 1980. Soils of the Cranberry-Portage 
Provincial Park camping area. Canada-Mani- 
toba Soil Survey, Department of Soil Science, 
University of Manitoba. Soil Rep. No. D33. 

Veldhuis, H. 1980. Soils of the Paint Lake Provin- 
cial Recreational Park. Canada-Manitoba Soil 
Survey, Department of Soil Science, Univer- 
sity of Manitoba. Soil Rep. No. D32. 

Veldhuis, H. 1980. Soil and vegetation sequences in 
the Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T. Proceedings 
24th Annual Manitoba Soil Science Meeting. 
University of Manitoba (3-4 Dec). 

Wall, G. J.; Dickinson, W. T. 1980. Quantification 
of soil erosion interpretations for soil resource 
inventories. Minutes 2nd Annual Meeting 
Expert Committee Soil Survey. Ottawa. Ont., 
Land Resource Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada, pp. 134-145. 

Wall, G. J.; Dickinson, W. T.; van Vliet, L. J. P. 
1979. Agricultural sources of fluvial suspended 
sediments. Prog. Water Technol. J. 1 1(6):4S1- 
499. LRR11I2M 



74 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT I^SO 



Walmsley, M.; Utzig, G.; Void, T.; Moon, D.; van Wilson, G. 1980. Pcdotechnical interpretations for 

Barneveld, J., editors. 1980. Describing ecosys- soil survey. Minutes 2nd Annual Meeting 

terns in the field. Resource Analysis Branch, Expert Committee Soil Survey, Ottawa, Ont., 

Assessment and Planning Division, British Land Resource Research Institute, Agriculture 

Columbia Ministry of the Environment, Victo- Canada, pp. 146-147. 

ria, B.C. Technical Paper 2. pp. 223. ..... n . 

Wilson, G. 1980. Plants are programmed for 

Wang, C. 1980. Quantitative approach in soil engineering sense. Ag-Rapport (July-Aug.) 

mapping. Can. Agric. 25(3): 1 8— 1 9. 

Wang, C. 1980. Transect method and its applica- 
tions. Minutes 2nd Annual Meeting Expert 
Committee Soil Survey, Ottawa, Ont., Land 
Resource Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada, pp. 197-212. 



LAND RESOURCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE 75 



Research Program Service 
Ottawa, Ontario 

PROFESSIONAL STAFF 
Administration 



R. Trottier, B.Sc. 
D. W. Friel 
W. A. Fettes 



M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Director 

Administration and Awards 

Branch liaison 



Graphics 



C. N. Halchuk 
W. G. Wilson 



Art and design 
Photography 



Scientific Information Retrieval 



P. Beauchamp, B.Sc, M.Sc. 
J. S. Kelleher, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
H. S. Krehm, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. 
C. D. Laing, B.Sc, M.Sc 



Herbicides 
Biological control 
Fungicides and insecticides 
Inventory 



Scientific Editing/Text Processing 



J. A. Perrin, B.Sc. 

D. M. Archibald, B.A. 

S. M. Balchin 

M. M. Ellis 

N. Rousseau, B.A., M.A. 

S. M. Rudnitski, B.Sc. 

F. Smith, B.A. 

A. Thomassin, B.A., B.A. (Geog.' 

J. M. Tomlinson, B.A., M.A. 



Head of Section 

Editing 

Editing 

Text processing 

Editing 

Editing 

Editing 

Editing 

Editing 



RESEARCH PROGRAM SERVICE 



77 



Departures 

Y. Dupont, B.A. Editing 

Resigned December 1980 
J. H. Ford Systems 

Resigned April 1980 
H. R. Jackson Head of Graphics Section 

Deceased May 1980 
C. R. Wood, B.S.A., M.Sc, B.D. Editing 

Retired February 1980 



78 RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT l«)80 



INTRODUCTION 



In support of research and development in the Branch, Research Program Service 
provides a wide range of scientific information, technical, and publication services. In 1980, the 
Scientific Information Retrieval Section continued to maintain the computerized Inventory of 
Canadian Agricultural Research (ICAR) and compiled an inventory of pesticide research 
(author, pesticide, hosts, and pests). The minor use of pesticides program was streamlined and 
a circular was released in collaboration with the Pesticides Section of Food Production and 
Inspection Branch. The 1980 Pesticide Research Report was published, as were four issues of 
the Pesticide Information newsletter. 

News of happenings in the Research Branch was circulated to all staff members in ten 
issues of Tableau in 1980, including a tenth anniversary issue. Also, three numbers in Volume 
60 of the Canadian Plant Disease Survey were issued. 

Several scientific visits to and from Canada were coordinated, and the Canada-France 
exchange program was administered. The programs for operating grants, extramural research 
grants, and visiting fellowships were also administered. 

A folder describing the services available from Research Program Service was issued and 
distributed to all research establishments in October. 

We were deeply saddened in May by the sudden death of Ross Jackson, Head of the 
Graphics Section. Ross's never-failing good humor along with his sound administrative and 
technical advice have been sorely missed. 

This report is a summary of activities during 1980. Detailed information may be obtained 
by writing to: Director, Research Program Service, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 
Ottawa, Ont. Kl A 0C6. 

Robert Trottier 
Director 



AWARDS AND BRANCH LIAISON 

Research Program Service continued to 
administer the extramural research grants, 
operating grants, visiting fellowships, and 
scientific exchange programs during 1980. 



Under the extramural research grants 
program, specific research projects are solic- 
ited from university scientists to augment 
current research programs. The program is 
the responsibility of a departmental commit- 
tee appointed by the Deputy Minister. In 
1980, a total of 73 applications were received. 

Operating grants are awarded to individual 
researchers at Canadian universities as contri- 
butions toward the costs of proposed research 
projects that will be of value to the agricul- 
tural industry. The selection committee con- 
sists of three representatives from Agriculture 
Canada and seven from faculties of agricul- 
ture and veterinary science. In 1980, the 
committee received 262 applications. 



The visiting fellowships program gives 
promising young scientists, from all over the 
world, the opportunity to work with 
distinguished researchers in their respective 
fields before embarking on careers in scientific 
research. The program is administered by the 
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research 
Council on behalf of Canadian government 
departments and agencies. Research Program 
Service acts as liaison between the Council 
and Agriculture Canada. In 1980, there were 
179 applications for fellowships in this depart- 
ment. 

A total of 31 delegations visited Canada 
during the past year: eleven from France, five 
from the People's Republic of China, three 
from Romania, two from Australia, and one 
each from Peru, Zimbabwe, Japan, Rwanda, 
Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Britain, Denmark, Chile, 
Zaire, and the USSR. Two delegations went 
from Canada; one to Ethiopia and one to 
Morocco, Spain, Portugal, and the Canary 
Islands. 

Ten issues of Tableau were published, 
including a tenth anniversary issue. 



RESEARCH PROGRAM SERVICE 



79 



GRAPHICS 

A wide variety of services in research 
photography and production art and illustra- 
tion were provided to the Branch and other 
agencies within the Department. There was a 
15% increase in jobs processed over 1979, and 
as a result, 10% of the job requests were 
contracted out. Jobs were completed in an 
average of 15 working days, with fewer than 
1% returned for correction. 

Because a computerized production report- 
ing system was developed in order to improve 
planning and control, a monthly detailed 
analysis of jobs completed is now possible. 



SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION 
RETRIEVAL 

Information on pesticides and agricultural 
research in Canada continued to be main- 
tained in a computerized storage and retrieval 
system. The information is available to re- 
searchers; funding agencies; provincial, re- 
gional, and national research planning and 
coordinating committees; and anyone inter- 
ested in agricultural research. Requests for 
information were answered in an average of 
nine working days. 

The Summary Data Sheet system for 
candidate pesticides was realigned and perti- 
nent information on 10 new experimental 
pesticides was included in the Pesticide 
Information newsletter, beginning in April 
1980. The procedures for the minor use of 
pesticides program were streamlined, and a 
circular was released in collaboration with the 
Pesticides Section of the Food Production and 
Inspection Branch. 

Commonwealth Institute of Biological Con- 
trol contracts were coordinated and managed 
for Agriculture Canada and for the Canadian 
Forestry Service. In 1980, 14 shipments were 
received from six countries for a total of 
35 210 specimens. Forty-four shipments were 



sent to research establishments; 15 parasite 
species totaling 12 407 insects were sent to 
eight provinces for release or study, or both. 



SCIENTIFIC EDITING/TEXT 
PROCESSING 

Research Program Service continued to 
help meet the technology transfer require- 
ments of the Research Branch by providing 
editorial and text processing services for 
scientific and technical publications of the 
Branch and Department. In 1980, 26 English 
and 40 French publications were processed, 
comprising 5800 and 2560 manuscript pages, 
respectively. Two bilingual publications, com- 
prising 424 manuscript pages, were published. 
Of the total of 8784 pages completed, 40% 
were for Department publications of interest 
to growers and the general public, and 60% 
were for Branch reports and scientific mono- 
graphs intended for research workers in 
universities, industry, and government. 

Six major books were published during the 
year; Parts 7 and 8 in the series The Insects 
and Arachnids of Canada — Genera des Tri- 
choptères du Canada and The Plant Bugs of 
the Prairie Provinces; Common and Botani- 
cal Names of Weeds in Canada/Noms popu- 
laires et scientifiques des plantes nuisibles du 
Canada; The Grasses of Ontario; Trees and 
Shrubs of the Dominion Arboretum; and 
Fougères du district d'Ottawa. 

The editing of some manuscripts was con- 
tracted out to avoid serious backlogs of work 
and to reduce editorial and production times. 

The computerized text processing facilities 
continued to provide support to Branch scien- 
tists. About 90% of the jobs processed were 
for Branch reports and miscellaneous publica- 
tions in support of research and development. 
The remaining 10% of the work was for 
Department publications, where extensive 
retyping during the editing cycle was avoided, 
and where photocomposition was carried out 
for material already in the computer system. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 



Trottier, R.; Hagley, E. A. C. 1979. Influence of 
temperature and snowfall on codling moth 
fecundity. J. Environ. Entomol. 8:1052-1054. 



Trottier, R.; Heme, D. H. C. 1979. Temperature 
relationships to forecast hatching of overwin- 
tered eggs of the European red mite, Pano- 
nychus ulmi (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Ont. 1 10:53-60. 



so 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Trottier, R. 1980. Early warning system for apple Krelim, H. S. 1980. Pre-plant chemical seed pro- 
pest management in Canada. Eur. Mediterr. tectants registered for use on cereal and 
Plant Prot. Organ. Bull. 10:253-257. oilseeds. Canadex 1 10.23. 

Miscellaneous 

Anon. 1979. Pesticide research report. Expert Twn ^ R \ editor - ,98 °- Pesticide information. 

Committee on Pesticide Use in Agriculture. Research Program Service, Research Branch. 

Research Program Service, Research Branch. ol - 2 ' Nos - '~^- 
615 pp. 

Kelleher, J. S., compiler. 1980. The Canadian Williamson, G. D. 1980. Insect liberations in 

agricultural insect pest review. Vol. 57 (1979). Canada: parasites and predators, 1976. Libera- 

Research Program Service, Research Branch. tion Bull. No. 40. Research Program Service, 

70 pp. Research Branch. 15 pp. 



RESEARCH PROGRAM SERVICE 



ATLANTIC REGION 
RÉGION DE L'ATLANTIQUE 



S* 




w 



y 



Dr. E. E. Lister 




à 



>- 



# 1 




Dr. W. B. Collins Mr. J. R. Frappier 



EXECUTIVE OF THE ATLANTIC REGION 
L'EXÉCUTIF DE LA RÉGION DE L'ATLANTIQUE 

Director General 
Directeur général 

E. E. Lister, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Program Specialist 

Spécialiste en programmes 

W. B. Collins, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Chief, Finance and Administration 

Chef, finances et administration 
J. R. Frappier, B.A. 



ATLANTIC REGION 85 



PREFACE 



The Atlantic Region, with headquarters in Hali- 
fax, consists of four research stations, two experi- 
mental farms, and one substation. These research 
establishments serve the agricultural communities 
in New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova 
Scotia, and Newfoundland. In 1980 the Region 
managed a budget of $19 million and employed 88 
professionals to carry out its various programs. 

Construction of new facilities at the Kentville 
Research Station was substantially completed in 
1980. The new complex, to be known as the 
Kentville Agricultural Centre, houses both federal 
and provincial personnel. Staff of the various 
scientific disciplines are established under one roof 
for the first time in the history of the Station. This 
arrangement will provide new incentives for strong 
team approaches to the major mandates of the 
Station. 

Research in animal science was highlighted by 
improvements in the handling and management of 
corn silage, resulting in higher beef production per 
hectare from beef cattle and improved milk produc- 
tion from dairy cattle. Swine management studies 
produced valuable information leading to the estab- 
lishment of optimum stocking densities. Further 
improvements in the efficiency of meat production 
in broiler chickens were established, with concomi- 
tant gains in net returns per bird to the producer. It 
was shown that there is an economic advantage to 
early weaning of lambs and that the feeding level of 
lactating ewes can be reduced without penalty in 
late lactation. 

Key advances in cereal and forage research 
included the refinement and definition of production 
procedures to ensure consistently superior yields 
and quality in winter wheat and in corn for silage. 
Twenty-five barley selections were identified with 
high levels of leaf disease resistance. Red clover and 



alfalfa were identified as the most suitable species 
for direct drilling to restore the legume component 
in pastures and hayfields, and a major red clover 
breeding program was established. 

In horticultural research low-oxygen storage 
developments for Mcintosh apples received interna- 
tional recognition and are already being put into 
commercial practice. Two significant variety re- 
leases were made in berry crops, one in strawberries 
and the other in red raspberries. Substantial pro- 
gress was achieved in red-stele control in strawber- 
ries through a combination of resistance breeding 
and systemic fungicidal drench techniques. Two 
new potato varieties were licensed; one was a 
yellow-fleshed type with potential significance for 
the export seed market. An effective management 
strategy package was developed for control of 
potato leaf roll virus and potato virus Y in suscepti- 
ble varieties. 

A new high-output energy-efficient blanching 
system was developed in the processing research 
sector through the use of contract research funds. 
The new system has functioned so well that nearly 
one million kilograms of raw product were pro- 
cessed through the prototype, with substantial 
savings in energy costs. 

Significant staff changes in 1980 included the 
appointment of Dr. E. E. Lister as Director General 
of the newly established Atlantic Region. Dr. W. B. 
Collins was named Program Specialist. 

Further information about our programs may be 
obtained by writing to the research establishment 
concerned or by addressing inquiries to Atlantic 
Region Headquarters, Research Branch, Agricul- 
ture Canada, 1888 Brunswick Street, Suite 708, 
Halifax, N.S. B3J 3J8. 

E. E. Lister 



86 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



PREFACE 



La région de l'Atlantique, dont l'Administration 
centrale est située à Halifax, comporte quatre 
stations de recherche, deux fermes expérimentales 
et une sous-station qui desservent les collectivités 
agricoles du Nouveau-Brunswick, de l'île-du-Prin- 
ce-Édouard, de la Nouvelle-Ecosse et de Terre- 
Neuve. En 1980, la région disposait d'un budget de 
$19 millions et son personnel comptait 88 employés 
professionnels. 

La construction des nouvelles installations de la 
station de recherche de Kentville a été en grande 
partie achevée en 1980. Le nouveau complexe, qui 
portera le nom de Centre agricole de Kentville, 
abrite à la fois les services fédéraux et provinciaux. 
Ainsi, pour la première fois de l'histoire de la 
station, le personnel de diverses disciplines scienti- 
fiques est rassemblé sous un même toit. On espère 
ainsi encourager la formation d'équipes de recher- 
che fortes, aptes à mener à bien les principaux 
mandats de la station. 

La recherche zootechnique s'est distinguée par 
les améliorations apportées à la manipulation et à la 
gestion de l'ensilage de mais, favorisant une plus 
forte production de boeuf par hectare et une 
amélioration de la production de lait. Les études 
menées sur la gestion des élevages de porc ont 
fourni des renseignements précieux menant à la 
détermination de densités optimales d'élevage. On a 
continué à augmenter l'efficacité de la production 
du poulet à griller, ce qui a contribué à augmenter 
les recettes des producteurs. On a démontré qu'il 
existe un avantage économique à procéder au 
sevrage précoce des agneaux et que la réduction du 
niveau de nutrition des brebis en fin de lactation 
peut se faire sans danger. 

Parmi les progrès clés réalisés dans la recherche 
sur les céréales et les fourrages, on compte le 
perfectionnement et la détermination de méthodes 
de production visant à assurer des rendements 
supérieurs et une haute qualité du blé d'hiver et du 
maïs d'ensilage. Vingt-cinq sélections d'orge ont 
montré une forte résistance aux maladies des 
feuilles. Le trèfle rouge et la luzerne se sont avérés 
les espèces les plus propices au semis direct pour la 



réinstallation des légumineuses dans les pâturages 
et les prairies de fauche et un important programme 
d'amélioration du trèfle rouge a été mis sur pied. 

Dans le domaine de la recherche en horticulture, 
les progrès réalisés dans la conservation des pom- 
mes Mcintosh en ambiance à faible teneur en 
oxygène ont suscité beaucoup d'intérêt à l'étranger 
et commencent déjà à être mis en exploitation 
commerciale. Deux nouvelles variétés importantes 
de petits fruits ont été mises sur le marché: une 
fraise, et une framboise rouge. D'importants pro- 
grès ont été réalisés dans la lutte contre la stèle 
rouge du fraisier grâce à la combinaison de la 
sélection de variétés résistantes et de la mise en 
application de méthodes d'épandage de fongicides 
systémiques par arrosage du pied. Deux nouvelles 
variétés de pommes de terre ont été homologuées 
dont l'une à chair jaune présente des possibilités 
d'exportation comme pomme de terre de semence. 
On a élaboré une stratégie efficace pour la lutte 
contre le virus de l'enroulement et le virus Y, chez 
les variétés sensibles de pommes de terre. 

Un nouveau système de blanchiment à haut 
rendement mais peu exigeant en énergie a été mis 
au point par le secteur de la recherche industrielle 
grâce à des fonds de recherche contractuelle. Le 
nouveau système fonctionne si bien qu'on a pu 
procéder, à l'aide du prototype, au traitement de 
près de 1 million de kilogrammes de produit brut, 
tout en réalisant d'importantes économies d'énergie. 

Parmi les principaux changements de personnel 
survenus en 1980, mentionnons la nomination de M. 
E.E. Lister comme Directeur général de la nouvelle 
région de l'Atlantique. M. W.B. Collins a pour sa 
part été nommé Spécialiste en programmes. 

Pour de plus amples renseignements sur nos 
programmes, prière d'écrire aux établissements de 
recherche concernés ou de s'adresser à l'Adminis- 
tration centrale de la région de l'Atlantique, Direc- 
tion générale de la recherche, Agriculture Canada, 
1888, rue Brunswick, Suite 708, Halifax (N.-É.) 
B3J 3J8. 

E.E. Lister 



ATLANTIC REGION 



87 



Research Station 
St. John's West, Newfoundland 

PROFESSIONAL STAFF 

H. W. R. Chancey, B.S.A., M.S.A. Director 

Entomology 

R. F. Morris, B.S.A., M. Se. Head of Section; Vegetable insects 

Horticulture 

B. G. Penney, B.Sc, M.Sc. Vegetable crops 

Plant Breeding and Pathology 

K. G. Proudfoot, B.Agr., M.Agr. Head of Section; Potato breeding 

M. C. Hampson, B.Sc, M.Sc., Ph.D. Plant diseases 

Agronomy 

A. F. Rayment, B.Sc., M.Sc. Soil fertility and drainage 



RESEARCH STATION, ST. JOHN'S WEST, NFLD. 89 



INTRODUCTION 



The responsibility center for regional agricultural research in Newfoundland and 
Labrador is located at St. John's West, 8 km from City Centre. The research program 
encompasses the reclamation and use of peat soils, potato breeding for resistance to wart 
disease and the golden nematode, economic insect control, plant disease control, plant 
nutrition, and vegetable adaptation trials. Rutabaga breeding for resistance to clubroot disease 
is a further responsibility, together with the design and adaptation of mechanical equipment 
for cultivating, fertilizing, seeding, and harvesting crops grown on peat soils. 

Previous reports and reprints of publications can be obtained from: Research Station, 
Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, P.O. Box 7098, St. John's West, Nfld. AIE 3Y3. 

H. W. R. Chancey 
Director 



ENTOMOLOGY 



Cabbage maggot 



evaluation of treatments impossible. An un- 
usually cool wet growing season may, in part, 
have accounted for this lack of infestation. 



In experiments at St. John's and Wooddale 
to determine if cabbage root maggots were 
developing resistance to organophosphate 
insecticides, results showed that field popula- 
tions of the maggot were tolerant of both 
Dasanit (fensulfothion) and the carbamate 
Furadan (carbofuran) at St. John's. However, 
this trend was not confirmed at Wooddale. 

Split applications of Dasanit (fensul- 
fothion) at both St. John's and Wooddale 
were more effective than equivalent applica- 
tions applied as granules at seeding. Single 
applications of granules at both localities were 
ineffective. A split application of Dasanit 
(fensulfothion) at the recommended rate (5.6 
kg ai/ha) gave fairly satisfactory control 
(73%) at Wooddale, but only 45% at St. 
John's. Single applications of granular Dasa- 
nit (fensulfothion) probably controlled at- 
tacks of first- generation root maggots, but 
were ineffective for second-generation attack. 
Usually cool wet weather during the growing 
season of 1980 may, in part, have accounted 
for the short residual effect of single applica- 
tions of granular Dasanit (fensulfothion) at 
seeding. 

Five pyrethroid insecticides, Ambush (per- 
methrin), Belmark (fenvalerate), Ripcord 
(cypermethrin), Cymbush (cypermethrin), 
and Decis (decamethrin), at two levels of 
drench treatments, were evaluated for root 
maggot control on early cabbage. A light 
infestation of root maggots caused only 2.5% 
crop loss in the control plots and made 



Lepidopterous caterpillars 

Field trials with late cabbage and dwarf 
Essex rape to determine the effectiveness of 
pyrethroid insecticides, Ambush, Cymbush, 
Decis, Ripcord, and Belmark, together with 
Thiodan, were evaluated in field trials as 
single and double applications to control leaf- 
eating caterpillars: the imported cabbage- 
worm, Pieris rapae (L.); the purplebacked 
cabbage worm, Evergestis pallidal a (Hufn.); 
and the diamondback moth larvae, Plutella 
xylostella (L.), at St. John's. The efficacy of 
treatments could not be evaluated because no 
infestation of any of these larvae occurred in 
any of the treated or control plots. 

Leaftier 

Ten insecticide treatments, including Am- 
bush, Belmark, Ripcord, Decis, Cymbush, 
and Guthion, were tested for control of the 
blueberry leaftier, Argyrotoza curvalana 
(Kft.), at Witchazel Ridge near Gushue's 
Pond Park. All pyrethroid treatments signifi- 
cantly controlled larval populations of the 
blueberry leaftier, and all were equally as 
effective as Guthion. Populations in treated 
plots were reduced to 0-5 larvae per plot, 5 
days after treatment, whereas larval popula- 
tions in the control plots averaged 67. Popula- 
tions within plots before treatments varied 
from 35 to 106 larvae. 



90 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



PLANT BREEDING AND 
PATHOLOGY 

Breeding potatoes for resistance to wart 
and the golden nematode 

The wart-resistant selection N 135-671, a 
sister seedling of Mirton Pearl, has been 
evaluated in trials and demonstration plots 
over a 5-yr period. These tests indicate that 
this selection, provisionally named Anson, is 
of considerable merit, having a high yield of 
marketable tubers. Maturity and dry matter 
content are similar to those of Green Moun- 
tain, and when combined with higher resist- 
ance to late blight and virus infection, it is 
believed that Anson could replace this variety. 

As a result of preliminary yield in wart and 
nematode trials, N664-127 has been identified 
as a promising selection with resistance to 
both pests. Resistance to wart disease derives 
from Mira and to the golden nematode from 
Wauseon. A yellow-fleshed selection, N682-6, 
which has attractively shaped tubers of uni- 
form size, is also resistant to both wart and 
the golden nematode. In this potato, golden 
nematode resistance is derived from a selec- 
tion bred from C.P.C. 1685. 

The recently introduced cultivars Trent, 
Rideau, and Longlac were severely infected in 
wart trials, but Yukon Gold was only slightly 
infected; Clairchip and Conestoga were free 
from infection. 

Infectivity and germination in potato wart 
disease 

Work on wart disease was pursued at field, 
greenhouse, and laboratory levels. In the field, 
further evidence was obtained to indicate that 
inorganic ammonium compounds influence 
the intensity of the disease. A survey was 
made of private kitchen gardens in an attempt 
to correlate disease intensity with physical 
and biological soil factors. Potato tubers, 
inoculated and placed in a growth room at 
various times during the year, showed further 
evidence of a seasonal factor influencing 
disease severity. The tubers were inoculated 
prior to planting, by introducing tumor pieces 
to a water column surrounding the rose-end 
sprouts. 

Evidence was also obtained that showed 
that when potato sprouts were abrased, the 
incidence of potato wart disease increased. 
The relationship of this finding to soil condi- 
tions and fungal ingress is being investigated. 
The resting sporangium of the causal agent 



was shown to be covered by a layer of chitin. 
Labeled isotope uptake and chemical analysis 
strongly suggested that chitin was manufac- 
tured early in the sporangial wall. Scanning 
electron microscopy revealed that the potato 
sprout is covered with many necrotic plaques. 
It is proposed that these necrotic areas 
influence the causal agent directly through 
sprout exudates or indirectly through the 
contiguous microflora. A system was devised 
for supplying debris-free yields of resting 
sporangia using sucrose-centrifugation. 

Breeding clubroot-resistant rutabagas 

The New Zealand cultivar Kiri remained 
free from clubroot infection in test plots. 
Roots of Kiri were longer and more tapering 
than were roots of RST lines. Both Kiri and 
RST are derived from crosses of clubroot- 
resistant Dutch turnips and rutabaga. Com- 
parisons of roots of three generations of field- 
produced seed of RST showed that a marked 
improvement had been made in producing 
well-colored roots free from side roots. 



PLANT SCIENCE 

Field crops 

Cabbage. In previous years, results showed 
that yields from transplanted Houston Ever- 
green cabbage planted on mineral soil were 
similar for an early or late planting, but in 
1980 a decline in yields was observed for the 
later planted crops due to a cool wet growing 
season. Yields for the three planting dates in 
tonnes per hectare were as follows: 21 May — 
64.5; 29 May— 58.2; and 11 June— 53.5. 
Increasing the N level from 224 to 336 kg/ha 
by applying a side-dressing at 112 kg/ha 
increased the average yield from 46.4 to 58.7 
t/ha. Due to similar growing conditions, very 
early field seeding of Houston Evergreen 
cabbage did not result in large yield increases 
as in previous years. Yields for the three 
planting dates in tonnes per hectare were as 
follows: 21 May— 18.4; 29 May— 22.4; and 
1 1 June — 9.9. Increasing the N level from 
224 to 336 kg/ha by applying a side-dressing 
at 1 12 kg/ha increased the average yield from 
9.4 to 16.9 t/ha. 

Soil conditioners. Agromax NiPhoKal-1 
and Agromax 17-5-5-GR, received from 
Hungary, were evaluated under greenhouse 
conditions with oats and lettuce and were 
found to have no effect on yields. There was 



RESEARCH STATION, ST. JOHNS WEST, NFLD. 



9\ 



no effect on lettuce germination, but emer- 
gence time of oats was less in one trial than in 
the control. In a field trial with turnips, 
neither of these products had any effect on 
yields or times of emergence. 

Blueberries 

Atrazine at 3 and 6 kg (ai)/ha, dichlobenil 
at 4 kg (ai)/ha, and simazine at 3 kg (ai)/ha 
significantly increased yields, but weed con- 
trol was only fair. Hexazinone at 1.5 and 3.0 
kg (ai)/ha and dichlobenil at 8.0 kg (ai)/ha 
significantly reduced yields. 

Productivity of native stands of lowbush 
blueberries was determined at various loca- 
tions on the Avalon and Bonavista peninsulas. 
Mean yields in kilograms per hectare were as 
follows: Little Catalina — 1031; Newman's 
Cove — 770; Pouch Cove — 722; Adams 
Cove — 696; St. Joseph's — 633; Avondale — 
251. 

In frequency of burning experiments, re- 
sults in 1980 were similar to those obtained in 
previous years. Higher yields occurred in the 
first year after burning and declined in 
subsequent years. Yields in the third year 
after burning were similar to those obtained 
with zero burning. 



SOIL SCIENCE 



Peat soils 



Fertility. After 25 yr of peatland develop- 
ment in Newfoundland, substantial tracts 
exist that have been under cultivation for 
more than 10 yr. Fertilizer experiments on 
permanent grasslands on such 'mature' peat 
soils have shown no response to phosphorus 
rates over 50 kg P,0 5 /ha. In the past season, 
however, a significant response was obtained 
from phosphorus rates between 50 and 66.6 
kg/ha on a stand of timothy established the 
previous year. In the presence of normal soil 
test values for phosphorus for these soils, the 
question is raised of the possible influence of 
the new high-analysis phosphate (46% P : 5 ) 
fertilizer on these results. 



It has been suspected that a cause for ill 
thrift in lambs grazing on local peatland 
pastures could be a molybdenum-induced 
copper deficiency. Initial results from a small- 
plot study on the influence of these elements 
applied to the soil on plant tissue composition 
show that an application of Mo at 0.4 kg/ha 
on virgin peat will induce close to physiolog- 
ically active levels (15 ppm) in the plant. 
Though the rate is about five times that 
provided in the usual field applications where 
the trouble arose, the possibility of toxic 
accumulations from annual applications is 
exceedingly probable. Studies are continuing 
into the effects of residual and annual mainte- 
nance applications. 

Peat drainage. The extremely wet season 
resulted in outstanding crop responses to 
different drainage treatments. Carrots re- 
sponded in yield and root length to both 
ridged culture and supplemental slit drain 
treatments; best results were obtained from 
both techniques together. Although potatoes 
also responded in yield to supplemental 
drainage and ridged culture treatments, the 
effects of the two together were not additive. 
This may be somehow related to the effects of 
potato culture in increasing aeration as mea- 
sured by oxygen flux. This latter phenomenon 
has now been observed for two consecutive 
years. 

Machinery. Results of field tests with the 
peat soil rotoridger-precision seeder designed 
at the Memorial University of Newfoundland 
(MUN) gave approximately 75% single-plant 
emergence with minor occurrence of doubles. 
The MUN-designed peat drainage ditcher 
performed well, but requires modification to 
improve spoil spreading and to correct rear- 
end imbalance. 

The weed sprayer and transporter devel- 
oped by MUN for peat soils was highly 
satisfactory in field trials for both ridge- and 
level-seeded vegetable crops, whereas the 
commercial carrot harvester adapted by 
MUN for use on peat soils will be operational 
with minor modifications. 



92 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Hampson, M. C. 1980. Responses of resting sporan- 
gia of Synchytrium endobioticum to in vitro 
germination treatments. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 

2:76-82. 

Hampson, M. C. 1980. Pathogenesis of 
Synchytrium endobioticum: 2. Effect of soil 
amendments and fertilization. Can. J. Plant 
Pathol. 2:148-151. 

Hampson, M. C; Haard, N. F. 1980. Pathogenesis 
of Synchytrium endobioticum: 1. Infection 
responses in potato and tomato. Can. J. Plant 
Pathol. 2:143-147. 

Mathur, S. P.; Rayment, A. F. 1977. Influence of 
trace element fertilization on the decomposi- 
tion rate and phosphatase activity of a mesic 
fibrisol. Can. J. Soil Sci. 57:397-408. 

Morris, R. F. 1980. Notes on the occurrence of the 
wharf borer, Nacerdes melanura (L.), (Cole- 
optera: Oedemeridae) in Newfoundland. Can. 
Entomol. 112:217-218. 

Morris, R. F. 1980. Butterflies and moths of 
Newfoundland and Labrador: The Macrolepi- 
doptera. Agric. Can. Publ. 1691. Supply and 
Services Canada. 407 pp., 34 color plates. 

Rayment, A. F.; Hore, F. R. 1976. Hydraulic 
conductivity and bulk density changes in the 
cultivated layer of a Newfoundland peat soil 
and initial effects of soil amendments. Proc. 
5th Int. Peat. Congr., Posnan. 1:282-292. 



Miscellaneous 

Morris, R. F.; Morry, H. G. 1979. Control of leaf 
tier, Argyrotoza curvalana (Kft.), on blueber- 
ries. Pesticide Progress Report, pp. 54-55. 

Morris, R. F.; Morry, H. G. 1979. Control of leaf 
eating caterpillars on cabbage with pyrethroid 
insecticides. Pesticide Progress Report, pp. 
108-109. 

Morris, R. F.; Morry, H. G. 1979. Control of root 
maggots on stem brassicas. Pesticide Research 
Report, pp. 121-122. 

Morris, R. F.; Morry, H. G. 1979. Control of leaf 
eating caterpillars on rape. Pesticide Research 
Report, pp. 204-205. 

Morris, R. F.; Morry, H. G. 1979. Field tests with 
Dasanit for organophosphate resistance. Pesti- 
cide Research Report, pp. 217-219. 

Morris, R. F.; Morry, H. G. 1979. Control of the 
sheep blowfly and sheep ked. Pesticide Re- 
search Report, pp. 316-317. 

Morris, R. F.; Morry, H. G. 1980. Vegetable, field 
crop and other injurious insect pests predomi- 
nating in Newfoundland. Can. Agric. Insect 
Pest Rev. 57:11, 27, 28, 38, 41-42, 44-46, 50, 
52-54. 

Rayment, A. F.; Penney, B. G. 1979. The agricul- 
tural potential of Newfoundland peat soils. 
The diversity of peat. Publication of the New- 
foundland and Labrador Peat Association, pp. 
39-50. 



RESEARCH STATION, ST. JOHNS WEST, NFLD. 



93 



Research Station 
Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island 



PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



L. B. MacLeod, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

C. B. Willis, B.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. 

D. A. Hutchinson 

B. Stanfield, 1 B.S.A., M.S.A., M.L.S. 
S. R. Knight, B.Sc. 



Director 

Assistant Director 
Administrative Officer 
Librarian 
Information Officer 



Forage and Livestock 



L. S. Thompson, B.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. 

T. M. Choo, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

H. T. Kunelius, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

J. H. Lovering, 2 B.Sc, M.A., Ph.D. 

J. A. MacIsaac, 2 B.Sc. 

P. R. Narasimhalu, B.Sc, B.V.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 

M. Suzuki, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

C. B. Willis, B.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. 

K. A. Winter, B.Sc (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Insects (forage, 

cereal, and potato) 
Breeding (red clover) 
Physiology and management 

(forage) 
Economics (production) 
Systems engineering 
Quality and utilization (forage) 
Biochemistry and physiology 

(forage) 
Diseases (forage) 
Nutrition (cattle) 



Cereals 



J. A. MacLeod, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc., Ph.D. 

A. J. Campbell, B.Eng. 

U. C. Gupta, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. 
H. W. Johnston, B.Sc (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 
R. A. Martin, B.Sc, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 
H. G. Nass, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

J. D. E. Sterling, B.S.A., M.Sc 
R. P. White, B.S. (Ed.), M.S., Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Nutrition (forage 

and cereal) 
Agricultural engineering 
Micronutrients (soil and plant) 
Diseases (cereal) 
Diseases (cereal) 
Breeding (wheat), physiology 

(cereal) 
Breeding (barley) 
Nutrition and management (corn 

and potato), soil chemistry 



RESEARCH STATION, CHARLOTTETOWN, P.E.I. 



95 



Horticulture and Tobacco 



J. A. Cutcliffe, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. 

J. A. Ivany, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.S., Ph.D. 

J. Kimpinski, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

J. G. McDonald, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

H. W. Platt, B.SC, Ph.D. 

D. C. Read, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

J. M. Sadler, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
J. B. Sanderson, B.Sc. (Agr.) 



Head of Section; Nutrition and 

management (vegetable) 
Weed control (vegetable, potato, 

and cereal) 
Nematology 
Virus diseases (potato) 
Diseases (potato) 
Pesticide bioactivity, insects 

(vegetable) 
Soil management 
Management and nutrition (potato) 



'Seconded from Libraries Division, Finanace and Administration Branch. 
-'Seconded from Regional Development and International Affairs Branch. 



96 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



INTRODUCTION 



The Research Station at Charlottetown has Atlantic Region responsibility for research on 
the production and utilization of livestock feed crops, tobacco, and certain vegetables grown for 
processing. 

This report includes brief summaries of some of the research completed in 1980. More 
detailed information may be obtained from the publications listed or by contacting the 
Research Station, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, P.O. Box 1210, Charlottetown, 
P.E.I. CIA 7M8. 

L. B. MacLeod 
Director 



CEREAL AND PROTEIN CROPS 

Breeding and testing 

Oats. The oat line QO 151-103, from the 
cross Tarpan/QO 51-41 made at the Re- 
search Station, Ste. Foy, Que., has superior 
yield and relatively low hull percentage 
compared with presently recommended varie- 
ties and is expected to be licensed. 

Spring wheat. Application will be made for 
licensing the Charlottetown selection AW4 
for the Maritime Provinces based on its 
superior yield and mildew resistance. 

The use of harvest index as a selection 
criterion for grain yield in F 2 populations of 
spring wheat grown at two population densi- 
ties was investigated. The F 4 lines selected in 
F 2 for a high harvest index yielded about 9% 
more per plot than F 4 lines having a low 
harvest index in F 2 . Generally, lines selected 
at the higher seeding rate yielded more than 
lines selected at the lower planting density. 
Selection based on high harvest index at low 
population density can be used to select 
higher yielding plants but was not as effective 
as selection at high population density, which 
more closely approximates commercial crop 
densities. 

Winter wheat. The feed wheat selection T 
1365-216 exceeded Lennox in yield on a 2-, 
3-, and 4-yr average basis. An application for 
licensing for the Maritime Provinces will be 
made by the Ottawa Research Station in 
1981. 

Soybeans. The soybean line AU 3-1-3 has 
adequate maturity for Prince Edward Island 
conditions and 40% greater yield potential 
than Maple Presto. A recommendation has 
been made for licensing. 



Diseases 

The cereal crop in Prince Edward Island is 
damaged severely by the fungal pathogen 
Fusarium roseum (Lk.) emend. Snyder & 
Hansen f. sp. graminearum and through 
contamination by its associated mycotoxin, 
vomitoxin. Spring wheats such as Opal and 
Vernon are particularly susceptible to this 
head blight whereas other selections or culti- 
vars illustrated varying degrees of resistance. 
Best control of the disease was obtained by 
application to the maturing heads of the 
fungicides chlorothanil, captofal, triadimefon, 
or CGA-64250 (Ciba-Geigy) sprays. Vomi- 
toxin levels vary considerably depending on 
the husbandry used to produce the crop and 
are generally higher in barley than wheat. 

Intensive cereal production 

Winter wheat. Results of a 3-yr study with 
Lennox winter wheat indicate that high yields 
of winter wheat can be obtained through the 
use of multiple levels of N, growth regulators 
for lodging control, and fungicides for disease 
control. Significant grain yield and N concen- 
tration responses were obtained with multiple 
N applications in all years and significant 
grain yield response to fungicides and growth 
regulators two years out of three. 

Barley. Studies with the barley growth 
regulator Terpal (BASF) indicate that it is 
effective in lodging control but yield depres- 
sion has been common. 

Tillage practices 

Swathing offers no advantage in either 
earlier harvesting or increased yields, com- 
pared with direct-cut combining of small 
grains. In some cases swathing resulted in 



RESEARCH STATION, CHARLOTTETOWN, P.E.I. 



97 



harvesting delays due to heavy rains that 
soaked the swaths. 



FORAGE CROPS 

Management and nutrition 

Winter survival. Frequent occurrence of 
midwinter thaws is a major cause of winter 
injury in the Atlantic Provinces, and two 
major stress factors associated with midwinter 
thaws are freeze-thaw cycles and anaerobic 
environments due to waterlogging or ice 
encasing. Under controlled environments, 
responses of alfalfa to waterlogging in com- 
bination with and without freezing were 
determined. The effect of growing conditions 
on the waterlogging resistance appeared to be 
greater than the effect of genotype as far as 
Medicago sativa L., M. media Pers., and M. 
falcata L. are concerned. A greenhouse 
experiment, however, showed that if alfalfa 
plants are grown in plastic pails, thus limiting 
oxygen supply of the roots in comparison with 
that in the field, for 1 yr or longer, these 
plants are able to survive flooding for up to 14 
wk, as long as a part of the top tissue is above 
the water level. Both greenhouse and field 
plants were damaged severely by a combina- 
tion treatment of freezing-waterlogging- 
freezing. It appeared that the resistance to 
freezing after waterlogging was the most 
important character of alfalfa to survive 
midwinter thaws. The most noticeable meta- 
bolic change that occurred in alfalfa roots 
during the combination treatment was an 
accumulation of ethanol. The difference in 
ethanol concentration between the plants 
before and after waterlogging may explain the 
difference in freezing resistance of plants. 

Annual ryegrass. Promenade Westerwolds 
ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum Lam., was 
grown on fine sandy and light loam soils. 
Nitrogen was applied at 40, 80, or 120 kg/ha 
after emergence and after both the first and 
second harvests. The first harvest under 
schedules A, B, and C was on 10, 15, and 22 
July followed by the second harvest in 28, 37, 
and 40 days, and the third harvest in 30, 50, 
and 37 days after the second harvest, respec- 
tively. The fourth harvest for schedule A was 
46 days after the third harvest. Mean dry 
matter yields ranged from 6.26 to 9.03 t/ha, 
total N in tissue from 2.09 to 2.99%, in vitro 
digestibility of dry matter from 73.3 to 76.3%, 
and dry matter content from 12.1 to 14.1% 



depending on the N rate or harvest schedule 
or both. Nitrate-N concentration in plant 
tissue was low for 40 and 80 kg N/ha per 
application but reached 0.45% for the 120 kg/ 
ha per application under harvest schedule A. 
Yield distribution within the season was most 
uniform for schedule B. A three-harvest 
schedule with N applied at 80 kg/ha at 
seeding and after the first and second harvests 
was suitable management for Promenade 
Westerwolds ryegrass in the Atlantic Region. 

Grass silage utilization. Monocultures of 
Climax timothy (Phleum pratense L.), 
Lemtal Italian ryegrass, and Aubade and 
Promenade Westerwolds ryegrasses were cut, 
wilted to about 25% dry matter, in mid-June 
for timothy and mid-August for the rye- 
grasses, and were conserved as silages. Sheep 
fed ad libitum silage rations consumed an 
equal quantity of dry matter on a percent 
body weight basis, from either the Lemtal 
Italian ryegrass or Promenade Westerwolds 
ryegrass silage (1.8%), but the intakes were 
lower for Climax timothy (1.7%) and Aubade 
Westerwolds ryegrass (1.5%) silages. Prome- 
nade Westerwolds ryegrass silage contained 
the most digestible dry matter (66.7%), 
followed by Lemtal Italian ryegrass (64%), 
Aubade Westerwolds ryegrass (62.6%), and 
Climax timothy (60.4%). Lemtal Italian 
ryegrass yielded about 10% more digestible 
silage dry matter per hectare compared with 
the other ryegrasses or with Climax timothy. 

Uptake of residual-applied selenium by 
timothy and barley. Timothy was harvested 
for 4 yr from plots treated with selenium (Se) 
as sodium selenite at the rates of 1.1 and 2.2 
kg Se/ha. Timothy forage and barley grain 
without added Se contained only 0.02-0.03 
ppm Se and were Se deficient from the animal 
nutrition standpoint. At 1.1 and 2.2 kg Se/ha, 
timothy contained adequate Se (>0.1 ppm) 
for 3 and 4 yr and barley grain for 1 and 2 yr 
following application, respectively. 

Effect of soil fumigation on the nutrient 
content of forages. The soil fumigant, methyl 
bromide, used to kill pathogenic microorga- 
nisms in soil prior to crop planting, has been 
shown also to decrease or increase the availa- 
bility of plant nutrients in soil. Experiments 
conducted under greenhouse conditions 
showed that the use of methyl bromide 
increased the Zn, Mn, S, and P content of 
timothy and alfalfa. Molybdenum content 
also increased, but only in timothy. 



9 S 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Corn management. Increasing the plant 
population of Canadian and European corn 
varieties from 50 000 to 75 000 plants per 
hectare increased forage yields by 18% in a 
2-yr study, but decreased whole plant dry 
matter from 31.7 to 30.5%. At 100 000 plants 
per hectare the yield increase was only 15.5% 
and whole plant dry matter was reduced to 
28.6%. Some European hybrids had a tend- 
ency for improved grain yields at 75 000 
plants per hectare, whereas the Canadian 
hybrids tended to decline in yield. Grain 
yields were lowest at 100 000 plants per 
hectare. Grain moisture increased with in- 
creasing population. European hybrids tended 
to contain less moisture early in the fall, but 
dried more slowly than the Canadian hybrids. 

In a 3-yr planting date study, mid-May 
planting produced the greatest whole-plant 
maturity at harvest (31.4%), but a 10% lower 
yield than planting in early June, which gave 
only 24.2% dry matter. Planting later than 
early June reduced yields and dry matter. 

Total yields and the yields of various plant 
parts (except the ears) declined with time 
after the first killing frost on 25 September. 
Ear yields increased up to about 24 October. 
Leaves and stalk tops dried most rapidly, and 
leaf yield declined nearly 50% by 14 Novem- 
ber. The bottom one-third of the stalk was 
very wet initially (15% dry matter) and dried 
very slowly in comparison to the middle or the 
top by 14 November. 

Corn nutrition. A study of soil and tissue 
nutrient levels in corn grown in Prince Ed- 
ward Island indicated that the crop is gener- 
ally well managed. The mean soil pH was 
6.01 and the mean P, K, Ca, and Mg soil test 
levels all ranked 'high.' Less than 8% of the 
fields had any soil nutrient testing 'low.' The 
mean leaf nutrient levels for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, 
S, B, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Mo were all within or 
above normally accepted sufficient levels, with 
K ranking very high (2.77%). Overall, only 
Zn appeared to warrant further study based 
on a number of low testing fields. 

Effect of atrazine carryover on crops grown 
in rotation with corn. Residue carryover in a 
fine sandy loam from atrazine applied 
preemergence to corn with active ingredient 
(ai) at 1.13 kg/ha had no effect on yield of 
winter rye seeded before the corn was har- 
vested, and of barley, field peas, alfalfa, red 
clover, and timothy seeded in May of the 
following year. Increasing the atrazine rate to 
2.25 kg ai/ha reduced yield of red clover by 



2&% and of barley by 18%. Timothy was 
killed at this and higher application rates. At 
the maximum rate tested of 4.5 kg ai/ha, 
yields of red clover, barley, alfalfa, winter rye, 
and field peas were reduced by 100, 52, 42, 
20, and 17%, respectively. Fall rye suffered 
greater yield reductions from atrazine car- 
ryover in the previous 2 yr. The effect of 
atrazine carryover was similar for all 3 yr 
with the other rotation crops. 

Insects and nematodes 

Alfalfa blotch leafminer. Although the 
protein concentration of alfalfa leaves de- 
creased due to infestation by alfalfa blotch 
leafminer, the concentration in the combined 
tissues of leaves plus stems did not decrease 
significantly. The concentration of water- 
soluble carbohydrates (WSC), however, de- 
creased in both leaf and stem tissues. Since a 
high WSC content is important in producing 
a high-quality silage, special caution may be 
necessary to ensure an adequate supply of 
sugars for making silage from leafminer- 
infested alfalfa. 

Beginning in 1978, parasitic insects known 
to destroy the alfalfa blotch leafminer in the 
larval stage of development were introduced 
into Prince Edward Island in an attempt to 
develop a biological control program against 
this alfalfa pest. Of the three species released, 
at least one of these, Dacnusa dryas (Nixon), 
has become established near Charlottetown. 

European skipper. A nuclear polyhedrosis 
virus, found at Normandin, Que., in 1974, 
was released in some Prince Edward Island 
timothy fields between 1976 and 1979 as a 
biological control agent against the European 
skipper, a destructive pest of timothy. Obser- 
vations in 1980 indicated that the virus was 
active in most fields sprayed as well as in 
fields and roadsides not sprayed previously. 
The virus disease, which does not affect 
mammals, fish, or other beneficial insects, 
should provide an effective means of preven- 
tive control of the European skipper in Prince 
Edward Island, but the level of protection 
remains to be quantified. 

Root-lesion nematodes in alfalfa and timo- 
thy. Numbers of Pratylenchus penetrans 
(Cobb) Filipjev & Stekh. in alfalfa and 
timothy, and to a lesser extent P. crenatus 
Loof in timothy, increased substantially as 
soil temperature increased from 10 to 30°C. 
However, P. crenatus in alfalfa decreased in 



RESEARCH STATION, CHARLOTTETOWN, P.E.I. 



99 



number as soil temperatures increased. Mo- 
bility of P. crenatus in vertical soil columns 
decreased as temperature increased from 9.5 
to 28.5°C. Raising the soil pH in which alfalfa 
was grown from 5.0 to 6.9 increased the 
numbers of P. penetrans and greatly reduced 
the numbers of P. crenatus. The numbers of 
both nematode species in timothy were re- 
duced significantly as soil pH was increased. 
The optimum soil pH for movement of P. 
penetrans was 6.0. P. crenatus moved equally 
well over a range of 5.0-7.0. 



CATTLE 

Mineral elements in timothy forage 

The average mineral content of timothy 
grown on Prince Edward Island was found to 
be moderately low to deficient for most of the 
minerals studied. Calcium content (0.25%) 
averaged about one-half the mean value 
published for timothy, whereas P content 
(0.24%) approximated published values. 
Magnesium content (0.11%) was about one- 
half of the requirement for dairy and beef 
cattle. Average K content was 2.1%, but some 
samples contained 5% or more of K. If these 
high K values were combined with low Ca and 
Mg in the same forage, this would create a 
grass tetany prone situation. Average S, Mn, 
Zn, Fe, and Mo contents of timothy were all 
borderline low to deficient. These data indi- 
cate a definite need for careful attention to 
the mineral supplementation of diets for cattle 
on Prince Edward Island, especially Ca, Mg, 
and trace elements. 

Forage-livestock model 

A computer program that models the 
growth, storage, and feeding of a forage and 
cattle housing, the milking, and the manure 
handling on dairy farms was used to deter- 
mine the net benefits of several management 
alternatives available. One of the more prof- 
itable plans for a 30-cow farm includes two 
cuts per year of timothy, total annual applica- 
tions of N fertilizer at 160 kg/ha, and storage 
of the wilted silage in a horizontal silo with 
formic acid added and covered with polyethyl- 
ene. The animals in this system are housed in 
a free-stall barn and milked in a double-four 
herringbone milking parlor with automatic 
milker detachers. The manure is handled as a 
solid. The cows are fed from the silo with a 
tractor and front-end loader and a feed 
wagon. This organization is contrasted 



against one of substantially lesser profitability 
that involves one cut per year of timothy, an 
annual nitrogen application at 34 kg/ha, and 
storage of wilted silage in a stack silo, and a 
stanchion barn, pipeline milker, manure han- 
dled as a solid, and with feed distributed by 
cart. 



HORTICULTURAL CROPS AND 
TOBACCO 

Potato management and nutrition 

Potato nutrition. A study of soil and tissue 
nutrient levels indicated few problems in the 
potato crop in Prince Edward Island. Soil test 
levels indicated a mean pH of 5.2 and 'high 
plus' P, 'high' K, and 'medium plus' Ca and 
Mg. Literature values on adequate tissue 
levels are scarce, but in general, the mean P, 
K, Mg, S, B, Zn, Cu, and Mn levels observed 
in Prince Edward Island appeared sufficient. 
Nitrogen, Ca, and possibly Fe appeared 
somewhat low depending on the sufficiency 
levels chosen. The possibility of Mo deficiency 
requires further interpretation. 

Small whole seed potato production. Pre- 
sprouting of small whole seed tubers in light 
at 15-20°C for 3 wk prior to planting in- 
creased total average seed yields of three 
varieties (Sebago, Kennebec, and Red Pon- 
tiac) over 2 yr when topkilled in early to mid- 
August. Total yields were increased from 19.6 
to 24.0 t/ha and for tubers under 60 mm, 
from 10.9 to 11.7 t/ha. 

Nitrogen applications above 67 kg/ha did 
not improve the production of Sebago small 
whole seed tubers. Increasing N rates in- 
creased the difficulty, and slowed the rate, of 
topkilling. Delaying topkilling from 27 Au- 
gust to 10 September increased the total yield 
from 24.8 to 30.5 t/ha, but the bulk of the 
increase was in tubers larger than 60 mm. 

Six varieties of potatoes grown for seed 
were topkilled on either 14 August or 27 
August. The extra 13 days of growth in- 
creased the mean total yield from 15.9 to 25.8 
t/ha, and the yield of tubers under 75 mm 
from 15.9 to 25.0 t/ha. With delayed topkill- 
ing, the Superior variety produced the highest 
yield (31.4 t/ha) and Katahdin the lowest 
(15.9 t/ha) yield of tubers under 75 mm. 

Planting small whole Sebago tubers (80- 
120 g) did not produce a significantly greater 
yield of tubers under 75 mm than did planting 
160-240 g tubers cut in half, or 320-480 g 



100 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



tubers cut in quarters. Planting small whole 
tubers produced more small tubers than did 
planting sets cut from larger tubers. 

Kennebec potatoes planted at either 15 or 
30 cm in-row spacings were sampled weekly 
from 63 to 116 days after planting. The yield 
of 41-60 mm tubers increased rapidly from 
60 to 74 days. At the 15-cm spacing the yield 
of 41-60 mm tubers increased rapidly from 
60 to 74 days. At the 15-cm spacing the yield 
of 41-60 mm tubers remained fairly constant 
to harvest, whereas at 30 cm the yield of 41- 
60 mm tubers declined with time. Yield of 
tubers from 61 to 80 mm increased rapidly 
from 74 to 109 days, with close spacing giving 
a greater yield. Tubers over 80 mm appeared 
at 81 days, increasing in yield at about half 
the rate of the smaller sizes. The 30-cm 
spacing produced about double the yield of 
the 15-cm spacing in this large size. Final 
yields at harvest were 22.0, 12.8, and 4.8 t/ha 
at the 15-cm spacing, and 19.3, 7.2, and 1 1.4 
t/ha at the 30-cm spacing for the 41-60, 61- 
80, and over 80 mm sizes, respectively. 

Processing potatoes. No differences in the 
N requirement of Netted Gems grown for 
processing were observed over 3 yr when 
planted after either clover or oats. The 
optimum yield response occurred with 67 kg 
N/ha. With increasing N applications up to 
202 kg N/ha, tuber specific gravities were 
reduced. 

Delayed planting of Netted Gems after 
mid-May by 14 or 28 days reduced both the 
yield and specific gravity of tubers grown for 
processing over a 5-yr period. Maximum 
yields required up to 134 kg N/ha, with less 
required for later plantings. 

Effect of metribuzin residue on crops 
grown in rotation with potatoes. Residue 



carryover in fine sandy loam soils from 
metribuzin applied preemergence to potatoes 
at the recommended rate of 0.5 kg ai/ha did 
not reduce yield of winter rye seeded in 
September of the year of application, and of 
barley, red clover, and timothy seeded in May 
of the following year. At two to three times 
the recommended rate, metribuzin carryover 
had negligible effects on yield of these four 
rotation crops. 

Potato virology 

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 
(ELISA) was a reliable and sensitive tech- 
nique for diagnosing potato X (PVX), S 
(PVS), Y (PVY), and leafroll (PLRV) 
viruses in foliage of secondary-infected potato 
plants. This technique was also used success- 
fully to diagnose PVX and PVS in potato 
tubers. Use of ELISA for the diagnosis of 
PLRV and PVY in tubers is being developed 
for application in seed potato certification. 

Effect of lime and K on cabbage yields 

Cabbage yields were increased by 13 and 
7% by applying lime at 6726 kg/ha to soils 
with initial pH levels of 4.8 and 5.3, respec- 
tively. Yields were affected only slightly by 
added K. Neither the lime nor the K treat- 
ments affected the quality of samples held in 
refrigerated storage for 6 mo. 

Tobacco nutrition 

Sources of N. Five sources of N produced 
varying yields and quality of flue-cured to- 
bacco. The treatment containing 75% NH 4 -N 
+ 25% N0 3 -N gave the highest yield and 
dollar return per hectare. This ratio will 
replace the previous ratio of 50% NH 4 -N + 
50% N0 3 -N for commercial tobacco produc- 
tion on Prince Edward Island. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 



Baier, W.; St. Pierre, J. C; Lovering, J. H. 1980. 
Analysis of environmental factors affecting 
timothy yields. Agric. Meteorol. 23(3-4):319- 
339. 



Choo, T. M. 1980. Doubled haploids for estimating 
additive epistatic genetic variances in self- 
pollinating species. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 
22:125-127. 



Choo, T. M.; Klinck, H. R.; St. Pierre, C. A. 1980. 
The effect of location on natural selection in 
bulk populations of barley {Hordeum vulgare 
L.). I. Simply inherited traits. Can. J. Plant 
Sci. 60:31-40. 

Choo, T. M.; Klinck, H. R.; St. Pierre, C. A. 1980. 
The effect of location on natural selection in 
bulk populations of barley {Hordeum vulgare 
L.). II. Quantitative traits. Can. J. Plant Sci. 
60:41-47. 



RESEARCH STATION, CHARLOTTETOWN, P.E.I. 



101 



Choo, T. M.; Reinbergs, E.; Park, S. J. 1980. 
Studies on coefficients of variation of yield 
components and on character association by 
path coefficient analysis in barley under row 
and hill plot conditions. Z. Pflanzenzuecht. 
84:107-114. 

Cutcliffe, J. A.; Gupta, U. C. 1980. Effects of added 
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium on leaf tissue 
boron concentration of three vegetable crops. 
Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:571-576. 

Cutcliffe, J. A.; Munro, D. C. 1980. Effects of 
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and lime on 
yield and maturity of green peas. Can. J. Plant 
Sci. 60:599-604. 

Edgington, L. V.; Martin, R. A.; Bruin, G. C; 
Parsons, I. M. 1980. Systemic fungicides: A 
perspective after 10 years. Plant Dis. 64:19-23. 

Gupta, U. C; Kunelius, H. T. 1980. Effect of 
molybdenum, lime, and cropping on yield and 
molybdenum concentration of grass-legume 
mixtures and cabbage. Can. J. Plant Sci. 
60:113-120. 

Ivany, J. A. 1980. Effect of weed competition and 
weed control programs on rutabaga yield. Can. 
J. Plant Sci. 60:917-922. 

Ivany, J. A. 1980. EPTC compared with EPTC + 
antidotes for alfalfa establishment. Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:1049-1052. 

Johnston, H. W.; Ivany, J. A.; Cutcliffe, J. A. 1980. 
Effects of herbicides applied to soil on fusar- 
ium root rot of processing peas. Plant Dis. 
64:942-943. 

Kimpinski, J.; Willis, C. B. 1980. Influence of crops 
in the field on numbers of root lesion and stunt 
nematodes. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 2:33-36. 

Kunelius, H. T. 1980. Effects of nitrogen rates and 
harvest schedules on yield and quality of 
Westerwolds ryegrass grown as a summer 
annual. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:519-524. 

Mclsaac, J. A.; Lovering, J. H. 1980. A model for 
estimating silo losses and costs. Can. Farm 
Econ. 15(5):10-16. 

Narasimhalu, P. R.; Belzile, R. J.; Brisson, G. J.; 
Holtman, W. B. 1980. Adaptation of lactating 
cows to rations containing urea. J. Dairy Sci. 
63:1266-1272. 

Piatt, H. W. 1980. The effects of light intensity and 
relative humidity on conidiation in Pyreno- 
phora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechs. Can. J. 
Plant Pathol. 2:53-57. 

Piatt, H. W. 1980. The effects of windspeed and 
humidity on conidium liberation of Pyreno- 
phora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechs. Can. J. 
Plant Pathol. 2:58-64. 



Sadler, J. M. 1980. Effects of placement location 
for phosphorus banded away from the seed on 
growth and uptake of soil and fertilizer phos- 
phorus by flax. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:251-262. 

Suzuki, M.; Lund, C. W. 1980. Improved gas-liquid 
chromatography for simultaneous determina- 
tion of volatile fatty acids and lactic acid in 
silage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 28:1040-1041. 

Winter, K. A.; Javed, A. H. 1980. Fish silage as a 
protein source for early weaned calves. Can. J. 
Anim. Sci. 60:787-789. 

Miscellaneous 

Arsenault, W. J.; Johnston, H. W. 1980. Tobacco 
black root rot control studies using soil applied 
fungicides. Lighter 50(1):29-31. 

Cutcliffe, J. A. 1980. Effect of transplanting date 
on tomato yields in P.E.I. Canadex 257.20. 

Cutcliffe, J. A. 1980. Earlier cucumbers. Canadex 
256.20. 

Cutcliffe, J. A. 1980. Seeding rutabagas "on-the- 
flat" versus "hills." Canadex 250.22. 

Cutcliffe, J. A. 1980. Onion production in the 
Maritimes. Can. Agric. 25(3): 1 9. 

Cutcliffe, J. A.; Munro, D. C. 1980. Effects of N, P, 
K, and lime on pea yields. Canadex 142.20. 

Gupta, U. C. 1980. A simplified method for 
determining available boron in soils. Canadex 
531. 

Gupta, U. C. 1980. Boron deficiency symptoms in 
forage legumes. Canadex 532. 

Ivany, J. A. 1980. 1978 Prince Edward Island weed 
survey. Canadex 640. 

MacLeod, J. A. 1980. Effects of rate of application 
and time on N loss from urea applied to 
forages. Canadex 120.10. 

McRae, K.; White, R. P. 1980. A procedure for 
combining and evaluation of the performance 
of forage corn hybrids over years and locations. 
Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:320 (abstract). 

McDonald, J. G.; Singh, R. P. 1980. Comparison of 
ELISA with LAT for the post-harvest indexing 
of seed tubers for potato viruses X and S. Am. 
Potato J. 57:488 (abstract). 

Singh, R. P.; McDonald, J. G. 1980. A chlorotic 
mosaic of fall hawkbit (Leontodon autum- 
nalis). Can. Plant Dis. Surv. 60:47-50. 

Suzuki, M.; McRae, K. B.; MacKenzie, D. N. 
1980. Winter injury of forage legumes, winter 
cereals, and strawberries in the Maritimes. 
Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:321 (abstract). 

White, R. P. 1980. Planting date studies in a short 
season environment. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:321 
(abstract). 



102 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



White, R. P.; Munro, D. C. 1980. Seed size vs yield Willis, C. B. 1980. Reproduction of root lesion 

and size distribution on Netted Gem potatoes. nematode species in forage legumes and 

Canadex 258.22. grasses and yield effects. Canadex 628. 

Willis, C. B. 1980. Effect of root lesion nematodes 

White, R. P.; Munro, D. C; Lelacheur, K. E. 1980. on competitiveness of forage legumes, winter 

Availability to plants of magnesium from cereals, and strawberries in the Maritimes, 

different sources. Canadex 540. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:321 (abstract). 



RESEARCH STATION, CHARLOTTETOWN, P.E.I. 103 



Research Station 
Kentville, Nova Scotia 

PROFESSIONAL STAFF 
Administration 



G. M. Weaver, B.Sc, Ph.D. 
D. L. Craig, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.S., 
R. G. Ross, D.F.C., B.Sc. (Agr.), 
K. M. Carter, B.Comm. 



Ph.D. 
M.Sc. 



Ph.D. 



Director 

Assistant Director, Operations 
Assistant Director, Program 
Administrative Officer 



Scientific Support 



K. B. McRae, B.Ed., M.S., Ph.D. 
J. R. Miner, 1 B.A., M.L.S. 
M. L. C. Peveril, 2 B.Sc. 



Statistician 

Librarian 

Programmer 



Crops 



D. L. Craig, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.S., Ph.D. 

L. E. Aalders, B.Sc, M.Sc., Ph.D. 

C. R. Blatt, B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 

R. W. Jones, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

I. V. Hall, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

P. R. Hicklenton, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

C. L. Ricketson, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.S., Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Plant breeding 
Genetics and plant breeding 
Physiology and nutrition 
Cereal crops physiology 
Ecology and physiology 
Ornamental physiology 
Vegetable physiology 



Entomology 



A. W. MacPhee, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 
H. J. Herbert, B.Sc. (Agr.) 
W. T. A. Neilson, B.Sc, M.Sc 
K. H. Sanford, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. 
H. B. Specht, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.S., Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Insect ecology 

Pheromones and mites 

Fruit maggots 

Integrated control programs 

Vegetable and field crop insects 



RESEARCH STATION, KENTVILLE, N.S. 



105 



Plant Pathology and Pesticide Residues 



R. G. Ross, D.F.C., B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

M. G. Anderson, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

C. O. Gourley, CD., B.Sc. (Agr.) 

K. I. N. Jensen, B.S., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

E. R. Kimball, B.Sc. 

C. L. Lockhart, B.Sc (Agr.), M.Sc. 

M. T. H. Ragab, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Tree fruit diseases 

Vegetable storage diseases 

Berry crop diseases 

Herbicide physiology 

Residue chemistry 

Horticultural pathology 

Residue chemistry 



Poultry 

F. G. Proudfoot, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.S. 

H. W. Hulan, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Physiology and 
genetics 
Nutrition and physiology 



Processing, Distribution, and Retailing 



R. Stark, B.Sc, Ph.D. 
P. D. Lidster, B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 
P. A. Poapst, B.Sc (Agr.) 
W. G. Simpson, B.S.A., M.S. 



Head of Section; Food technology 
Storage physiology 
Storage physiology 
Technological services 



Tree Fruits 

A. D. Crowe, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 
D. H. Webster, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Plant breeding 
and physiology 
Soils and nutrition 



Experimental Farm, Nappan, N.S. 



F. W. Calder, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.S. 

J. E. Langille, B.Sc. (Agr.) 
T. A. Van Lunen, B.S.A. 



Officer in Charge; Forage crops 

agronomy 
Agronomy, cereal and forage crops 
Swine management and nutrition 



Departures 

D. B. Cumming, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Transferred to Summerland Research Station, 
November 1980 
R. B. Peveril, B.Sc. 
Resigned August 1980 



Food technology 



Programmer 



106 



research branch report I4S0 



J. R. E. Sawyer, B.Ed., M.L.S. Librarian 

Resigned May 1980 
L. R. Townsend, B.A., B.Sc. Plant physiology 

Retired December 1979 



'Seconded from Libraries Division, Finance and Administration Branch. 

'Seconded from Systems and Consulting Division, Finance and Administration Branch. 



RESEARCH STATION, KENTViLLE, N.S. 107 



INTRODUCTION 



This report highlights the principal research results from the Kentville Research Station 
and the Experimental Farm at Nappan for 1980. Kentville is the center for research in 
horticulture, poultry, food technology, and pesticide residues in the Atlantic Provinces. The 
Experimental Farm at Nappan, 80 km north of Kentville, serves as an associate establishment 
doing applied and developmental research on the production of cereals, forages, and lowbush 
blueberries, and on the management of livestock. The Atlantic region is characterized by a 
cool, humid climate and by Podzol soils which sustain a diverse agriculture. 

Completion of the new office-laboratory complex is expected in the spring of 1981. 
Occupancy, however, commenced in October 1980, with facilities nearing full operational 
status at time of reporting. The consolidation of staff in the new center with access to modern 
facilities for controlled manipulation of scientific experimentation should offer substantial 
stimulus to establishment programs. 

Crop physiology research was also augmented significantly with the successful 
recruitment of cereal and vegetable specialists during the year. 

Requests for further information or reprints of publications should be addressed to the 
Research Station, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Kentville, N.S. B4N 1 J5. 

G. M. Weaver 
Director 



BREEDING, NUTRITION, AND 
CULTURE OF CROPS 

Lowbush blueberries 

Seed characteristics. Seed production ba- 
sed on number of seeds per berry differed in 
four clones of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium 
angustifolium Ait.). Large seeds were more 
viable than small seeds. 

Promotion by tryptophan of growth and 
root formation in lowbush blueberry pericarp 
callus cultures. Lowbush blueberry {Vaccin- 
ium angustifolium Ait.) pericarp callus grew 
slowly and formed normal tetraploid roots on 
Nitsch's medium containing L-tryptophan and 
kinetin. Both growth and rooting depended on 
the levels of these two substances in the 
medium. Rooting declined but callus growth 
rates changed little over successive subcul- 
tures. When tryptophan was replaced by 
indoleacetic acid, indolebutyric acid, 2,4- 
dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, or naphtha- 
leneacetic acid, callus growth rates increased 
but no roots formed. Tryptophan medium did 
not support callus growth or induce rooting 
unless the tryptophan was autoclaved with the 
rest of the medium, thus suggesting that an 
active substance is produced by reaction of 
the tryptophan with one or more other constit- 
uents of the medium during heating. 



Lowbush blueberry breeding. Plants of 16 
ultraselect lowbush blueberry clones were 
prepared for a 1981 first planting of the 
advanced regional replicated field trials. The 
trials are to be evaluated in five areas, namely 
Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince 
Edward Island, and Maine. 

A replicated yield trial of 53 entries plus 10 
standards was planted at Sheffield in 1980 
using an incomplete block design. Plants were 
prepared for a similar trial to be planted in 
1981, and an additional 22 clones were 
elevated to replicate field trial status. 

The first yields were recorded from the 27- 
entry replicated yield trial set in 1978 and the 
10-entry seedling progeny yield trial also set 
in 1978. Fourth harvest yields were also 
recorded from the block planted in 1972. 
Yields of 15.3 and 14.3 kg per 12-plant plot 
were recorded for clones 70-36 and 70-21, 
respectively. For the first time at Kentville, all 
lowbush blueberry fruit was raked and win- 
nowed for yield records in 1980, instead of 
being hand picked as has been done in the 
past. 

A total of 30 new selections were made 
from the block of 3336 seedlings planted in 
1978, and a new block of 4368 seedlings was 
set in 1 980 for evaluation in 1 982. 



[08 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Grapes 

Cultivar testing. Fruit yield and juice 
analysis were obtained from 31 of the 56 
grape cultivars on test at Kentville. The cool 
weather of May and June delayed flowering 
and thus fruit maturity by 10-15 days. This 
adverse growing season permitted the identi- 
fication of cultivars best suited to the local 
environment. Four red wine, three white wine, 
and two seedless dessert types were identified 
as adaptable and useful cultivars for this 
region. The first local cottage wine industry 
was established near Kentville in 1980. Culti- 
vars used to establish the industry had been 
identified in previous tests conducted at 
Kentville. 



Raspberries 

Red raspberry breeding. The Kentville 
seedling selection K70-11 (Southland x 
Boyne) has been named Nova. Nova has 
proved to be winter-hardy following 10 yr of 
plot testing in Nova Scotia plus several years 
in Prince Edward Island and Quebec. With 
the exception of the cultivar Festival, no 
cultivar meets the regional requirement of 
cane winterhardiness, high fruit yield capabil- 
ity, plus fruit quality; Nova appears to meet 
these requirements, thereby potentially pro- 
viding a second good cultivar for the region. 

Strawberries 

Breeding. Evaluation trials of selections 
from the Kentville breeding program have 
identified four superior selections (K73-2, 
K75-13, K76-9, K78-4) for inclusion in the 
1981 regional test plots. The high-yielding, 
large-fruited selection K74-10 has been 
named Kent and released to the public via 
commercial nurseries. 

The breeding program designed to incorpo- 
rate field tolerance for the red stele organism 
(Phytophthora fragariae) has produced selec- 
tions which will be propagated by a local 
nursery for distribution to commercial grow- 
ers. All crosses made in 1980 included a 
parent resistant to red stele. Seedling inocula- 
tion with a strain complex of the red stele 
organism was carried out at Kentville. The 
inoculation survivors (1478) which were 
planted in land infested with the red stele 
organism will be evaluated in 1981. 



Cereals 

Animo fall rye. This cultivar is well 
adapted to the Annapolis Valley of Nova 
Scotia and was found to be superior in 
yielding ability to Kustro, Kodiak, and Puma. 
Animo has a higher kernel weight than its 
contemporaries, has good lodging resistance, 
and has straw which is shorter than Kodiak or 
Puma. 

Field crops 

Yields of forage peas. The first forage pea 
trial was carried out in 1977 and the respec- 
tive yields were: Century 3274 kg/ha, Mi- 
nerva Maple 3126 kg/ha, and Trapper 2610 
kg/ha. Five varieties were grown in 1978 and 
the leading cultivar was Krupp at 8862 kg/ha 
followed by Rosakrone at 7544 kg/ha, Mi- 
nerva Maple at 7421 kg/ha, Century at 7212 
kg/ha, and Trapper at 4978 kg/ha. Forage 
peas are considered a highly productive one- 
harvest crop. 

Ornamentals 

Refining slow-release fertilizer treatments 
for containerized plants in soilless mixes. 
Following two consecutive years of study, a 
suitable rate and form of slow-release fertil- 
izer (isobutylidene diurea, IBDU 31-0-0) has 
been determined to sustain growth rates and 
appearance of containerized Ardorra junipers 
through one growing season. Plants were 
grown successfully in a mixture containing 
three parts sawdust to one part peat with an 
admixture of 380 g pelletized IBDU per 
bushel. The fine, Par-Ex form of IBDU at the 
same rate did not provide adequate plant 
nitrogen through the season. In these trials 
phosphorus was supplied as superphosphate 
and potassium as muriate of potash or fritted 
potassium. Minor elements were also added in 
a fritted form as a medium premix. No visual 
differences in plant quality could be found 
between the soluble (muriate) and slow- 
release (fritted) forms of potassium. 

Hardiness zone effects on storage of con- 
tainerized ornamentals under various cover- 
ings. Despite widespread use of storage houses 
covered with white polyethylene for overwin- 
tering containerized ornamentals, trials con- 
ducted during 1979-80 indicated that the 
method is not always satisfactory for plants 
which are important in the Atlantic Region. 
Winter storage of Cotoneaster dammeri in 
plant hardiness zone 6a under white polyeth- 
ylene resulted in satisfactory spring quality, 



RESEARCH STATION, KENTVILLE, N.S. 



109 



whereas in zone 5a the same treatment caused 
severe leaf browning and damage. The same 
species overwintered under flexible 6-mm 
styrofoam (Microfoam) was undamaged in 
either zone. 

Differences in the effectiveness of white 
polyethylene storage were related to lower 
root temperatures under zone 5a conditions. 
Microfoam maintained root temperatures 
significantly above the killing point in both 
zones. Juniperus chinensis cv. Pfitzeriana 
Aurea stored well under white polyethylene or 
microfoam under 5a or 6a conditions. The 
choice of storage method for containerized 
ornamentals should take into consideration 
species characteristics (particularly root har- 
diness) and the winter climate of the storage 
site. 

Effects of carbon dioxide on flowering and 
vegetative development in Pharbitis nil. 
Short-day (SD) photoperiods (8 h light - 16 h 
dark) caused rapid flowering in Pharbitis 
plants grown in 0.03 or 0.1% C0 2 , whereas 
plants in long-day (LD) conditions remained 
vegetative. At 1 or 5% C0 2 , however, flower 
buds were developed under both the SD and 
LD photoperiods. Flowering was earliest in 
plants exposed to SD at low C0 2 concentra- 
tions, when floral buds were formed at node 3 
or 4. At high C0 2 concentrations, floral buds 
did not form until node 6 or 7. Both high CO, 
concentrations and LD photoperiods tended to 
enhance stem elongation and leaf formation. 
Subsequent experiments on C0 2 exchange 
indicated that the occurrence of flowering 
under normally noninductive LD photoperi- 
ods at 1 or 5% C0 2 could not be readily 
explained in terms of higher photosynthetic 
rates. It is possible that inadvertently high 
C0 2 concentrations in greenhouses producing 
floricultural crops may lead to undesirable 
effects on plant morphology. 

Ornamental cultivar evaluations. Twenty- 
eight species of ornamental trees and shrubs 
were established in test plots during 1980. 
This planting represented the start of an 
ongoing evaluation program which will be 
developed during future years to include 
locations in Nova Scotia, Prince Edward 
Island, and New Brunswick. The 1980 plant- 
ings were duplicated at the L'Assomption 
Experimental Farm, Que. Each year more 
species will be added to the inventory in this 
testing network, and evaluations will be 
conducted at each location over a minimum 
5-yr period. 



Rhododendron breeding. Several promising 
seedlings were selected in 1980 including 
yellow-flowering types. The white-flowered 
Kentville seedling selection K74-02 (Cun- 
ningham's White x Rhododendron yakusi- 
manum) was named Minas Snow. 



PROTECTION OF CROPS AGAINST 
PESTS 

Plant pathology 

Persistence of captafol applied with foliar 
nutrients during fruit bud development of 
apple. Adding the foliar nutrients urea and 
magnesium sulfate to captafol sprays applied 
to apples with active ingredient (ai) at 2.4 kg/ 
1000 L water at the pink stage of fruit bud 
development did not affect the persistence and 
redistribution of captafol deposits. Residues 
were higher on foliage throughout the season 
and on the fruit at harvest when captafol at 6 
kg ai/ 1000 L was applied at the pink stage of 
fruit bud development than when it was 
applied when fruit buds were in earlier stages 
of development. 

Evaluation of fungicides on apple. Apple 
scab pressure was high, with infection periods 
frequent throughout the spray season in which 
light sprays were applied dilute to run-off 
with a handgun to the cultivars Mcintosh and 
Cortland. The experimental fungicides Bay- 
cor 50 WP and CGA-64251 look particularly 
promising for scab control. Both were very 
effective in mixtures with captan. Baycor with 
the surfactant AL-411F gave excellent scab 
control but caused a slightly mottled chlorosis 
to foliage. The foliage of trees sprayed with 
CGA-64251 was crinkled, somewhat leathery, 
and darker green than normal. A test in which 
these fungicides were applied at 24, 48, and 
72 h following two heavy apple scab infection 
periods suggests that both act as eradicants or 
after-rain fungicides up to at least 72 h 
following apple scab infection periods. 

Control of twig and blossom blight of 
highbush blueberry with fungicides. Foliar 
sprays of Funginex and Ronilan gave signifi- 
cant control of twig and blossom blight and 
the mummyberry stage of Monilinia vaccinii- 
corymbosi (Reade) Honey. Funginex was 
more effective than Ronilan in controlling 
twig and blossom blight and its use increased 
yields significantly over those of control plots. 



no 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Observations on white mold in snap beans. 
White mold (caused by Sclerotinia sclerotio- 
rum (Lib.) deBary) was a problem in snap 
bean fields where beans had been grown in 
previous years and in the dense weedy areas of 
the fields. In these locations infections ranged 
from 10 to 50% of the plants exhibiting 
disease symptoms. Losses were less than 5% 
in the 40 ha surveyed. 

Observations on storage rots of Mcintosh 
apples in low oxygen storage. The amounts of 
storage rots were lower in the lower levels of 
oxygen concentrations, particularly in the 
absence of carbon dioxide. Increasing the 
concentrations of carbon dioxide from 1 to 5% 
decreased the amount of rots in the higher 
concentrations of oxygen. 

Insect pests 

Control of blueberry thrips with per- 
methrin, the effect on yield, and the residue in 
fruit. Permethrin at 0.4 kg ai/ha controlled 
blueberry thrips (Frankliniella vaccinii Mor- 
gan). There was no plant damage, and crop 
yield was significantly increased. Permethrin 
residues were not detected in berries. 

Pesticide residues 

Asulam for control of eastern bracken fern 
in lowbush blueberry fields. Eastern bracken 
fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. 
latiusculum (Desv.) Underw.) in fields of 
lowbush blueberry {Vaccinium sp.) was ef- 
fectively controlled by spray application of 
asulam (methyl sulfanilylcarbamate), a sys- 
temic herbicide. No detectable residue of 
asulam was found in fruit harvested from 
treated plots. Spray applications were at 1.12 
and 2.24 kg/ha. The higher rate was more 
thorough than the lower rate in reducing the 
number of bracken fronds. 

Comparative behavior of simazine and 
terbacil in soils. Adsorption of simazine (2- 
chloro-4,6-bisethylamino- 1 ,3,5-triazine) was 
2.3 to 3.7 times greater than that of terbacil 
(5-chloro-6-methyl-3-?-butyluracil) in the 
same soils, and adsorption of both herbicides 
was two to four times greater in the topsoils 
than in subsoils. Adsorption was inversely 
correlated with herbicide movement in a 
thick-layer chromatography system. One year 
after application of 3 kg/ha to field plots, 
simazine residues were highest near the soil 
surface, whereas terbacil residues increased 
with soil depth in the sandy and sandy loam 



soils" indicating that leaching plays a signifi- 
cant role in terbacil dissipation from soils. 
Total residues recovered from the upper 25 
cm of soils ranged from 6-18% and 16-32% 
of that applied for simazine and terbacil, 
respectively. In an oat seedling bioassay, the 
gr 50 values were generally one and one-half to 
three times higher for simazine than for 
terbacil in the same soils. Both herbicides 
were more phytotoxic at pH 7.1 than at pH 
5.4. 

Herbicide residues in lowbush blueberry. 
Lowbush blueberry plants were treated with 
asulam, dichlobenil, 2,4-D, pronamide, or 
simazine at the recommended rates. The area 
was burned before regrowth began in the 
following spring. No residues of herbicides 
were detected in the berries 2 yr after 
application. 

Persistence of dinitramine and trifluralin 
in soils. Persistence of two dinitroaniline 
herbicides in two loamy sand soils of the 
Somerset and Berwick series was found to be 
greater than anticipated. Half-lives of spring- 
applied dinitramine in the Somerset and 
Berwick soils was 51 and 72 days, respec- 
tively, and 126 days for trifluralin in the 
Berwick soil. Trifluralin had not dissipated to 
the 50% level in the Somerset soil over the 
190-day test period. An indicator plant, 
Setaria viridis, showed severe stunting when 
grown in soils sampled in late September from 
plots treated with trifluralin at 1.0 kg/ha in 
late May. 

Residues of glyphosate and its major 
metabolite in crops as a result of the 
preemergence treatment with Roundup® her- 
bicide. Neither glyphosate nor its metabolite 
were found in mature crops of corn, oats, snap 
beans, peas, carrots, or red beets preemer- 
gently treated with Roundup® at 4 kg ai/ha in 
300 L water. Analysis was made by gas and 
thin-layer chromatography. 



PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTING, 
AND RETAILING 

Applications of surface waxes to sweet 
cherries prolongs expected shelf life and 
reduces disorders resulting from mechanical 
damage. Surface damage caused by mechani- 
cal injury, stem discoloration and shriveling, 
and fruit weight loss in sweet cherries 
{Prunus avium L.) are persistent problems 
facing Canadian sweet cherry industries. 



RESEARCH STATION, KENTVILLE, N.S. 



Ill 



Applications of emulsifiable coatings to cher- 
ries have significantly reduced surface disor- 
ders, fruit and stem desiccation, and stem 
discoloration. In addition, wax formulations 
applied to cherries have enhanced fruit gloss, 
improved overall appearance of the fruit, and 
increased the potential shelf life by 100%. 

Characteristics of frozen strawberries. The 
physical and chemical characteristics of nu- 
merous strawberry varieties have been exam- 
ined for attributes associated with a high- 
quality frozen product. Measurements are 
made on the fresh strawberries at the time of 
harvest and on the frozen products after 
approximately 6 mo of storage at -26°C. 
Good agreement has been found between 
measurement of color with a Hunterlab color 
difference meter and the judgment of color by 
a taste panel. 

Fruit maturity and storage parameters 
affect fruit response to low-oxygen atmo- 
spheres. Several fruit and storage parameters 
have been identified which affect the response 
of Mcintosh apples {Malus domestica Borkh) 
to low-oxygen (1.0% 2 ) storage atmospheres. 
Fruit maturity at harvest is critical for 
optimum low-oxygen storage retention of fruit 
firmness. Immature and overmature fruit will 
have accelerated firmness loss in storage. 
Postclimacteric fruit are susceptible to inter- 
nal browning in 1.0% oxygen atmospheres. 
Similarly, storage temperatures of 0°C when 
Mcintosh apples are held at 1.0% may 
predispose the fruit to an internal breakdown 
disorder. Carbon dioxide (0-5.0%) in the 
storage atmosphere is negatively correlated 
with the retention of fruit firmness when 
storage oxygen levels are at 1 .0% or lower. 

Low-oxygen storage maintains apple qual- 
ity in several cultivars. Recent developments 
indicate that present oxygen levels recom- 
mended for controlled atmosphere (CA) 
storage of several apple cultivars {Malus 
domestica Borkh) do not provide for optimum 
retention of fruit quality and maximum 
storage life. Reduction of CA oxygen levels to 
1.0% or lower has the potential of greatly 
enhancing the maintenance of fruit firmness, 
acidity, juiciness, and overall acceptability of 
Golden Delicious, Mcintosh, and Cortland 
apples in storage. Mcintosh apples respond 
particularly well to low-oxygen atmospheres 
and demonstrate the potential for commercial 
year-round marketing of this variety. 



The development of a new blanching sys- 
tem. Blanching as a commercial process, 
though vitally necessary, tends to be energy 
intensive and high in effluent production, and 
in many cases significantly reduces the nutri- 
ent content of products. Over a 7-yr period a 
new prototype blancher has been developed 
which has been demonstrated to reduce 
energy requirements as much as 10 times 
when compared with conventional procedures. 
Most vegetables tested show ascorbic acid 
retentions of 85-90% of fresh produce and 
improvements in retention over water blanch 
processes of up to 52%. Effluent volumes and 
overall loads tend to be significantly reduced. 

Extensive testing has shown the new 
process system provides significant im- 
provements in the process parameters outlined 
above while yielding products of high quality 
that are, in many cases, superior to conven- 
tionally processed products. A program is now 
under way to develop the system as a com- 
mercial entity. A unit capable of blanching 
peas at 2720 kg/h was tested during the 
processing seasons of 1979 and 1980. 

The effect of an individual quick blanching 
method on ascorbic acid retention in selected 
vegetables. Method of blanching (including 
cooling) was found to have a significant effect 
on residual ascorbic acid level in peas (P < 
0.01) and broccoli (P < 0.001), but not in cut 
green beans (P > 0.05). The separate parts of 
the procedure (heating and cooling) had an 
additive effect but acted independently of one 
another. In each case where a difference was 
observed the experimental procedure (individ- 
ual quick blanch - evaporative or air cool) 
was found to yield a product higher in 
ascorbic acid than the conventionally pro- 
cessed product (water blanch - water cool). 
The practical implication is that adoption of 
specialized steam blanch procedures or evapo- 
rative cooling will result in improved nutrient 
levels in sensitive vegetables (e.g. peas and 
broccoli) compared with the conventional 
product. The experiments also indicated that 
any contact of heat and water with susceptible 
vegetable materials will cause a marked 
reduction in ascorbic acid levels. For the 
vegetables studied, the K-l individual quick 
blanch system yielded a fully blanched pro- 
duct which retained mean ascorbic acid levels 
between 82 and 91% of raw values, depending 
on the specific vegetable. 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



ANIMAL SCIENCE 



Cattle 



Early weaning of beef cows in dry lot. 
Calves, from half the cows which were 
wintered on either an adequate or a low plane 
of nutrition, were weaned at about 2 mo of 
age and reared on ad libitum creep feed and 
hay to the normal weaning age of 200 days. 
Calves left with the cows were fed creep feed 
ad libitum and had access to forage in the 
feed bunk. Early weaning did not affect the 
weights of calves at 200 days of age for cows 
on the adequate level of nutrition, but early 
weaned calves from the low-plane cows aver- 
aged 7 kg less than those left with the cows. 
Early weaning improved conception rate of 
the cows on the low level of feeding but had 
no effect for those fed adequately. The most 
economical feeding program was the low 
plane of nutrition with early weaning. 

Effect on animal gain of steam-treating 
grass for silage. Four crops were compared as 
unwilted silage for beef cattle weight gain: (a) 
grass harvested 14-15 June, early head stage, 
of 61% digestible in vitro dry matter (DM); 
(b) similar grass, steamed standing, harvested 
14-15 June, early head stage of 63% digest- 
ible DM; (<:) second harvest of grass from 
same area as a above harvested 22-24 Au- 
gust, early head stage of 59% digestibility; (d) 
grass-legume, second harvest on 22-24 Au- 
gust, early head - early bloom stage of 62% 
digestible DM. Steaming of grass in b was 
accomplished with the Dutch thermal unit. 
Animal gains (kilograms per head per day) 
when silage only was offered were: (a) 0.45; 
(b) 0.71; (c) 0.47; and (d) 0.71. This repre- 
sents an increase of 57% in animal gain 
resulting from steaming a standing grass 
sward prior to ensiling, compared with a 30% 
increase obtained by supplementing the con- 
ventional silage ration with 1 kg of barley per 
day. 

Monensin for beef cows. Monensin, a feed 
additive approved in Canada for use with 
feedlot cattle, has not been approved for 
breeding animals. In 3 yr of testing with the 
Nappan beef cow herd, it has proved effective 
in improving the efficiency of feed conversion 
and has not shown any detrimental effects on 
reproductive performance of the cows. In 1 yr 
when feeding was suboptimal, there was 
evidence of a beneficial effect on conception 
rate from feeding monensin. 



Stocking rate for reed canarygrass pasture. 
It was found that a reed canarygrass sward 
grazed rotationally and at a low stocking rate 
will continue to persist for at least 3 yr. Two 
years of continuous grazing nearly eliminated 
the stand in previous experiments. Animal 
gain was not significantly different between a 
low and high grazing intensity, but the low 
grazing intensity favored the reed canarygrass 
production, with a dry matter yield of 8.87 
Mt/ha. 

Use of prostaglandin to synchronize estrus. 
The main cow herd at Nappan was injected 
with prostaglandin on 2 days 10 days apart 
and inseminated twice on the 3rd and 4th day 
after the second injection. Less than 50% of 
the herd conceived to these inseminations. 
Weaning the calves on the day following the 
second injection did not improve conception 
rates at the timed inseminations, but it did 
increase conception rates of the cows over the 
2-mo breeding season, especially for cows that 
were on a low plane of nutrition prior to 
weaning. 

Hogs 

Comparison of growing weaner pigs on 
raised decks and on solid flooring. Raised 
weaner decks are increasing in popularity 
across Canada and the United States. 
Because of this popularity it was decided to 
test this equipment via two experiments, using 
a total of 150 weaner pigs. The pigs were 
placed on six treatments which compared 
weaner decks to floor pens at three stocking 
densities. Results indicate that performance 
of pigs in terms of growth rate, feed conver- 
sion, health, and carcass quality is not im- 
proved by the use of weaner decks. It was also 
found that weaner pigs reared in low stocking 
densities perform better than those kept in 
higher densities. 

Effect of fish silage supplementation of 
feed on performance of growing-finishing 
swine. Fish silage in addition to a 16% crude 
protein ration was fed to 24 pigs from 40 kg to 
60 kg liveweight. Consumption of fish silage, 
when fed separately from the rest of the 
ration, does not appear to be a viable supple- 
ment for swine rations. Other feeding meth- 
ods will be tested in future trials. 

Effect of sodium hypochlorite on the 
growth of pigs. Water containing 1000 ppm 
sodium hypochlorite was given to 10 barrow 
pigs from 4 wk of age to market weight. 



RESEARCH STATION, KENTVILLE, N.S. 



113 



Consumption of sodium hypochlorite resulted 
in no measurable effect on growth rate, feed 
conversion, or carcass quality. 

The influence of number of animals per 
pen and presence of free choice minerals on 
leg weakness in boars. The feeding of a free- 
choice mineral mix, and the opportunity for 
increased exercise, were tested on boars both 
with and without foot and leg weakness. The 
results indicate that neither of the treatments 
tested have any effect on the feet and legs of 
boars. 

Poultry 

Cooking characteristics and eating quality 
of broiler chickens fed squid meal. Meat 
from frozen broiler chickens that had been fed 
diets containing (control), 5, 10, or 15% 
squid meal was evaluated for its cooking 
characteristics and eating quality. Ten panel- 
ists scored samples for flavor, juiciness, 
tenderness, and off-flavor. Control samples 
lost significantly more weight (P < 0.05) 
during cooking than did the 5% squid meal 
samples. As the level of squid meal in the 
diets increased, the chicken flavor intensity 
decreased slightly but not significantly. Off- 
flavors were detected in samples from all 
treatments including the control. The off- 
flavor of control and 5% squid meal samples 
was not characterized by the judges, whereas 
the most common description of the off-flavor 
for the 10% and 15% squid meal samples was 
'fishy.' Control samples were significantly less 
juicy (P < 0.05) than squid meal and 
significantly less tender (P < 0.05) than 
either the 5 or 10% squid meal samples. It is 
concluded that up to 10% squid meal can be 
fed to broiler chickens without significantly 
affecting cooking characteristics or eating 
quality of the meat produced. 

Effect of vitamins on the incidence of 
mortality and acute death syndrome (flip- 
over') in broiler chickens. Eight different 
vitamin mixtures were each fed to six repli- 
cate pens (150 birds per pen) of day-old Cobb 
chicks in a completely randomized design to 
evaluate the effect of biotin, pyridoxine, and 
thiamine singly or in combination and the 
effect of feeding these vitamins in addition to 
the standard vitamins at two and four times 
their required level on mortality and incidence 
of acute death syndrome (ADS) or 'flip-over' 
of broiler chickens. Further additions to the 
standard vitamins and addition of thiamine to 
the standard vitamin mixture significantly 



increased 28-day liveweights (P < 0.05). The 
addition of biotin or thiamine significantly 
improved feed conversion (P < 0.05). Mone- 
tary returns were reduced for those diets 
involving multiple additions of vitamins owing 
to increased feed costs. Total mortality and 
mortality attributed to ADS appeared to be 
reduced by the inclusion of additional vita- 
mins. The inclusion of biotin alone signifi- 
cantly reduced total mortality (P < 0.05) and 
mortality due to ADS {P < 0.05). 

Influence of genotype and diet on general 
performance and incidence of leg abnormali- 
ties of commercial broilers reared to roaster 
weight. Two experiments were conducted to 
study the influence of genotype and diet on 
general performance and incidence of leg 
abnormalities of commercial broiler chickens 
reared to roaster weight. In experiment 1 a 
total of 1960 male day-old chicks of seven 
different commercial genotypes were housed 
separately in 14 pens (25.64 m 2 ) with 140 
birds per pen and fed one dietary regimen. In 
experiment 2, 3000 male day-old chicks of 
two commercial genotypes were randomly 
assigned to 20 pens (13.54 m 2 ) with 150 birds 
per pen, and two replicate pens were fed one 
of the five different dietary regimens designed 
to promote rapid, intermediate, or slow 
growth. 

Differences {P < 0.05) were observed 
among the genotypes tested (experiment 1) in 
the incidence of mortality, leg abnormalities, 
liveweight, and feed conversion but not for 
mean monetary returns per bird housed. In 
experiment 2, significant differences (P < 
0.01) were observed among the dietary reg- 
imens tested for liveweight, feed conversion, 
and monetary returns per bird housed. As the 
protein content of starters, growers, and 
finishers decreased, body weight decreased 
but monetary returns improved. Feeding the 
birds beyond 63 days resulted in a substantial 
reduction in monetary returns. A dietary 
regimen which included starter, grower, de- 
veloper, and finisher with 18, 24, 22, and 14% 
protein, respectively, resulted in significantly 
better feed conversion and a significantly 
lower incidence of leg abnormalities. 

Performance of chicken broilers changed 
from starter to finisher diets at different ages. 
A total of 1600 broiler chickens were fed a 
starter diet (24.0% protein and metabolizable 
energy of 12.45 MJ/kg) and a finisher diet 
(15.9% protein and metabolizable energy of 



114 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



13.45 MJ/kg) in this experiment. Commenc- 
ing at 24 days of age, and at daily intervals 
thereafter to 33 days inclusive, randomly 
selected pens of birds were switched from 
starter to finisher diets. All surviving birds 
were slaughtered at 49 days. Although mor- 
tality was slightly higher among females, 
body weights were numerically heavier when 
birds were switched from starter to finisher at 
28 days of age. However, this was not 
reflected in a significant difference in mone- 
tary returns (P < 0.05). It is concluded that 
broiler chickens fed diets described herein 
may be changed from starter to finisher diets 
over ages ranging from 24 to 33 days without 
markedly affecting general performance or 
monetary returns. This latter relationship 
may change with different ingredient costs. 

The effect of diet, feed withdrawal, and 
carcass chilling on the live and eviscerated 
weights of broiler chickens. Nine hundred 
broiler chickens, which had been reared on six 
different dietary regimens, were involved in 
an experiment to estimate the effect of feed 
withdrawal for 0, 8, and 18 h prior to 
slaughter. Gains in eviscerated weights during 
immersion cooling and holding in an ice pack 
were estimated by weighing eviscerated car- 
casses prior to their entrance into the ice 
water of the cooling tank and after being held 
in an ice pack for 20 h. Body weights were not 
significantly affected (P < 0.05) by dietary 
treatments. Compared with the control (0 h), 
body weights were significantly reduced with 
8 h and 18 h of feed withdrawal. These weight 
losses represent a reduction in monetary 
returns over feed costs of 2.0 and 8.4 cents per 
bird, respectively. The increase in eviscerated 
carcass weight that occurred during the 
cooling and holding in an ice pack for 20 h 
amounted to 6.9% and 6.5% for male and 
female carcasses, respectively. 

The effects of dietary protein levels, ahem- 
eral light and dark cycles, and intermittent 
photoperiods on the performance of chicken 
broiler parent genotypes. Experimentation 
was undertaken to estimate the effects of: (/) 
two dietary protein levels (13.6 and 15.4%) in 
breeder diets fed to commercial meat parent 
genotypes; and (2) six photoperiods involving 
24-h and 27-h (ahemeral) day cycles with 
single-stage and intermittent lighting for 
birds housed in floor pens. It was concluded 
that the 13.6% protein breeder diet, which 
provided 14.8 and 20.9 g of protein per bird 



per d*ay and from 301 to 425 kcal of metab- 
olizable energy (ME) per bird per day, was 
adequate to support optimum performance. 

The ahemeral light treatment 14L:13D 
used from 168 to 448 days had a depressing 
effect on egg production and feed efficiency 
compared with the conventional 24-h-day 
cycle with 14L:10D light treatment. The 
14L:13D treatment, however, did result in 
increased egg size and improved shell 
strength. The intermittent light treatments, 
whether ahemeral or 24-h cycle, resulted in 
improved egg weight and shell strength. The 
ahemeral intermittent treatment (10L: 
12D:2L:3D) had the effect of depressing 
fertility and hatchability, whereas the 24-h 
intermittent photoperiod (10L:9D:2L:3D) 
resulted in fertility and hatchability being 
equal to or better than with other treatments. 
It was concluded that the 24-h intermittent 
light treatment (10L:9D:2L:3D) supported 
performance which was equal to or better 
than other light treatments including the 27-h 
ahemeral day cycles. 

The effect of several different photoperiods 
on the performance of meat-parent geno- 
types. A total of 4700 birds, consisting of four 
commercial meat-parent genotypes, were used 
in two experiments to estimate the effects of 
several photoperiod treatments. In each ex- 
periment, the rearing photoperiod treatments 
consisted of (/) a constant 8-h period of light 
per day and (2) a constant 12.5-h period of 
light per day. In the first experiment birds 
reared on 8 h of light per day were subjected 
to three adult photoperiods: (A) increased 
from 9 h at 20 wk to 16-h constant photope- 
riod at 32 wk, (B) 16-h constant photoperiod 
from 20 wk to end of experiment, and (C) 
intermittent photoperiod 10.5D-2L-2D-9.5L. 
The group reared on the 12.5-h photoperiod 
were subjected to three adult photoperiods: 
(D) increased from 12.5 h of light per day at 
20 wk to 17 h constant at 32 wk, (E) 
increased from a 12.5 h of light per day at 20 
wk to 16 h at 22 wk, and (F) changed to 
10.5D-2L-9.5L day cycle. Photoperiod treat- 
ments were the same in experiment 2 except 
that the adult treatments were introduced 1 
wk earlier and treatments C and F were 
changed to 9.5D-2L-2D-10.5L. There were 
significant genotypic effects for practically all 
traits measured except mortality. Photoperi- 
ods Z), E, and F resulted in a significant delay 
in sexual maturity compared to A, B, and C. 
Egg production tended to be higher for 



RESEARCH STATION, KENTVILLE, N.S. 



115 



treatments A, B, and C, with treatment C 
supporting the best general performance. 

The effect of Nutri-Bond as a pellet binder 
in chicken broiler genotypes. A total of 1360 
male and female chickens were fed starter 
and finisher diets containing 0, 1, 2, or 3% 
Nutri-Bond in two separate experiments. A 
different genotype was used in each experi- 
ment. No significant treatment effects were 
observed for mortality or feed conversion. 
Body weights in one experiment were lower 
when Nutri-Bond was fed. Monetary returns 
were lower when diets contained Nutri-Bond. 

The nutritional value of rapeseed meal for 
layer genotypes housed in pens. A total of 600 
single-comb White Leghorn (SCWL) pullets 
of two commercial genotypes (300 of each) 
were fed soybean meal (SM) or rapeseed 
meal (RSM) during either or both the grow- 
ing and laying periods. RSM can replace a 
major portion (74%) of the SM of starter and 
grower diets without affecting mortality or 
feed consumption adversely. Differences (P < 
0.05) were observed between the two geno- 
types for age at sexual maturity, body weight, 
egg weight, Haugh units, and specific gravity 
of eggs, but not for percentage mortality, hen- 
housed egg production, or feed conversion. 
Feeding RSM had no effect on body weight at 
497 days, egg production, feed conversion, or 
Haugh units, but it significantly (P < 0.05) 
reduced egg size at 497 days and egg specific 
gravity. This study indicated that RSM is a 
good source of dietary protein for layer 
genotypes housed in pens and that it can 
replace a major portion of SM in such diets 
without adverse effects. 

The nutritional value of rapeseed meal for 
caged layers. A total of 1536 SCWL pullets 
of two commercial genotypes (768 of each) 
were fed soybean meal (SM), Tower, or 
Candle rapeseed meal (RSM) during either 
the growing or the laying period or both. 
RSM can replace a major portion (74%) of 
the soybean meal of starter and grower diets 
without adversely affecting mortality or feed 
consumption. Differences were observed 
between the two genotypes for all traits 
measured during the laying period, except for 
mortality. Switching the birds from an SM 
grower diet to a 15% RSM layer diet resulted 
in a significant (P < 0.05) increase in 
mortality. In general, the feeding of Tower 
RSM during both the growing and laying 
periods resulted in heavier birds, earlier 



sexual maturity, higher egg production, and 
improved feed efficiency than when diets 
containing Candle RSM were fed. It is 
concluded that RSM can replace a major 
portion of the SM in grower and layer diets 
without adverse effects, providing amino acid 
and nutrition balance is maintained by 
slightly increasing the amount of fishmeal 
added. 

The nutritional value of Tower and Candle 
rapeseed meals for turkey broilers housed 
under various lighting conditions. A total of 
1200 poults were housed in a split-plot 
arrangement to evaluate four different dietary 
treatments and three light treatments. Pre- 
starter and starter diets contained or* 10% 
Tower rapeseed meal (RSM), Candle RSM, 
a combination of Tower and Candle RSM 
(50:50), and or 20% of these RSM treat- 
ments, respectively. Grower, developer, and 
finisher diets contained or 30% of these 
RSM treatments, respectively. The light 
treatments tested were continuous (23L:1D), 
intermittent (4L:2D), and total darkness. 
Tower and Candle RSM, singularly or in 
combination, when included in turkey diets 
resulted in significantly lower mortality, 
higher liveweights, improved feed conversion, 
higher percentage Grade A carcasses, and 
improved monetary returns. There were no 
significant differences observed for any of 
these traits for turkeys raised under continu- 
ous or intermittent lighting or total darkness. 
There was, however, some indication that the 
turkeys tended to perform better under inter- 
mittent lighting. No light x diet interaction 
was observed for any of the traits measured, 
indicating that the turkeys responded in a 
similar manner regardless of the diet or light 
treatment. It is concluded that RSM is a 
nutritious and efficacious source of dietary 
protein for turkey broilers. 

Sheep 

Artificial rearing of lambs. The addition of 
a low level of sodium bicarbonate (1% wt/wt) 
to the milk replacer increased daily feed 
intake and gain of lambs weaned at 1 day of 
age when the energy content of the diet was 
supplemented with corn oil or corn oil plus 
lactose, but not when lactose only was added. 
The addition of 1 or 2% sodium bicarbonate 
to the concentrate fed to 56 days of age also 
increased daily feed intake and rates of gain. 
There was high mortality (40%) among lambs 
fed a low fat (12% fat) milk replacer with 



116 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



supplemental energy supplied by lactose with 
or without the addition of 1% sodium bicar- 
bonate. Mortality was lower (10%) for lambs 
fed the same replacer with energy supplied by 
corn oil or corn oil plus lactose. Only a limited 
amount of lactose can be digested by the 
young lambs. 

Cement kiln dust for lambs. In two earlier 
trials the addition of 2% (wt/wt) sodium 
bicarbonate or cement kiln dust to mash-type 
diets for growing lambs has increased daily 
gains. In this experiment the addition of 3% 
cement kiln dust to pelleted diets containing 
either 15 or 45% ground roughage did not 
give a response. There was little difference in 
the daily gains of lambs fed the 1 5% roughage 
(0.22 kg) or the 45% roughage diet (0.20 kg) 
but those fed the high roughage consumed 
more feed per day and converted feed to gain 
less efficiently (9.0 versus 7.4 kg feed per 
kilogram of gain). 

Dehydrated alfalfa pellets for ewes. Pre- 
vious work has shown that dehydrated alfalfa 
pellets (DAP) and limited long hay make a 
satisfactory diet for pregnant and lactating 



ewes. In this experiment a standard hay and 
grain diet was compared with limited or ad 
libitum DAP with long hay. Highest total 
feed consumption and lowest weight loss to 
weaning were obtained by the ewes fed DAP 
ad libitum. The ewes fed limited DAP con- 
sumed more feed than those fed the hay and 
grain but had slightly greater weight losses. 
There were no significant differences in lamb 
weights due to the feeding treatment of the 
ewes. With the materials used, about 1.4 kg of 
DAP were required to equal the energy value 
of 1 kg of barley for the ewes. 

Early weaning of lambs. Lambs born in 
February were weaned at either 5-6 or 9-10 
wk of age, and feed consumption was com- 
pared for both ewes and lambs until 2 wk 
after the late weaning. Early weaning did not 
result in a large difference in weight gains 
(0.22 kg/day early weaned versus 0.24 kg/day 
for those late weaned). After weaning, the 
early weaned ewes were fed only long hay and 
lost weight (0.1 kg/day). The ewes nursing 
lambs were fed slightly more than necessary 
to maintain weight (gain average 0.01 kg/ 
day). Feed costs were lower for the early 
weaned lambs and ewes. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Aalders, L. E.; Hall, I. V.; Brydon, A. C. 1980. 
Seed production and germination in four low- 
bush blueberry clones. HortScience 15:587- 
588. 

Cumming, D. B.; Stark, R. 1980. The development 
of a new blanching system. J. Can. Diet. Assoc. 
41:39-44. 



Hulan, H. W.; Proudfoot, F. G.; McRae, K. B. 
1980. The nutritional value of Tower and 
Candle rapeseed meals for turkey broilers 
housed under different lighting conditions. 
Poult. Sci. 59:100-109. 

Hulan, H. W.; Proudfoot, F. G.; McRae, K. B. 

1980. Effect of vitamins on the incidence of 
mortality and acute death syndrome (flip-over) 
in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 59:927-93 1 . 



Hicklenton, P. R.; Jolliffe, P. A. 1980. Alterations 
in the physiology of CO, exchange in tomato 
plants grown in CO,-enriched atmospheres. 
Can. J. Bot. 58:2181-21 89. 

Hicklenton, P. R.; Jolliffe, P. A. 1980. Carbon 
dioxide and flowering in Pharbitis nil Choisy. 
Plant Physiol. 66:13-17. 

Hulan, H. W.; Proudfoot, F. G. 1980. The nutri- 
tional value of rapeseed meal for layer geno- 
types housed in pens. Poult. Sci. 59:585-593. 

Hulan, H. W.; Proudfoot, F. G. 1980. The nutri- 
tional value of rapeseed meal for caged layers. 
Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:139-147. 



Hulan, H. W.; Proudfoot, F. G.; Ramey, D.; 
McRae, K. B. 1980. Influence of genotype and 
diet on general performance and incidence of 
leg abnormalities of commercial broilers 
reared to roaster weight. Poult. Sci. 59:748- 
757. 

Jensen, K. I. N.; Kimball, E. R. 1980. Persistence 
of dinitramine and trifluralin in Nova Scotia, 
Canada. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 
24:238-243. 

Larmond, E.; Hulan, H. W.; Proudfoot, F. G. 1980. 
Cooking characteristics and eating quality of 
broiler chicken fed squid meal. Poult. Sci. 
59:2564-2566. 



RESEARCH STATION, KENTVILLE, N.S. 



117 



Lidster, P. D.; Forsyth, F. R.; Lightfoot, H. J. 1980. 
Low oxygen and carbon dioxide atmospheres 
for storage of Mcintosh apples. Can. J. Plant 
Sci. 60:299-301. 

Lidster, P. D.; Muller, K.; Tung, M. A. 1980. 
Effects of maturity on fruit composition and 
susceptibility to surface damage in sweet 
cherries. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:865-871. 

Lidster, P. D.; Tung, M. A. 1980. Effects of fruit 
temperatures at time of impact damage and 
subsequent storage temperature and duration 
on the development of surface disorders in 
sweet cherries. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:555-559. 

Looney, N. E.; Lidster, P. D. 1980. Some growth 
regulator effects on fruit quality, mesocarp 
composition and susceptibility to postharvest 
surface marking of sweet cherries. J. Am. Soc. 
Hortic. Sci. 105:130-134. 

Neilson, W. T. A.; Knowlton, A. D.; Whitman, R. 
J. 1980. Capture of apple maggot adults on 
Pherocon, Rebell, and sticky sphere traps. J. 
Econ. Entomol. 73. 

Nickerson, N. L. 1980. Promotion by tryptophan of 
growth and root formation in lowbush blue- 
berry pericarp callus cultures. Can. J. Bot. 
58:881-885. 

Proudfoot, F. G. 1980. The effects of dietary 
protein levels, ahemeral light and dark cycles, 
and intermittent photoperiods on the perform- 
ance of chicken broiler parent genotypes. 
Poult. Sci. 59:1258-1267. 

Proudfoot, F. G.; Hulan, H. W. 1980. The effect of 
diet, feed withdrawal and carcass chilling on 
the live and eviscerated weights of broiler 
chickens. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:461-464. 

Proudfoot, F. G.; Hulan, H. W. 1980. Performance 
of chicken broilers changed from starter to 
finisher diets at different ages. Can. J. Anim. 
Sci. 60:799-801. 

Proudfoot, F. G.; Hulan, H. W. 1980. The effect of 
nutri-bond as a pellet binder in chicken broiler 
diets. Poult. Sci. 59:659-661. 

Proudfoot, F. G.; Hulan, H. W.; McRae, K. B. 

1980. The effect of several different photoperi- 
ods on the performance of meat-parent geno- 
types. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:21-31. 

Ross, R. G.; Gaul, S. O. 1980. Persistence of 
captafol applied with foliar nutrients during 
fruit bud development of apple. J. Plant Pa- 
thol. 2. 

Townsend, L. R.; McRae, K. B. 1980. The effect of 
the nitrification inhibitor nitrapyrin on yield 
and on nitrogen fractions in soil and tissue of 
corn (Zea mays L.) grown in the Annapolis 
Valley of Nova Scotia. Can. J. Plant Sci. 
60:337-347. 



Webster, D. H. 1980. Response of compact subsoils 
to soil disturbance. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:127- 
131. 

Webster, D. H.; Brown, G. L. 1980. Trunk growth 
of apple trees as affected by crop load. Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:1383-1391. 

Miscellaneous 

Bubar, J. S.; Langille, J. E. 1979. Observations on 
"Wallace" trefoil. Lotus Newsl. 10:8-9. 

Crowe, A. D. 1980. Containment pruning in inten- 
sive, medium density orchards. Compact Fruit 
Tree Int. Dwarf Fruit Tree Assoc. 13:91-96. 

Crowe, A. D.; Embree, C. G. 1980. Putting it all 
together — System 155. Compact Fruit Tree 
Int. Dwarf Fruit Tree Assoc. 1 3: 1 46- 1 50. " 

Crowe, A. D.; Swain, H. 1979. Observations on 
pollination and fruit set in 1979. N.S. Fruit 
Grow. Assoc. Annu. Rep. 1 16:55-62. 

Cumming, D. B.; Stark, R. 1980. Canada develops 
new steam blancher. Food Process. Ind. (U.K.) 
49:60-62. 

Cumming, D. B.; Stark, R. 1980. New blancher 
conserves energy, yields high quality products. 
Food Prod. Manage. (U.K.) 103:18-19. 

Experimental Farm, Nappan. 1980. Research Sum- 
mary 1979. 

Hall, I. V.; Aalders, L. E.; Craig, D. L. 1978. 
Propagation of lowbush blueberries. Research 
Station, Kentville, N.S. 1 1 pp. 

Hall, I. V.; Aalders, L. E.; Lockhart, C. L.; 
Jackson, L. P.; Wood, G. W.; Delbridge, R. W. 
1979/1980. Lowbush blueberry production/La 
production du bleuet nain. Agric. Can. Publ. 
1477. 39pp./42pp. 

Hall, I. V.; Aalders, L. E.; Brydon, A. C; Spicer, 
M. A. 1977. Rooting lowbush blueberry cut- 
tings. Canadex 235.21. 

Hall, I. V.; Aalders, L. E.; Nickerson, N. L. 1979. 
Increasing selected clones of lowbush blue- 
berry. Canadex 235.20. 

Hicklenton, P. R. 1980. Consider your climate 
when winter storing containerized shrubs. 
Nursery Notes 1:1-2. 

Hicklenton, P. R. 1980. New media/fertilizer 
combinations for producing containerized 
shrubs. Nursery Notes 1:3. 

Hicklenton, P. R. 1980. Growth regulator may help 
in increasing salt tolerance. Nursery Notes 1 :3. 

Hulan, H. W.; Proudfoot, F. G. 1979. Low protein 
in grower and finisher diets affects growth and 
feed efficiency of fryer roaster turkeys. Turke> 
World 54:16-18. 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Hulan, H. W.; Proudfoot, F. G. 1980. Adding 
vitamins may reduce incidence of 'flip-over'. 
Feedstuff's 52(36): 17- 18. 

Hulan, H. W.; Proudfoot, F. G. 1980. Newer 
rapeseed varieties can replace soybean meal. 
Poult. Dig. 39:152. 

Hulan, H. W.; Proudfoot, F. G. 1980. Three-stage 
feeding speeds roaster growth. Poult. Dig. 
39:527. 

Jensen, K. I. N.; Bandeen, J. D. 1979. Triazine 
resistance in annual weeds. Maize. Ciba-Geigy 
Tech. Monogr., Basel, Switzerland, pp. 55-57. 

Jensen, K. I. N.; Palfrey, G. D. 1980. Spring and 
summer weed control in strawberries. Agdex 
232/641. 

Jensen, K. I. N.; Palfrey, G. D. 1980. Late-summer 
and fall weed control in strawberries. Agdex 
232/641.03. 

Khera, G. S.; Crowe, A. D. 1980. Use of economic 
criteria for selecting apple orchard systems for 
Eastern Canada. Planning and Economics 
Branch and Research Branch, Agriculture 
Canada. 178 pp. 

Langille, J. E. 1980. Forage peas show promise as 
an annual forage crop. Canadex 1 25.34. 

Lidster, P. D. 1980. The new low oxygen storage 
system shows good potential for commercial 
application. National Apple Conference Pro- 
ceedings. 4 pp. 



Lidster, P. D. 1980. Low oxygen storage for 
Mcintosh apples. Nova Scotia Fruit Growers 
Association Annual Report 1 17. In press. 

Proudfoot, F. G.; Hulan, H. W. 1980. Broiler 
monetary returns not affected by fat source. 
Poult. Dig. 39:416. 

Proudfoot, F. G.; Hulan, H. W. 1980. More 'fines' 
hurt broiler weights. Poult. Dig. 39:510. 

Proudfoot, F. G.; Hulan, H. W. 1980. 'Flip-over 
disease' less with intermittent light. Poult. Dig. 
39:525. 

Proudfoot, F. G.; Hulan, H. W. 1980. Effect of high 
pre-lay calcium diet on shell quality. Poult. 
Dig. 39:527. 

Research Station, Kentville. 1978. Annual Report 
1977. 

Research Station, Kentville. 1979. Annual Report 
1978. 

Sanford, K. H.; Whitman, R. J. 1980. Gaining 
experience with the synthetic pyrethroids. 
Nova Scotia Fruit Growers Association An- 
nual Report 1 17. In press. 

Stark, R.; Hall, I. V.; Hendrickson, P. A. 1978. The. 
partridgeberry of Newfoundland. Canadex 
230. 



RESEARCH STATION, KENTVILLE, N.S. 



119 



Research Station 
Fredericton, New Brunswick 



PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



C. S. Bernard, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
L. W. Garber, B.A., M. Ed. 

D. B. Gammon, 1 M. A. 
N. Taniguchi, 1 B.L.S. 

D. A. Young, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Director 

Administrative Officer 

Library Area Coordinator 

Librarian 

Officer in Charge, Benton Ridge 



Environmental Quality and Soils 



T. L. Chow, B.Sc., Ph.D. 


Soil hydrology 


R. R. King, B.Sc, M.Sc., Ph.D. 


Residue chemistry 


A. A. MacLean, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Soil chemistry and environmental 




quality 


G. R. Saini, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 


Soil physics 



Animal Nutrition and Livestock Feeds 



P. L. Burgess, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
R. S. Bush, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
R. E. McQueen, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
J. W. G. Nicholson, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Dairy cattle nutrition 
Calf nutrition 
Rumen microbiology 
Meat animal nutrition 



Potatoes 



R. H. Bagnall, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
G. Boiteau, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
M. C. Clark, B.Sc, Ph.D. 
W. K. Coleman, B.Sc, Ph.D. 
H. De Jong, B.A., M.S , Ph.D. 



W. A. Hodgson, B.Sc, 
A. R. McKenzie, B.Sc. 
C. D. McLeod, B.A.Sc 



M.Sc. 

M.Sc, Ph.D. 
M.A.Sc 



Virus epidemiology and resistance 
Potato insect ecology 
Biochemistry of disease resistance 
Potato physiology 
Diploid breeding and genetics of 

potato 

Late blight of potato 
Tuber-borne pathogens of potato 
Agricultural mechanization 

engineering 



RESEARCH STATION, FREDERICTON, N.B. 



121 



G. C. Misener, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

R. P. Singh, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
G. C. C. Tai, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
T. R. Tarn, B.Sc, Ph.D. 
D. A. Young, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Potato harvesting and storage 
engineering 
Virus diseases of potato 
Quantitative genetics of potato 
Cytogenetics of potato 
Potato breeding and genetics 



Small Fruits 



C. D. McLeod, B.A.Sc, M.A.Sc 
G. W. Wood, B.Sc, M.A., Ph.D. 



Agricultural mechanization 
engineering 
Blueberry pests 



Departures 

W. B. Collins, B.Sc, M.Sc., Ph.D. Potato physiology 

Promoted to Program Specialist (Atlantic Region), 

25 August 1980 
C. F. Everett, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. Weed control 

Retired 30 December 1980 
G. R. Johnston, B.Sc, M.S. A. Potato breeding and evaluation 

Retired 29 December 1980 
M. E. MacGillivray, B.A., M.Sc, Potato insect ecology, aphid 

D.Sc, F.E.S.C. physiology 

Retired 26 December 1980 



Senator Hervé J. Michaud Experimental Farm 



J. M. Wauthy, B.Sc. 

P. V. LeBlanc, B.Sc, B.S.A. 

M. LUFFMAN, B.Sc. 



Superintendent; Forage and cereal 
crops 

Vegetables 
Fruits 



'Seconded from Libraries Division. Finance and Administration Branch. 



22 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



INTRODUCTION 



The Fredericton Research Station is the main potato research center for the Research 
Branch of Agriculture Canada. Scientists of diverse disciplines concentrate their efforts on 
breeding, pathology, pest management, physiology and nutrition, and handling and storage 
procedures. While our research continues to support the industry in the Canadian market, it is 
now being called upon to provide new technology for the production of high-quality seed 
potatoes for export, including new cultivars to meet the special needs of importing countries. 

The livestock program deals with cattle and sheep, and our researchers are in close 
collaboration with workers at the Nappan Experimental Farm of the Kentville Research 
Station. 

The vegetable and berry crops program is receiving more emphasis since the acquisition of 
the Michaud Experimental Farm in 1978. Extensive field trials were commenced in 1980. 

The environmental quality program has a broad spectrum of activities, dealing as much 
with maintaining the quality of the agricultural land base as with preventing cultural practices 
from polluting either the soil, the waterways, or the crops. 

In 1980, four of our colleagues departed; Dr. C. F. Everett, G. R. Johnston, and Dr. M. E. 
MacGillivray retired, and Dr. W. B. Collins accepted a new challenge as Program Specialist 
(Atlantic Region) in Halifax. 

The present report deals briefly with some of our recent research results. More complete 
information is available from the Research Station, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 
Box 20280, Fredericton, N.B. E3B 4Z7. 

C. S. Bernard 
Director 



ANIMAL NUTRITION AND 
LIVESTOCK FEEDS 

Formaldehyde-treated protein supplements 

Formaldehyde treatment has been em- 
ployed as a method to increase the rumen 
bypass of protein supplements and possibly 
enhance the utilization of the large amount of 
nonprotein nitrogen in grass silage. Twenty- 
four cows were divided into two groups and 
fed ad libitum total mixed rations (13% crude 
protein) composed of grass silage and concen- 
trates in a 60:40 ratio on a dry matter basis by 
weight for 8 wk. The protein supplement for 
each concentrate consisted of untreated or 
formaldehyde-treated soybean meal. The 
group fed untreated soybean meal had higher 
(P <0.05) total daily dry matter intake (19.0 
versus 18.1 kg per cow) but the level of milk 
production and percentages of milk fat, 
protein, and lactose were not affected by the 
treatment. Formaldehyde treatment signifi- 
cantly (P <0.01) reduced rumen acetate and 
propionate levels as well as the percentages of 
rumen ammonia nitrogen and blood urea. 

The digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen 
by sheep fed the two rations were similar, 



whereas nitrogen retention was markedly 
increased by formaldehyde treatment. Al- 
though no differences in milk production were 
detected, formaldehyde treatment of the 
soybean meal favorably altered the rumen 
fermentation pattern and reduced ammonia 
nitrogen levels. 

Plasma /3-carotene levels in dairy cows 

/3-Carotene has been linked with reproduc- 
tive performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four 
cows in early lactation were randomized into 
three groups to monitor plasma /3-carotene 
levels over a 16-wk period on three different 
forage feeding programs. Group A was pas- 
tured, group B was fed grass silage, and group 
C was fed timothy grass hay that had been 
stored for approximately 12 mo. In addition to 
the forages, the cows received a barley-based 
concentrate fed in proportion to milk produc- 
tion. Jugular blood samples were collected 
and analyzed at 14-day intervals. 

All cows had been fed grass silage for 
several months prior, to the trial. Plasma 
/3-carotene levels at the beginning of the trial 
averaged 10.4 /ig/mL. Levels in cows on 
pasture increased continuously and averaged 
1 3.2 /ig/mL of plasma, whereas levels in cows 



RESEARCH STATION, FREDERICTON, N.B. 



123 



receiving silage declined during the 1st mo of 
feeding, then remained constant at 7.3 fig/ 
mL. Levels in cows fed stored hay dropped 
sharply after 1 mo and averaged only 1.9 /ig/ 
mL of plasma during the last 2 mo of study, 
which is below the level of 3-5 fig/mL 
suggested for optimum dairy cow fertility. 

Acidification of milk for calf feeding 

Newborn calves were fed whole milk (C), 
or whole milk treated with formalin (F), 
propionic acid (PA), or formic acid (FA) to 
meet ad libitum consumption. The C group 
consumed the most milk and grew fastest 
while on milk. They also used milk more 
efficiently, consuming 10.2 kg/kg of growth, 
versus 11.5 (F), 11.6 (PA), and 11.6 (FA). 
There was little difference among the four 
groups in consumption of calf starter or 
chopped timothy hay before or after weaning. 
After weaning, the C group grew slowest, 
whereas the FA group grew fastest. Although 
this is not an economical feeding program, it 
did demonstrate that restricted intake and 
growth before weaning may be compensated 
by superior feed efficiency after weaning. 

Densely seeded corn for silage 

Dense-seeded (200 000 seeds per hectare) 
was compared with normal-seeded (56 000) 
corn for dry matter production and weight 
gains of animals fed the silage. Densely 
seeded corn gave 16% higher dry matter yield 
(9710 versus 8350 kg/ha), lower grain yield 
(1760 versus 2230 kg/ha), lower dry matter 
content of the ear (30.6 versus 39.5%), and 
lower silage dry matter digestibility by sheep 
(60.7 versus 65.8%). Beef cattle fed the 
normal silage consumed more dry matter per 
day (4.2 versus 4.0 kg) and gained signifi- 
cantly faster (1.14 versus 1.06 kg/day). Based 
on the feed conversion figures obtained, 
without making allowance for the contri- 
bution of the supplement fed, the densely 
seeded silage would support more beef pro- 
duction per hectare (2092 versus 1825 kg). 

Bird damage to the ears of corn grown for 
silage is a serious problem. About 30% of the 
grain from the ears of the corn in both of the 
above seeding treatments was removed by 
birds. However, because the grain made up a 
smaller percentage of the total dry matter 
with the densely seeded corn, dry matter loss 
to birds was less with this treatment. 



Ratio of potatoes to hay for silage 

Good silage can be made from 5:2 or 3:1 
ratios of potatoes to hay, but producers would 
like to use a higher ratio to use more potatoes 
and to increase the energy content of the 
silage dry matter. We compared ratios of 3:1 
and 5:1. There was considerable seepage from 
the silo containing the 5:1 silage, but both 
silages were well preserved and readily ac- 
cepted by beef cattle. Ten animals were fed on 
each of (1) 3:1 silage plus 2.5 kg concentrate, 
(2) 5:1 silage plus 2.5 kg concentrate, or (3) 
5:1 silage plus 0.5 kg concentrate. 

Silage dry matter consumptions were 6.8 l b , 
6.53 b , and 7.32 a kg/day for treatments 1, 2, 
and 3; weight gains averaged 0.94 b , 1.1 2 a , and 
0.86 b kg/day. Treatment 3, because of the 
more economical use of supplement, gave the 
highest return over feed costs. It was con- 
cluded that 5:1 ratio of potatoes to hay is 
satisfactory for silage but does lead to some 
seepage from the silos. The optimum ratio of 
potato to hay for silage is about 4:1. 

Weight loss of cattle on turnout to pasture 

When cattle are turned out to pasture in 
the spring they can lose up to 20% of body 
weight in the first few days. It has been 
suggested that the transition causes an in- 
creased excretion of potassium resulting in a 
reduction of body water content. 

Twenty-seven heavy yearling cattle were 
grouped by three's and assigned to: (/) 
remain indoors on haylage and supplement, 
(2) pasture with a control supplement at 1.0 
kg/day, or (3) pasture with a supplement 
containing potassium at 1.0 kg/day. At 
slaughter it was found that approximately 
half the weight loss on turnout to pasture was 
accounted for by changes in gut fill. The other 
half was carcass weight loss. The supplemen- 
tal potassium did not have any apparent 
beneficial effect on the weight changes. 

Mineral content of New Brunswick forages 

Over 500 samples of forages were collected 
in New Brunswick in each of 1978 and 1979 
and analyzed for nine minerals of nutritional 
significance. The samples were separated into 
grasses, legumes, and weeds and each fraction 
was analyzed separately. Of the nine minerals 
assayed, only potassium and iron were present 
in amounts adequate for ruminant animals in 
most New Brunswick forages. Calcium and 
magnesium were adequate in legumes but not 



124 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



in grasses. Minerals that require supplemen- 
tation include sodium, phosphorus, zinc, 
copper, and manganese. A mixture of com- 
mercial trace mineralized salt and dicalcium 
phosphate should supply adequate mineral 
supplementation. No major differences were 
found in mineral content of forages from 
different areas of the province. 

Transformations of potato glycoalkaloids by 
rumen microorganisms 

The increased use of cull potatoes and of 
wastes from processing plants for animal feed 
and renewed interest in the potential feeding 
value of potato vines prompted an investi- 
gation into the fate of potato glycoalkaloids in 
ruminant animals. Incubation of potato gly- 
coalkaloids with rumen microorganisms re- 
sulted in initial hydrolysis to the alkaloid 
solanidine. A substantial portion of the solani- 
dine was then reduced to the 5,6-dihydro 
analog 5/3-solanidan-3/3-ol. No evidence of 
subsequent esterification with fatty acids or 
metabolism of the nitrogen moiety was 
detected. 

Improved nylon bag technique reduces 
variation in evaluating forages 

Forage samples may be enclosed in bags 
made of indigestible nylon fabric and several 
of them suspended in the rumen of one 
fistulated animal to be removed as required. 
The extent and rate of digestion of many 
forages can then be determined with only a 
few fistulated animals. A newly standardized 
technique includes use of a standard mesh 
nylon-monofilament fabric, presoaking the 
bags, careful rinsing after removal from the 
rumen, and uniform treatment of the animals. 

Variance components of digestibilities of 
dry matter (DM) and neutral-detergent fiber 
(NDF) were determined for three forages 
when run in triplicate bags for both 48 and 72 
h durations and repeated on two different 
weeks. This plan was repeated in each of four 
fistulated cows. 

The variance between cows, different 
weeks, and triplicate bags was exceptionally 
low. As expected there was more extensive 
digestion and lower variation after 72 h than 
after 48 h. The components of variance were 
used to calculate the expected standard errors 
of the mean (SEM) digestibilities for several 
combinations of numbers of animals, bags, 
and weeks of replication. For example, the 
expected SEM for DM digestibility (%), after 



72 h, using duplicate bags in one cow on one 
or two different weeks, respectively, for wheat 
straw was ±2.1 and ±1.7; for alfalfa hay, 
± 1.0 and ± 1.0; for timothy hay, ± 1.0 and 
±0.7. With this nylon bag technique, two 
bags used at the same time (week) with one 
cow gave acceptable SEM for DM and NDF 
digestibility for forage evaluation. 



POTATO BREEDING 

Predicting performance of potato clones in 
different environments 

It is difficult to carry out international trials 
of potato clones because of the problems 
involved in raising quantities of disease-free 
seed and delivery to collaborators. Several 
biométrie models were examined for predict- 
ing performance of potato clones in different 
environments. Most promising was the send- 
ing of a small group of genotypes (10) as 
controls to all regions for trial. The average 
yield of the controls in a trial serves as a 
measure of productivity, namely an environ- 
mental index, for that region. The main group 
of clones was tested in a few chosen regions, 
and the data for each clone regressed on the 
environmental indexes to establish a regres- 
sion equation. This equation was then used to 
predict performance of the clone in regions 
where it had not been tested. Yield data of an 
international series of trials sponsored by the 
International Potato Center and Agriculture 
Canada were used for testing the prediction 
model. The accuracy of prediction appears to 
be satisfactory for most of the testing sites. 

Utilization of diploid germ plasm in potato 
genetics 

Diploid potato germ plasm is being used 
both to broaden the genetic base of the 
breeding population and in potato genetics 
research. In a genetic study on tuber russeting 
on the diploid level, progenies from crosses 
where neither, one, or both parents were 
classified as 'russet' were analyzed. The 
observed segregation ratios fit a hypothesis of 
complementary action by three independently 
segregating dominant genes. It is possible, 
therefore, that progenies from nonrusset 
parents will contain some russet clones when, 
among both parents, all three complementary 
genes are present. The genotypes of several 
russet and nonrusset clones have been 
determined. 



RESEARCH STATION, FREDERICTON, N.B. 



125 



An Andigena population changed by mass 
selection 



Andigena potatoes adapted to long days, 
and selected for disease resistance, have been 
crossed at Fredericton with Tuberosum culti- 
vars to exploit the heterosis of the F, hybrids. 

In the meantime the base Andigena popula- 
tion, first obtained as true seed from the 1968 
and 1969 crops at the Scottish Plant Breeding 
Station, has been subjected to five cycles of 
recurrent mass selection. In each cycle at 
Fredericton 25-30% of a single-hill popula- 
tion was selected for haulm type and vigor, 
and intercrossed using cut stems, labeled for 
identification, and bulked pollen. At harvest, 
20-40% of the cutting 'mother' plants in the 
field were selected for maturity, yield, and 
tuber type. Seed that had set on the cut stems 
of these clones was used to make up the next 
generation. Thus a cycle was completed in 12 
mo with no overlapping of generations and 
very little selfing. There were five cycles of 
such selection. Some true seed from each 
generation was saved for later comparison. 

In 1977 some of the Scottish seed and seed 
from each Fredericton generation were 
planted in the greenhouse. After a multiplica- 
tion stage in the field in 1978, cultivars from 
these six groups were compared in field trials 
during 1979 and 1980. Early plant vigor 
increased markedly between the parental and 
first generation, whereas haulms improved in 
maturity only in the last two generations. 
Rhizomes were less persistent in attachment 
to tubers in the later generations in the 1979 
trial, but showed no differences among gener- 
ations in 1980. Total yield increased almost 
30% (663 g to 850 g per hill) from parental to 
fifth generation, reflecting an increase in 
tuber number but little change in mean tuber 
weight. During the five cycles of selection, 
tuber dormancy was shortened. This resulted 
in increased sprouting in storage and need for 
sprout-removal before planting and, in turn, 
more stems and tubers, effectively maintain- 
ing the small tuber size. 

To correct these deficiencies, superior 
clones are being used as to start a new 
selection program, with more emphasis on 
early bulking, tuber size, and longer 
dormancy. 



POTATO ENTOMOLOGY 

Monitoring arthropod fauna on potatoes in 
New Brunswick 

Potato fields in 10 New Brunswick counties 
were sampled in 1979 and 1980 for different 
arthropod fauna. Particular note was made of 
native predators and parasites that might be 
useful in biological control. Five sampling 
techniques were compared. Populations of 
Diptera and Hymenoptera were best moni- 
tored by yellow pan traps. Ground cloth and 
sweep net sampling were equally satisfactory 
for the Hemiptera and most families of 
Coleoptera. Nocturnal arthropods such as 
Carabidae, Staphylinidae, and Araneidàe 
were best monitored by pitfall traps, although 
the dispersal of the flying species could be 
followed with the yellow pan traps. Visual 
observation of arthropods provided a further 
qualitative assessment of populations. 

Arthropod populations were at highest 
levels in late July to early August. Only 
nocturnal insects and spiders were present in 
large numbers throughout the season. Spiders 
were more numerous than other predator 
groups. Six species of primary parasites and 
four species of hyperparasites were reared in 
the laboratory from potato-infesting aphids. 
Though relatively scarce, these parasites were 
found in July and August, almost exclusively 
on Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), the 
aphid most abundant during this period. 



POTATO PATHOLOGY 

Physalis angulata as local lesion test plant 
for potato virus A 

Further testing has revealed that Physalis 
angulata is the more useful of three Physalis 
species reported as local lesion hosts for 
potato virus A (PVA). It grows rapidly and 
produces large smooth leaves over a period of 
several months. Local lesions developed in 4-5 
days on detached leaves and 7-10 on intact 
plants. Unlike P. floridana, P. angulata does 
not react with distinct local lesions to potato 
virus X (PVX); and it is not necessary to 
detach leaves to avoid lesions due to potato 
virus Y (PVY). These two viruses do eventu- 
ally cause systemic mosaic symptoms, so on 
intact plants, all suitable leaves should be 
used for testing on one occasion. In compara- 
tive tests, accuracy of P. angulata diagnosis of 



126 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



PVA was equal to enzyme-linked immunosor- 
bent assay (ELISA). Local lesion production 
of P. angulata was not significantly affected 
by varying the light intensity between 2476 
and 6458 lx or the temperature between 15° 
and 25°C. 

Effect of sprays on the detection of PVA 
and PVY by ELISA 

Assay of PVA and PVY by ELISA was not 
affected by a number of agricultural sprays. A 
fungicide (chlorothalonil), an insecticide 
(methamidophos), and an oil emulsion were 
each applied at 2-wk intervals, from 4 July, to 
50 plants of Netted Gem potatoes infected 
with PVA or PVY. A fourth plot was sprayed 
with water. Foliage samples were collected on 
four occasions, between 8 July and 24 August. 

Control of PVY by mineral oil sprays 

Control of PVY by oil sprays varied from 
34 to 64% in trials during 1979 and 1980. 
Degree of control depended largely on concen- 
tration of the oil, but to a lesser extent on rate 
and pressure of application. There was no 
significant difference between eight commer- 
cial oil formulations. 

No significant phytotoxic effect resulted 
from applications of Corntrol Oil®, except 
when a combination of high oil concentration 
(3% water emulsion) and rate of application 
(2240 L/ha) was used. 

When fungicides were mixed with oil or 
applied immediately after oil, more phototox- 
icity occurred than when they were applied 24 
h later than oil. Fentin hydroxide was the 
most phytotoxic, followed by chlorothalonil, 
captafol, metiram, and mancozeb in that 
order. 

There were no significant differences 
between oil deposits on leaves exposed to 
natural rainfall and those sheltered by plastic 
sheets or on leaves exposed to 3 cm versus 1 
cm of artificial rain. Nor did timing of the 
artificial rain have any significant effect. 

Resistance to potato virus Y 

Since 1968, we have maintained field 
exposure plots to evaluate resistance to PVY 
in potato cultivars. We used healthy seed of 
the cultivars on trial and PVY-infected seed 
between plots. On the basis of data collected 
over 5 yr (1972-1976), we separated 32 
'standard' cultivars into four groups by means 
of cluster analysis: (a) resistant, (b) moder- 
ately resistant, (c) susceptible, and (d) very 



susceptible. Although all of the 32 'standard' 
cultivars were not present in the plot every 
year since 1968, there was always a sufficient 
number to provide a mean percentage of 
infection for each of the four classes. There 
was considerable fluctuation in the overall 
level of infection from year to year, but the 
relative order of the group means, a, b, c, and 
d, has been maintained without exception for 
each year, 1968-1979. There were many 
additional cultivars in the plot each year. 
Most of these can be assigned to a particular 
group on the basis of 3 yr of testing, not 
necessarily in succession. 

Potato leaf roll virus 

A separate trial to evaluate cultivar resist- 
ance to the potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) has 
been maintained since 1971. Data for 4 yr 
(1973-1976) was used to separate 21 culti- 
vars into four groups similar to those used for 
PVY, above. And here, too, the means of each 
group have maintained the relative order a, b, 
c, and d for the years 1971-1979. 

Unlike PVY, the overall levels of infection 
in the PLRV plot have followed two clear 
trends: an increase from moderate in 1971 to 
a maximum in 1973 and a decline each year 
to a very low level in 1977, followed by a 
slight increase in 1978 and 1979. The trend in 
our trial appears to have anticipated by a year 
or two the leaf roll 'epidemic' in the New 
Brunswick commercial crop in the early 
1970's. 

Latent bacterial ring rot 

It has been suggested by European workers 
that Corynebacterium sepedonicum may re- 
main at subclinical levels (latent) in potatoes 
for several years before producing symptoms 
typical of bacterial ring rot (BRR). In two 
field experiments, one near Fredericton and 
the other near Bologna, Italy, symptoms were 
expressed within a single growing season 
when infected symptomless tubers were used 
as seed. Seed for both trials was derived from 
a table-stock field of the cultivar Kennebec, 
diagnosed in 1979 as positive to BRR. The 
stem ends of 3000 healthy-appearing tubers 
were tested individually for the presence of C. 
sepedonicum by latex agglutination; approx- 
imately 10% of those found to be latex 
positive were checked and verified by either or 
both the Gram stain and immunofluorescence 
microscopy. Virtually 100% of the 'latent- 
infected' tubers produced plants or tubers or 



RESEARCH STATION. FREDERICTON, N.B. 



127 



both with definite visible symptoms. Symptom 
severity ranged from slight wilting of the 
plants and small initial external lesions on the 
daughter tubers to complete wilting and early 
death of the plants with no tuber production. 

Immunoreactive component from potato 
tubers infected with BRR 

A heat-stable, nondialyzable component 
was isolated by ethanol precipitation and 
column chromatography from aqueous ex- 
tracts of tubers infected with C. sepedonicum. 
An analysis of crude extracts, based on their 
capacity to cause flocculation of latex beads 
sensitized with antibodies to C. sepedonicum, 
gave titers of up to 300 000. Prolonged 
digestion of the purified latex-positive compo- 
nent with pronase at 60°C had no effect on its 
reactivity with latex beads. The purified 
material was also devoid of any absorption 
spectrum in the ultraviolet and gave a neg- 
ative reaction with ninhydrin. Preliminary 
attempts to elicit the production of antibodies 
to the purified component were indeterminate. 

Elution of the immunoreactive material 
from Bio-gel columns (P-200) as monitored 
by the anthrone reaction and the latex test 
showed that the active component was present 
exclusively in the void volume. Sedimentation 
analysis in sucrose density gradients also 
attested the high molecular weight of the 
latex-positive component: It cosedimented 
with a marker tRNA as a single, discrete 
band. Hydrolysis with dilute HC1 followed by 
paper chromatography revealed three major 
sugars with R { values corresponding to ara- 
binose, galactose, and glucose. 

A component identical in its properties and 
composition was also isolated from cell-free 
filtrates of C. sepedonicum grown in asceptic 
shake cultures. 

Potato late blight forecasting 

Computer programs developed at Frederic- 
ton were used to provide New Brunswick 
potato growers with forecasts on the probabil- 
ity of late blight occurring within a 2-wk 
period, an index of how favorable conditions 
were for disease development, and advice on 
spray schedules. The programs made use of 
temperature and humidity data obtained from 
both Environment Canada weather offices and 
weather stations in growers' fields together 
with disease incidence reports from potato 
inspectors of the Plant Quarantine Division. 
Forecasts were issued twice a week through 



the New Brunswick Agriculture Information 
Service. 

An alternative method of forecasting was 
developed based only on hourly weather data 
from Environment Canada weather offices. 
Records of late blight occurrence from Agri- 
culture Canada sources and weather data 
covering a 24-yr period were compared by 
statistical analysis. A significant relationship 
existed between blight occurrence and two 
factors: the duration of rainfall and the 
opacity of cloud cover. Other data considered 
included amount and frequency of rainfall, 
rain index, amount of cloud cover, duration of 
fog, and dew point temperatures. 

Thiabendazole residues on potato tubers 

Six months after an initial analysis of 39 
samples of potatoes from nine different farms 
where tubers had been sprayed with thiaben- 
dazole (1979 report), 10 duplicate samples 
from four of these farms were reexamined. 
Two of the new samples showed evidence of 
storage blight. Thiabendazole analysis of 
these two samples revealed 0.52 and 0.64 ppm 
of tuber weight, respectively, considerably less 
than the 3 ppm considered necessary for 
control. 



SMALL FRUITS 

Yellow sticky traps for monitoring 
blueberry maggot adults 

Although there is considerable evidence 
that adults of the blueberry maggot are 
attracted to yellow sticky traps, these com- 
mercially available traps are not being recom- 
mended for general use. Field trials have 
shown only weak correlation (r = 0.357) 
between trap collections and level of fruit 
infestation, and fly activity may be missed in 
some fields. Except where infestations were 
heavy, traps were not sufficiently effective in 
detection of early emergence of flies to be 
useful in the timing of insecticide 
applications. 

Leaftiers— a new threat to blueberry 
production 

Infestations of leaftiers (Tortricidae and 
Gelechiidae) are becoming more common in 
lowbush blueberry fields, particularly in sec- 
ond-crop or neglected fields. There are at least 
five species that infest blueberry. Two species 
cause damage by feeding within the fruit buds 



128 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



in early spring, and all species cause losses by 
defoliation. Greatest losses have occurred in 
Newfoundland where burning is irregular. In 
second-crop fields in New Brunswick in 1980, 
there was an average fruit bud loss of over 
10%. 

Control of blueberry thrips 

Effective control of blueberry thrips, 
Frankliniella vaccinii Morgan and Cati- 
nathrips kainos O'Neill, was obtained in 
small plot trials with single applications of 
methidathion with active ingredient (ai) at 1 
kg/ha or the synthetic pyrethroids Ambush 
and Pounce at 0.07 kg ai/ha. The treatments 
were applied on 22 May when blueberry 
sprouts were less than 10 mm high. The 
number of infested plants was reduced by 
93%. There was no significant difference in 
number of thrips per infested shoot, between 
treated and untreated plots. Thus, the insecti- 
cides had no effect on thrips survival after 
they had moved into the foliage. 

Evaluation of vine pulling 

Vine pulling by a commercial machine was 
evaluated by measuring tuber discoloration, 
desiccation of stems and leaves, stems missed 
and rerouted, and tubers exposed. Tuber 
discoloration was low in each 4 yr, including 
1978 when significant discoloration was noted 
in tubers of plants killed by means of a 
chemical desiccant. Vine killing of several 
cultivars by machine pulling was rated 89- 
98% for leaves and 79-98% for stems. Tubers 
exposed amounted to 0.13-0.81 t/ha. A 
number of the surviving stems rerouted, 
though they were actually separated from 
their tuber progeny. 



POTATO PHYSIOLOGY AND CROP 
MANAGEMENT 

Tuber dormancy and changes in abscisic 
acid 

The levels of abscisic acid (ABA), one of 
the growth-inhibiting hormones known to 
have an important role in dormancy, were 
monitored for 5 mo after harvest in tubers of 
three potato cultivars that exhibited a short 
(Sebago), intermediate (Kennebec), and long 
(Nooksack) dormancy period. Levels of 'free' 
and 'bound' (i.e. alkali hydrolyzable) ABA 
were determined (micrograms per gram fresh 



weight) by means of a modified solvent 
partition and gas chromatographic technique. 
During the postharvest period in cold 
storage, 'free' ABA increased. The rate and 
duration of this increase was proportional to 
the length of the tuber dormancy period in the 
three cultivars. When tubers were held at a 
constant 21°C, sprout elongation rates were 
inversely proportional to initial 'free' ABA 
concentrations. As sprouting progressed, 'free' 
ABA declined two- to three-fold. Small 
amounts of 'bound' ABA were detected 
during this period. 

Evaluation of the plant growth regulator 
Ergostim® 

Ergostim®, reputed to increase tuber set 
and yield in potatoes, had no significant effect 
when applied twice during early tuberization 
(0.35 L/ha) to plants of the moderate yielding 
cultivar Fundy. Nor did it have beneficial 
effect on the higher-yielding cultivars Netted 
Gem and Superior. Factors considered were 
marketable yield, dry matter, size distri- 
bution, shape, and harvest index. 



SOILS 

Effects of compacting peat soils on carrot 
production 

Compaction of New Brunswick organic 
soils by rolling before or before and after 
seeding of carrots increased water-holding 
capacities and resulted in improved germina- 
tion, but did not increase marketable yield 
except where water table was lowest, namely 
at 90 cm below the surface. Improved germi- 
nation over water tables of 70 and 80 cm 
below the surface was probably offset by 
decreased aeration of the compacted peat. 

Bulk densities of surface soils (0-7.6 cm) 
were 0.176 and 0.178 g/cm\ respectively, for 
once- and twice-compacted seedbeds, against 
0.137 g/cm 3 for uncompacted control seed- 
beds. The saturated hydraulic conductivities 
of the compacted surface soils were 8-10 
times less than control soils. Compacted soils 
retained 20-25% more water than controls at 
a matric water potential of -80 cm of water. 
During the growing season compacted surface 
soils (0-3 cm) contained 6% more water than 
control samples, and within the same compac- 
tion treatments the soil 70 cm above the water 
table had 12% more moisture than that 90 cm 
above the water table. 



RESEARCH STATION, FREDERICTON, N.B. 



129 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Boiteau, G. 1980. A white color morph of the 
Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decem- 
lineata (Say). Can. Entomol. 1 12:975. 

Boiteau, G.; Bradley, J. R., Jr.; Van Duyn, J. W. 
1980. Bean leaf beetles: temporal and macro- 
spatial distribution in North Carolina. J. Ga. 
Entomol. Soc. 15:151-163. 

Boiteau, G.; Bradley, J. R., Jr.; Van Duyn, J. W. 
1980. Bean leaf beetle: seasonal history of the 
overwintering population in Eastern North 
Carolina. J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 15:138-151. 

Bush, R. S.; McQueen, R. E.; Nicholson, J. W. G. 
1980. Chemical changes in bovine colostrum 
preserved with formalin or by fermentation. J. 
Dairy Sci. 63:464-470. 

Bush, R. S.; Nicholson, J. W. G. 1980. Effects of 
ammonium perchlorate on the growth of Hol- 
stein calves. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:791-793. 

Coleman, W. K.; Huxter, T. J.; Reid, D. M.; 
Thorpe, T. A. 1980. Ethylene as an endoge- 
nous inhibitor of root regeneration in tomato 
leaf discs cultured in vitro. Physiol. Plant. 
48:519-525. 

King, R. R. 1980. Analysis of potato glycoalkaloids 
by gas-liquid chromatography of the alkaloid 
components. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 
63:1226-1230. 

King, R. R. 1980. Additive Pummerer initiated 
functionalization of allylic methyl groups in 
acrylic acid derived systems. J. Org. Chem. 
45:5347-5350. 

Kogan, M.; Waldbauer, G. P.; Boiteau, G.; East- 
man, C. 1980. Sampling bean leaf beetles on 
soybean. Kogan, M.; Herzog, D., eds. Sam- 
pling methods of soybean entomology. 
Springer-Verlag, N.Y. pp. 201-236. 

Nicholson, J. W. G. 1980. Feeding and nutrition of 
young lambs. Church, D. C, ed. Practical 
nutrition. Digestive physiology and nutrition of 
ruminants. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. 

Saini, G. R.; Grant, W. 1980. Long-term effects of 
intensive cultivation on soil quality in the 
potato-growing areas of New Brunswick 
(Canada) and Maine (USA). Can. J. Soil Sci. 
60:421-428. 

Singh, R. P.; Drew, M. E.; MacGillivray, M. E. 
1980. A note on Virazole as a systemic steri- 
lant for aphids (Aphididae). Can. Entomol. 
112:633-636. 

Singh, R. P.; McDonald, J. G. 1980. A chlorotic 
mosaic of fall hawkbit (Leontodon autum- 
nalis). Can. Plant Dis. Surv. 60:4. 



Tai, G. C. C; De Jong, H. 1980. Multivariate 
analysis of potato hybrids. I. Discrimination 
between tetraploid-diploid hybrid families and 
their relationship to cultivars. Can. J. Genet. 
Cytol. 22:227-235. 

Tai, G. C. C; Tarn, T. R. 1980. Multivariate 
analyses of potato hybrids. II. Discrimination 
between Tuberosum-Andigena hybrid families 
and their relationship to their parents. Can. J. 
Genet. Cytol. 22:279-286. 

Young, D. A.; Clark, D. J.; Tai, G. C. C. 1980. An 
information storage and retrieval system for 
potato breeding data. Am. Potato J. 57:21-32. 

Miscellaneous 

Bagnall, R. H. 1980. Potato virus S. [In Spanish]. 
Hooker, W. J., ed. Compendio de enfer- 
medades de la papa. Centro Internacional de la 
Papa, Lima, Peru. pp. 104-106. 

Bernard, C; Fahmy, M.; McQueen, R. E.; Crober, 
D. 1980. Animal germ plasm in North Amer- 
ica. Symposium on Agriculture in the year 
2000. Macdonald College (Mar.). 

Boiteau, G. 1980. Some factors affecting the control 
of potato virus Y by mineral oil sprays. Joint 
Meeting Entomological Society of Quebec and 
Entomological Society of Canada, Quebec City 
(abstract), p. 62 

Boiteau, G. 1980. Researcher tells growers to 
examine fields before spraying. Pfizer Potato 
Grower (Apr.). 

Burgess, P. L. 1980. The use of buffers in dairy 
rations. Canadex 410.52. 

Burgess, P. L. 1980. Rye grain for Maritime 
livestock and poultry. Farm Focus 8(9)(8 
Oct.). 

Burgess, P. L. 1980. Anim. Prod. Pointers: 243 
Protec: a new additive for dairy rations; 257 
Winter feeding of dairy goats; 262 Energy 
levels in swine rations. 

Burgess, P. L.; Nicholson, J. W. G. 1980. Effect of 
suboptimal nitrogen levels into total mixed 
rations for dairy cows. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 
60:517 (abstract). 

Burgess, P. L.; Nicholson, J. W. G. 1980. Yield and 
feeding value of densely planted corn for 
silage. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60 (abstract). 

Bush, R. S. 1980. Cement kiln dust in livestock 
rations. News and Features, Agric. Can., 
1873:9-10. 

Bush, R. S. 1980. Anim. Prod. Pointers: 242 Calf 
starter and grower rations; 244 Cement kiln 
dust for ruminant rations' 1 248 Twelfth annual 
Maritime cattlemens' field day; 256 Win do 



30 



RESEARCH BRANCH RF PORT 1980 



animals need minerals? 259 Calf scours; 260 
The need for water by animals. 

Bush, R. S.; McQueen, R. E.; Nicholson, J. W. G. 
1980. Metabolism of colostrum during fermen- 
tation or chemical preservation. J. Dairy Sci. 
62 (Suppl. 1):228 (abstract). 

Bush, R. S.; Nicholson, J. W. G. 1980. Effect of 
ammonium perchlorate on growth in rumi- 
nants. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:573 (abstract). 

Bush, R. S.; Nicholson, J. W. G.; Maclntyre, T. 
M.; McQueen, R. E. 1980. Candle and Tower 
canola meals in lamb, sheep, and beef steer 
rations. 6th Progress Report, Canola Council 
of Canada. Publ. 57. pp. 210-214. 

De Jong, H.; Tai, G. C. C; Johnston, G. R.; 
Russell, W. A.; Proudfoot, K. G. 1980. Yield 
potential and genotype-environment interac- 
tion of tetraploid-diploid (4jc-2x) potato hy- 
brids. Am. Potato J. 57:475-476 (abstract). 

MacGillivray, M. E. 1980. Aphids. [In Spanish]. 
Hooker, W. J., éd. Compendio de enfer- 
medades de la papa. Centro Internacional de la 
Papa, Lima, Peru. pp. 142-143. 

McDonald, J. G.; Singh, R. P. 1980. Comparison of 
ELISA with LAT for the post-harvest indexing 
of seed tubers for potato viruses X and S. Am. 
Potato J. 57:488-489 (abstract). 

McKenzie, A. R.; Lawrence, C. H. 1980. Leak, 
watery wound rot. [In Spanish]. Hooker, W. 
J., ed. Compendio de enfermedades de la papa. 
Centro Internacional de la Papa, Lima, Peru, 
pp. 54-55. 

McQueen, R. E. 1980. Anim. Prod. Pointers: 246 
Additives for better silage; 249 Cut forage 
crops early; 251 Silo filler's disease; 258 Sam- 
pling farm feeds for analysis. 

McQueen, R. E. 1980. Silage additives. Canadex 
400.62. 

McQueen, R. E. 1980. It pays to cut early. 
Canadex 120.50. 

McQueen, R. E.; Bush, R. S.; Nicholson, J. W. G. 
1980. Variability of forage digestion in nylon 
bags suspended in the rumen. Can. J. Anim. 
Sci. 60 (abstract). 

McQueen, R. E.; Reade, A. F. 1980. Changes in 
composition and digestibility of poplar by 
fungal fermentation. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 

60:571-572 (abstract). 

McQueen, R. E.; Seoane, J. R.; Nicholson, J. W. 
G.; McRae, K. B. 1980. Effect of urea phos- 
phate, urea-form or urea on rumen and blood 
ammonia. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:572 
(abstract). 



MiSener, G. C. 1980. Developments for potato 
machinery. Proceedings Extension Potato 
School, Maine, pp. 28-30. 

Misener, G. C; McMillan, L. P. 1980. Potato 
planters — seed placement. Canadex 742. 

Nicholson, J. W. G. 1980. Out of the dark. News 
and Features, Agric. Can. 1900:5-7. 

Nicholson, J. W. G. 1980. Anim. Prod. Pointers: 

239 Reducing costs of beef calf production; 

240 Processing low-quality roughage for cattle; 

241 Creep feeding beef calves; 245 Foods of 
animal origin; 250 Keeping feed potatoes 
through the summer; 252 Feeding whole grain 
to cattle and sheep; 253 Quebec heavy veal 
program; 254 A new bulletin on problem feeds; 
255 Light control to boost animal production. 



Nicholson, J. W. G.; McQueen, R. E. 1980. Anim. 
Prod. Pointers: 261 What to do with moldy 
feed erain. 



Nicholson, J. W. G.; McQueen, R. E. 1980. 
Problem feeds for livestock and poultry in 
Canada. Agric. Can. Publ. 1701. 19 pp. 

Nicholson, J. W. G.; McQueen, R. E. 1980. 
Tetraploid red clover silage and monensin for 
growing beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 51 (Suppl. 
1):385 (abstract). 

Nicholson, J. W. G.; McQueen, R. E.; Burgess, P. 
L. 1980. Effect of cold on digestibility of 
chopped or pelleted hay by sheep. Can. J. 
Anim. Sci. 60:571 (abstract). 

Nicholson, J. W. G.; Misener, G. C; McQueen, R. 
E. 1980. Preservation and feeding of potato- 
hay mixtures ensiled in winter. Can. J. Anim. 
Sci. 60 (abstract). 

Saini, G. R. 1980. Strengthened plant roots bore 
into dense soil. Crops and Soils Mag. 32(8):5- 
6. 

Saini, G. R. 1980. Pedogenetic and induced com- 
paction in agricultural soils. Agric. Can. Re- 
search Station, Fredericton, N.B. Agriculture 
Canada. Tech. Bull. 1. 32 pp. 

Saini, G. R. 1980. Erosion — the problem, predic- 
tion and challenge. Atlantic Plant Food Educa- 
tion Seminar Sum. pp. 18-25. 

Saini, G. R.; Chow, T. L. 1980. Rainfall distri- 
bution and potato production in New Bruns- 
wick. Can. Agric. 25(2):23. 

Singh, R. P. 1980. Viroid discovery. Letter to the 
Editor. Plant Dis. 64:418. 

Singh, R. P. 1980. Viroid discovery. Letter to the 
Editor. Plant Dis. 64:964. 



RESEARCH STATION, FREDERICTON, N.B. 



131 



Singh, R. P.; Fernow, K. H. 1980. Potato spindle 
tuber viroid. [In Spanish]. Hooker, W. J., ed. 
Compendio de enfermedades de la papa. Cen- 
tro Internacional de la Papa, Lima, Peru. pp. 
123-125. 

Tarn, T. R. 1980. Potato genetic resources and the 
United States Potato Introduction Project. 
Plant Gene Resourc. Can. Newsl. 9:1-2. 

Wood, G. W. 1980. Management of lowbush 
blueberry insects. Proceedings 4th North 
American Blueberry Research Workshop Con- 
ference (1979). pp. 170-174. 

Wood, G. W. 1980. Bee toxicology from feni- 
trothion aerosols. Environmental surveillance 
in New Brunswick 1978-1979. Effects of spray 
operations for forest protection. Department of 
Forest Resources, University of New Bruns- 
wick, p. 60. 



Wood, G. W. 1980. Fenitrothion movement in air. 
Environmental surveillance in New Brunswick 
1978-1979. Effects of spray operations for 
forest protection. Department of Forest Re- 
sources, University of New Brunswick, p. 68. 

Wood, G. W. 1980. Review of pollination and forest 
spraying. Environmental surveillance in New 
Brunswick 1978-1979. Effects of spray opera- 
tions for forest protection. Department of 
Forest Resources, University of New Bruns- 
wick, p. 36. 

Wood, G. W. 1980. Pollination surveys in blueberry 
fields, 1979. Environmental surveillance in 
New Brunswick 1978-1979. Effects of spray 
operations for forest protection. Department of 
Forest Resources, University of New Bruns- 
wick, p. 40. 

Young, D. A. 1980. New development in potato 
breeding. Proceedings 8th Annual Meeting 
Prairie Potato Council, pp. 14-20. 



132 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



QUEBEC REGION 
RÉGION DU QUÉBEC 



&E 




Mr. J.-J. Jasmin 





Dr. R. Bouchard Mr. J. R. Frappier 



EXECUTIVE OF THE QUEBEC REGION 
L'EXÉCUTIF DE LA RÉGION DU QUÉBEC 

Director General 

Directeur général 

J.-J. Jasmin, B.Sc. (Agr.), M. Se. 

Program Specialist 

Spécialiste en programmes 

R. Bouchard, B.A., B.S.A., M.Sc, PhD. 



Chief, Finance and Administration 

Chef, finances et administration 

J.R. Frappier, B.A. 



QUEBEC REGION 135 



PREFACE 



La région du Québec compte trois stations de 
recherche et trois fermes expérimentales. Ces 
établissements ont comme mission de desservir 
l'ensemble de l'industrie agricole du Québec. En 
1980, le budget de la région était de $1 1 millions 
avec un personnel scientifique de 76 chercheurs et 
un effectif total de 300 personnes. Jusqu'en août 
1980, le Québec faisait partie de la région adminis- 
trative de l'Est. La province est maintenant consti- 
tuée en une région administrative distincte possé- 
dant sa propre administration. 

L'agriculture de la région repose sur les produc- 
tions animales et son potentiel de production 
fourragère dicte en grande partie l'évolution de ses 
industries. Actuellement, il y a une augmentation 
constante des productions céréalières et horticoles. 
La production laitière demeure la première produc- 
tion agricole du Québec. Toutefois, la stabilisation 
de la production nationale de lait force les agricul- 
teurs à diversifier leurs produits vers de nouveaux 
secteurs. La production porcine est la deuxième en 
importance dans la région et le Québec se classe au 
premier rang au niveau national. 

Dans les différents établissements de la région, 
on poursuit 1 1 programmes de recherches qui ont 
trait à la productivité des sols, aux cultures céréaliè- 
res et horticoles, et aux productions animales. Les 
recherches sont orientées vers la solution de problè- 
mes que les producteurs agricoles de la région 
rencontrent tout en tenant compte des aspects de 
complémentarité avec les programmes nationaux. 

La qualité des fourrages joue un rôle important 
dans l'économie de la production du lait et de la 
viande étant donné l'impact des fourrages sur 
l'utilisation des suppléments fabriqués à partir de 
céréales qui doivent être importés de l'extérieur. La 
station de Sainte-Foy vient d'homologuer un culti- 
var de luzerne appelé Apica qui possède des 
caractères supérieurs de rusticité. Deux nouvelles 



variétés de blé et une d'orge ont été homologuées, 
soit Anka et Casavant pour le blé et Sophie pour 
l'orge. On a réalisé des progrès importants au 
niveau de l'inoculation de la luzerne et de la survie 
des plantes à l'hiver. 

Les recherches fruitières sont orientées vers la 
pomme, la fraise, la framboise et le bleuet. Les 
activités de la station de Saint-Jean sont suivies de 
très près par les horticulteurs du Sud-ouest québé- 
cois qui y reçoivent un support technique constant. 
Les perspectives d'avenir de ces productions sont 
très intéressantes. Quelques projets touchent la 
production de la prune et de la poire. La région 
assume également la responsabilité du programme 
national de gestion des sols organiques. La station 
de recherches de Lennoxville a mis au point" un 
système intégré pour la production de veaux lourds 
à partir de veaux mâles issus du cheptel laitier. Plus 
de 35 000 veaux seront engraissés jusqu'au poids de 
165 kg selon un programme d'alimentation «aux 
grains» par de nouveaux producteurs au Québec. 
On a entrepris un programme de recherches en 
floriculture à la ferme expérimentale de L'Assomp- 
tion. Les fermes expérimentales de Normandin et 
de La Pocatière, en plus de fournir un support de 
recherches à la station de Sainte-Foy, sont actives 
dans les secteurs propres à l'agriculture de leur 
milieu géographique. 

Les programmes de recherches réalisés en sta- 
tions sont appuyés par un programme dynamique 
de recherches à contrat qui permet à l'industrie 
agricole de s'engager dans le secteur de la recherche 
et du développement et dans la prise en main de la 
solution de leur problème technologique. 

Il est possible de rejoindre le personnel du bureau 
régional en s'adressant à Agriculture Canada, 
Direction générale de la recherche, 3194 chemin 
Sainte-Foy, Sainte-Foy, Québec, G 1 X 1 R4. 

J.-J. Jasmin 



136 



RI SI ARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



PREFACE 



The Quebec Region comprises three research 
stations and three experimental farms. These estab- 
lishments are designed to serve the whole of 
Quebec's farm industry. In 1980, the Region's 
budget amounted to $1 1 million. The scientific staff 
consisted of 76 researchers, and total staff num- 
bered 300. Until August 1980, Quebec belonged to 
the Eastern Region. The province now forms a 
separate region with its own administration. 

Agricultural activity in the Region is based on 
livestock production, and the Region's forage pro- 
duction potential dictates to a great extent the 
development of its industries. The production of 
grain and horticultural crops is constantly increas- 
ing. Dairy production remains the leading agricul- 
tural industry in Quebec. However, the stabilization 
of domestic milk production is forcing farmers to 
diversify into new areas with their product. Hog 
production is the second most important industry in 
the Region, and Quebec ranks first in the country as 
a whole. 

The Region's various establishments are carrying 
out 1 1 research programs, centering on soil produc- 
tivity, grain and horticultural crops, and livestock 
production. Research is geared to solving problems 
faced by farm producers in the Region, while taking 
into account national programs. 

Forage quality plays an important role in the 
milk and meat production economy, because it 
affects the need for supplements (which are manu- 
factured from imported grains). The Sainte-Foy 
Station has just released an alfalfa cultivar called 
Apica, which has superior hardiness characteristics. 
Two new varieties of wheat (Anka and Casavant) 



and one of barley (Sophie) have been released. 
Significant progress has been made in alfalfa 
inoculation and the winter survival of plants. 

Fruit research is centered on apples, strawber- 
ries, raspberries, and blueberries. The activities of 
the Saint-Jean Station are watched closely by 
horticulturists in southwestern Quebec, who receive 
the Station's continuous technical support. The 
prospects for these crops are very attractive. A few 
projects concern the production of plums and pears. 
The Region also assumes responsibility for the 
national organic soils management program. The 
Lennoxville Research Station has developed an 
integrated system for heavy-calf production using 
bull dairy calves. New producers in Quebec are 
expected to fatten more than 35 000 calves to a 
weight of 165 kg under a grain-feeding program. A 
floriculture research program has been undertaken 
at the L'Assomption Experimental Farm. The 
experimental farms at Normandin and La Pocat- 
ière, in addition to supporting research at the 
Sainte-Foy Station, are active in projects specific to 
the agriculture of their geographic areas. 

The research programs carried out in the stations 
are supported by a dynamic contract research 
program, which enables the farm industry to 
become involved in research and development and 
to take charge of its technological problems. 

The staff of the regional office may be contacted 
by addressing inquiries to: Agriculture Canada, 
Research Branch, 3 1 94, chemin Sainte-Foy, Sainte- 
Foy, Quebec, G 1 X 1R4. 

J. -J. Jasmin 



QUEBEC REGION 



137 



Station de recherches 
Lennoxville, Québec 

CADRES PROFESSIONNELS 
Administration 



Y. Martel, B.A. 
H. Rouleau 



B.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. 



Directeur 

Agent d'administration 



Productions animales 



J. Dufour, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

A.M. B. de Passillé, B.Sc, M.Sc. 

M. H. Fahmy, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

P. Flipot, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

B. Lachance, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. 

G. Lalande, B.A., B.S.A. 

G. Pelletier, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

G. Roy, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Chef de section; physiologie de la 
reproduction 
Étiologie, porcs 
Génétique, moutons 
Nutrition, bovins 
Nutrition, jeunes ruminants 
Régie, bovins de boucherie 
Physiologie animale 
Génétique, bovins 



Productions végétales et sols 



J.L. Dionne, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. 
G. Barnett, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. 
W. Mason, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 
A. Pesant, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. 



Chef de section; fertilité des sols 
Régie, légumineuses et maïs 
Régie, graminées 
Physique des sols 



Départ 

R. Bouchard, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 
Promu Spécialiste en programme au Bureau 
régional 



Nutrition, bovins laitiers 



STATION DE RECHERCHES. LENNOXVILLE, QUÉBEC 



139 



AUX ETUDES 

L. Guilbault, B.Sc, M. Se, D.E.A. (Nut.) Physiologie de la reproduction 

D. Petitclerc, B.Sc., B.Sc. (Agr.), M. Se. Physiologie de la lactation 

S. Pommier, B.Sc, M.Sc. Spécialiste en viandes 



140 RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



INTRODUCTION 



La station de recherches à Lennoxville concentre ses efforts sur la production animale, 
notamment l'évaluation des croisements de bovins, l'amélioration des systèmes d'alimentation 
des vaches laitières, les techniques d'élevage de jeunes ruminants et l'amélioration de la 
prolificité des races de moutons au Québec. On poursuit également des recherches en 
productions végétales et en sols dans le but de développer des pratiques culturales susceptibles 
d'augmenter les rendements du maïs ensilage et des fourrages. 

On peut obtenir des renseignements plus complets en écrivant directement aux chercheurs 
à l'adresse suivante: Station de recherches, Agriculture Canada, C.P. 90, Lennoxville (Québec) 
JIM 1Z3. 

Yvon Martel 
Directeur 



PRODUCTIONS ANIMALES 

Bovins laitiers 

Qualité du foin de mil et quantité de 
moulée sur la performance de la vache laitiè- 
re. On a évalué l'effet de deux stades de 
maturité du foin de mil et de deux niveaux du 
concentré dans la ration de vaches en lacta- 
tion sur l'ingestion et la digestibilité de diffé- 
rents nutriments et sur la production et la 
composition du lait. L'allocation journalière 
du concentré était faite soit au taux de 1 kg 
pour 4 kg de lait produit par jour ou de 1 kg 
pour 6 kg. Le foin 1 en était au début de 
l'épiaison à la récolte qui a eu lieu à la mi-juin 
tandis que le foin 2 en était à la fin de la 
floraison lorsque récolté au début de juillet. 
Le foin haché était le seul fourrage et était 
servi à volonté. Les pourcentages de la protéi- 
ne brute (12,4 contre 7,8%) et de la ligno- 
cellulose (39,8 contre 41,4%) démontrent qu'il 
existait une différence assez importante entre 
les foins. 

On ne retrouvait aucune différence dans la 
production totale du lait entre les deux ap- 
ports du concentré. Les performances des 
vaches recevant le foin 1 ont été de 15 à 35% 
supérieures (P < 0,05) à celle du foin 2. Ceci 
était surtout vrai pour la production du lait 
corrigé à 4% de matière grasse et ajusté pour 
le nombre de jours en lactation (17,3 contre 
12,7 kg/jour). Aucune différence significative 
n'a été enregistrée pour les pourcentages du 
gras et de la protéine. 

La qualité du foin a eu un effet significatif 
sur les coefficients de la digestibilité apparente 
des nutriments tandis que les niveaux du 
concentré n'en ont eu aucun. Nous avons 



observé une forte amélioration de la digestibi- 
lité du foin de mil récolté au début de l'épiai- 
son en comparaison de celui récolté en fin de 
floraison. Le calcium était le seul nutriment 
où la différence entre les deux foins n'était pas 
significative. 

L'efficacité de l'utilisation de l'énergie bru- 
te était de 11% plus élevée pour la ration au 
foin 1 que celle au foin 2. L'ingestion d'éner- 
gie digestible de la ration au foin 1 était plus 
élevée d'environ 50 MJ par jour que de celle 
du foin 2. Les vaches recevant le foin 1 et le 
concentré au niveau de 1 pour 4 ont consom- 
mé une quantité plus élevée d'énergie digesti- 
ble sans produire plus de lait. Cette consom- 
mation s'est traduite en un gain corporel plus 
élevé des vaches soit 45 kg pour celles de ce 
groupe contre 32 kg pour celles des trois 
autres groupes. 

Les résultats indiquent donc que le stade de 
maturité du foin de mil s'avère très important 
dans la valeur nutritive du fourrage pour la 
vache laitière. La digestibilité des nutriments 
est meilleure et la production laitière est 
optimale. 

Influence du niveau d'énergie de la ration 
sur la production et la composition du lait. 
L'effet des niveaux d'énergie durant les pério- 
des pré-partum et post-partum sur la produc- 
tion et la composition du lait a été mesuré 
chez 90 vaches laitières. Durant la période de 
tarissement, qui était d'environ 60 jours, les 
vaches recevaient de l'ensilage d'herbe à vo- 
lonté et des concentrés dosant 14% de protéi- 
nes. Les quantités de concentrés allouées par 
vache étaient 0,25 et 0,75% du poids vif de 
l'animal pour les groupes bas (B) et haut (H) 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, LENNOXVILLE, QUÉBEC 



141 



respectivement. Durant la période de lacta- 
tion, les vaches étaient alimentées avec 4,5 kg 
de foin, de l'ensilage de maïs à volonté et des 
concentrés dosant 18% de protéines. Les 
quantités de concentrés, pendant les 112 pre- 
miers jours de lactation, étaient les suivantes: 
0,25% (B), 0,75% (M) du poids vif de l'ani- 
mal et à volonté (H). À partir du 112 e jour 
jusqu'à la fin de la lactation, les concentrés 
étaient donnés sur une base de production 
laitière journalière. Les vaches recevaient 1 
kg de concentré pour chaque 4 kg de lait 
produit. 

Les niveaux de concentrés durant la période 
pré-vêlage n'ont pas eu d'influence significa- 
tive sur la production laitière et sur la compo- 
sition chimique du lait. Par contre, une aug- 
mentation des niveaux du concentré durant la 
période post-partum a favorisé significative- 
ment non seulement une plus grande produc- 
tion laitière mais aussi une augmentation des 
quantités produites de protéines et de gras. La 
production laitière a augmenté de 12 et 23% 
en augmentant les niveaux du concentré. Les 
rendements en protéines et en gras étaient de 
16 et 30% plus grands pour les niveaux M et 
H respectivement. Les pourcentages de pro- 
téines et de gras du lait ne variaient pas de 
fa]on significative entre les traitements. La 
durée de la lactation a varié entre 256 jours 
pour les vaches alimentées au haut niveau du 
concentré durant la période pré-vêlage et au 
bas niveau durant le post-partum (groupe 
HB) et 302 jours pour celles du groupe HM. 
À partir de ces résultats, il n'est pas nécessai- 
re de suralimenter les vaches durant les 60 
jours précédant le vêlage. L'addition de con- 
centrés à la ration devrait donc se faire durant 
la période de lactation. 

Alimentation du veau lourd d'abattage 
nourri d'aliments d'allaitement ou de grains. 
On a mesuré les effets de trois modes d'ali- 
mentation du veau sur le taux de croissance, 
l'efficacité alimentaire et les caractéristiques 
de la carcasse à 88 ou 108 kg. Une première 
diète consistait exclusivement en un aliment 
d'allaitement; la deuxième était un aliment 
d'allaitement jusqu'à 5 semaines et du con- 
centré du début jusqu'à l'abattage; et la 
troisième diète était un aliment d'allaitement 
jusqu'à 5 semaines, du concentré du début 
jusqu'à 8 semaines et par la suite du maïs 
entier et un supplément protéique-minéral- 
vitaminé jusqu'à l'abattage. Les traitements 
alimentaires n'ont pas eu d'effet significatif (P 
> 0,05) sur le gain quotidien. L'efficacité 



alimentaire était 8% meilleur pour les veaux 
abattus à un poids plus léger. Les veaux 
nourris au maïs entier ont été significative- 
ment (P < 0,01) plus efficaces que les veaux 
nourris au concentré (2,84 contre 3,07). Le 
rendement de la carcasse a été significative- 
ment (P < 0,01) plus élevé pour les veaux à 
l'aliment lacté que pour les veaux au grain 
(56,4 contre 53,8%). La viande des veaux 
nourris d'aliments d'allaitement a été plus 
pâle (P < 0,01) que la viande des veaux au 
grain (66,7 contre 48,2 unités). Les veaux 
abattus à un poids plus léger avait une colora- 
tion du muscle plus pâle (P < 0,01) que ceux 
abattus plus lourd (58,8 contre 50,0 unités). 
L'introduction de grain dans les diètes a 
réduit respectivement de 37 et 46% le coût de 
l'alimentation des veaux abattus au poids de 
88 et 108 kg de carcasse. 

Bovins de boucherie 

Possibilité de gémellage grâce à une ration 
riche en énergie avant une alimentation au 
P. M. S. G. chez la taure. Nous avons essayé de 
produire des ovulations multiples limitées (de 
deux à quatre corps jaunes) chez les taures, en 
les alimentant avec une nourriture riche ou 
pauvre en énergie, pendant un cycle oestral, et 
en leur injectant une faible dose de P.M. S. G. 
au 16 e jour de ce cycle. Nous avons obtenu des 
ovulations multiples chez 52% des 19 taures 
croisées laitières x bouchères, auxquelles on 
avait injecté 1200 U.I. de P.M.S.G. La rela- 
tion du nombre de taures qui ont ovulé entre 
deux et quatre follicules par rapport à celles 
qui en ont ovulé un et plus de quatre a été plus 
élevée (P < 0,05) chez les taures alimentées 
avec un régime riche en énergie que chez 
celles nourries avec un régime pauvre. Durant 
la période de 36 à 96 h après l'injection de 
P.M.S.G. et avant l'oestrus, la concentration 
de E 2 -17/3 fut moindre chez les taures ayant 
un follicule en croissance se développant et un 
corps jaune que chez celles en ayant deux (P 
< 0,01). Les taures ayant plus de deux 
follicules se développant en corps jaunes ont 
eu plus de E 2 -l 7/3 que celles qui éventuelle- 
ment en formaient deux (P < 0,01). De plus, 
chez les taures ayant plus de deux follicules, 
la concentration de E : -17/3 augmentait régu- 
lièrement jusqu'à au moins 96 h après l'injec- 
tion de P.M.S.G., tandis que chez les taures 
ayant un ou deux corps jaunes, la concentra- 
tion se stabilisait à 60 h après l'injection. La 
concentration de progestérone était plus faible 
chez les taures qui développaient plus de deux 



142 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



corps jaunes que chez celles en ayant un ou 
deux {P < 0,05). 

L'influence de l'ouverture pelvienne et de la 
taille du veau sur les difficultés de vêlage de 
vaches croisées. On a utilisé, dans deux expé- 
riences, 164 vaches croisées représentant huit 
croisements issus de taureaux Charolais, He- 
reford, Limousin et Maine-Anjou et de vaches 
Holstein et Ayrshire pour étudier les diffi- 
cultés de vêlage à la première et deuxième 
mise-bas. Les vaches croisées étaient saillies 
la première fois à 12 mois par un taureau 
Angus, un taureau Limousin, ou un taureau 
Chianina représentant, respectivement, un pe- 
tit, moyen et grand format. Pour la seconde 
mise-bas elles étaient saillies par deux tau- 
reaux de grand format, soit le même Chianina 
et un Simmental. Le but de l'étude était de 
mesurer l'influence de la morphologie de la 
mère et de son veau sur l'incidence des diffi- 
cultés de vêlage. 

Au premier vêlage, il a fallu assister 23,1% 
de toutes les parturitions, sans toutefois y 
détecter de différence parmi les groupes géné- 
tiques; alors qu'au deuxième vêlage 4, 12, 20 
et 36% {P < 0,05) d'assistance fut nécessaire 
aux croisements où le père de la vache appar- 
tenait aux races Limousin, Charolais, Here- 
ford et Maine-Anjou respectivement. Les va- 
ches qui ont eu des difficultés de vêlage à 
chacune des deux mises-bas avaient une ou- 
verture pelvienne plus petite à la première 
saillie, à 150 et 270 jours de la première 
gestation que celles qui n'ont pas eu de diffi- 
culté. Le rapport entre l'ouverture pelvienne 
et le poids de la vache était toujours plus petit 
pour les vaches nécessitant des assistances aux 
deux vêlages consécutifs. 

Les vaches dont l'ouverture pelvienne était 
normale et dont le premier ou deuxième 
vêlage était difficile avaient des veaux qui 
pesaient environ 5 kg de plus à la naissance 
que celles dont les vêlages étaient faciles. La 
taille du père du veau augmentait, au premier 
vêlage, l'incidence des difficultés de vêlage (P 
< 0,05), de 24 et 21 points pour les taureaux 
de grand et moyen format respectivement par 
rapport au taureau de petit format. Les veaux 
mâles de la deuxième parité ont nécessité 
quatre fois plus d'assistance à la naissance 
que les veaux femelles (P < 0,05). Les 
premières et secondes parturitions ont nécessi- 
té respectivement 54,2 et 13,8% d'assistance 
chez les vaches qui avaient été saillies les deux 
fois par le même taureau Chianina (P < 
0,05). Les dimensions du veau les plus reliées 



aux difficultés de vêlage étaient la circonfé- 
rence du nez et de la tête qui étaient, respecti- 
vement, de 1,3 et 1,6 cm de plus que chez les 
veaux nés sans difficulté de vêlage (P < 0,01 ). 

L'intervalle moyen entre le vêlage et la 
première chaleur a été de 88,0 jours et le 
nombre moyen d'inséminations par concep- 
tion a été de 2,3 après un vêlage difficile, soit 
14 jours (P < 0,05) et 0,4 insémination de 
plus (P < 0,05) qu'après un vêlage sans 
difficulté. 



Moutons 

Paramètres génétiques de la date d'agnela- 
ge chez les moutons D.L.S. Nous avons com- 
mencé, en 1965, un programme de sélection 
ovine de sujets croisés, en combinant des 
gènes de la race Dorset d'Australie et des 
races Leicester et Suffolk du Canada. Nous 
avions comme objectif de créer une nouvelle 
race ayant une longue saison d'accouplement 
et pouvant se reproduire en tout temps de 
l'année. Nous avons utilisé un seul critère de 
sélection, c'est-à-dire, un index basé sur la 
date de parturition des deux premiers agnela- 
ges consécutifs aux périodes d'accouplement 
qui s'étendent entre juin et novembre. On 
sélectionnait, d'une part, en ligne directe chez 
les mâles, puisqu'on n'utilisait que les béliers 
issus des brebis les mieux quotes et, d'autre 
part, en ligne indirecte chez les femelles, 
puisqu'on ne sélectionnait que les brebis de la 
meilleure moitié de la population gardée pour 
un troisième agnelage. On a recueilli des 
données sur environ 1300 brebis qui représen- 
taient quatre générations de sélection. Nous 
nous sommes servis de différentes méthodes 
pour calculer la répétabilité et l'héritabilité de 
la date d'agnelage. 

Nous avons trouvé une corrélation pour la 
date d'agnelage de 0,33, 0,25 et 0,13, respecti- 
vement, entre le premier et le second, le 
premier et le troisième, et le deuxième et le 
troisième agnelage. Nous avons estimé l'héri- 
tabilité à 0,14 chez les demi-frères paternels 
et à 0,43 chez les demi-frères maternels. La 
corrélation entre 86 paires de frères a donné 
une héritabilité estimée de 0,70. On a aussi 
estimé à 0,40 ± 0,07 l'héritabilité obtenue de 
la régression entre-pères de 693 paires de 
mère-fille. 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, LENNOXV1LLE, QUÉBEC 



143 



PRODUCTIONS VEGETALES ET 
SOLS 

Pollution et agriculture dans le bassin de 
la rivière Saint-Franjois. La station de re- 
cherches à Lennoxville a poursuivi une étude 
pour évaluer la teneur en azote, phosphore et 
potassium dans les cours d'eau du bassin de la 
rivière Saint-Fran]ois et pour préciser l'im- 
plantation de l'agriculture dans la pollution 
des eaux du bassin par ces éléments. De mai à 
novembre 1979, 69 sites ont été visités six fois 
chacun. En plus des échantillons d'eau, on a 
recueilli des échantillons de sol et de plantes 
chez quelques cultivateurs de la région afin de 
pouvoir établir un bilan. On a aussi échantil- 
lonné le fond des rivières de manière à suivre 
le cycle de ces éléments. Les analyses chimi- 
ques effectuées (N total, N-N0 3 , P total et K) 
sur chacun des échantillons d'eau ont permis 
d'établir la condition des eaux du bassin 
Saint-Fran]ois en fonction de la variabilité 
spatiale (évolution des concentrations de la 
source à l'embouchure) et de la variation 
temporelle (mensuelle). Des résultats complé- 
mentaires ont été de plus obtenus du ministère 
des Richesses naturelles, des bureaux régio- 
naux de Rock Forest et de Nicolet (MAPAQ) 
et en consultant l'annexe de statistiques du 
ministère de l'Agriculture du Québec. 

Les résultats obtenus démontrent une aug- 
mentation significative des concentrations en 
éléments nutritifs dans les eaux de la Saint- 
Fran]ois pour les secteurs urbains de Sher- 
brooke et de Drummondville. La région du lac 
Saint-Pierre, plus précisément entre Saint- 
Joachim et Saint-Elphège, contient des quan- 
tités de phosphore et de potassium plus éle- 
vées que celles observées à Drummondville. 
Par contre, la rivière Saint-Franjois en amont 
de Sherbrooke contient les plus basses concen- 
trations en N, P et K. Cette région à caractère 
agricole, récréatif et forestier surtout ne sem- 
ble pas détériorer ses eaux par les applications 
d'engrais vu la teneur faible en P. 

Le bilan des éléments nutritifs pour le 
bassin Saint-Fran]ois démontre clairement 
que les engrais azotés et potassiques épandus 
en 1979 ne couvrent pas les prélèvements des 
cultures, c'est-à-dire que le sol a dû fournir 
une certaine quantité d'azote et de potassium. 
Pour les engrais phosphatés, l'application fai- 
te en 1979 correspond à 2,5 fois les prélève- 
ments. Mais les sols acides retiennent forte- 
ment la majeure partie de ce phosphore qui 
s'est transformé en une forme insoluble. Les 



bilans particuliers des producteurs visités ap- 
puient ces observations. En effet, les bilans 
calculés prouvent que les engrais sont retenus 
par les sols ou utilisés par les plantes qui 
doivent puiser à même les réserves plutôt 
moyennes du sol les compléments à leurs 
besoins. Ceci indique donc que les fertilisants 
peuvent difficilement atteindre les cours d'eau 
puisqu'ils sont captés soit par les cultures soit 
par les sols. L'étude démontre de plus que les 
engrais organiques doivent entrer dans les 
préoccupations des chercheurs agricoles de 
fa]on à établir leur niveau d'efficacité une fois 
appliqués au sol. Les producteurs, avec une 
information d'appoint, pourraient tirer les 
avantages de ces engrais peu coûteux tout en 
évitant d'altérer l'environnement. Enfin, il est 
démontré une fois de plus qu'il est urgent de 
construire des usines de filtration dans les 
centres urbains et au niveau des industries 
pour améliorer la qualité des cours d'eau qui 
servent trop souvent d'égouts à ciel ouvert. 

Évaluation de la qualité du maïs-ensilage 
au cours de sa maturation. L'évolution de la 
teneur en glucides non-structuraux (total 
nonstructural carbohydrates — T.N.C.) a été 
suivie chez des cultivars de maïs hâtifs, 
moyens et tardifs, pendant une période s'éta- 
lant de la mi-août à la fin de septembre. La 
teneur en T.N.C. des tiges et des feuilles a 
chuté de son niveau initial de 30% à une 
teneur inférieure à 10% tard à l'automne. Au 
cours de la même période le T.N.C. moyen 
des épis s'est accru de 60% à 70% en fin de 
septembre. Cependant, le contenu en T.N.C. 
a régressé graduellement à son niveau initial 
suite à une gelée mortelle. La teneur en 
T.N.C. des tiges et des feuilles a augmenté 
jusqu'au début de septembre mais a diminué 
graduellement pendant le reste de la saison. 
Chez les cultivars moyens et tardifs, ces 
diminutions ont été plus que compensées par 
les accroissements de rendements en T.N.C. 
des épis qui se sont continuées jusqu'aux 
dernières gelées mortelles. La teneur en 
T.N.C. des épis et le rendement total en 
T.N.C. des cultivars hâtifs ont atteint leur 
optimum après le stade pâteux-dur, au début 
de septembre. 

On a poursuivi cette expérience pendant 
trois ans et on a observé une variation considé- 
rable du niveau de T.N.C. d'année en année. 
Ces niveaux étaient bas chez tous les cultivars 
en 1979, année pendant laquelle le maïs- 
ensilage a souffert d'une pauvre fermentation. 



144 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recherche 

Bouchard, R.; Lachance, B.; Roy, G. 1980. Addi- 
tion of dry skim milk to whole milk in vealer 
rations. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:535-537. 

Bouchard, R.; Laflamme, L.F.; Lachance, B.; Roy, 
G.L. 1980. Levels of protein and fat and type 
of protein in vealer rations. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 
60:523-530. 

Dionne, J.L. 1980. Effet du magnésium et du pH du 
sol sur la luzerne cultivée en serre dans trois 
types de sol du Québec. Can. J. Soil Sci. 
60:275-284. 

Fahmy, M. H.; Maclntyre, T. M; Chancey, H.W.R. 
1980. Date of lambing and reproductive per- 
formance of Newfoundland and "DLS" breeds 
of sheep raised under extensive management in 
Nova Scotia. J. Anim. Sci. 5 1 (5): 1 078- 1086. 

Pelletier, G.; Bouchard, R. 1978. Évaluation de la 
fèverole et du pois traités ou non-traités à la 
formaldehyde comme source de protéines pour 
la vache laitière. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 58:659- 
669. 

Potvin, N.; Bergeron, J.-M.; Genest, J. 1978. Com- 
paraison de méthodes de répression d'oiseaux 
s'attaquant au maïs fourrager. Can. J. Zool. 
56:40-47. 

Vinet, C; Bouchard, R.; St-Laurent, GJ. 1980. 
Effects of stage of maturity of timothy hay and 
concentrate supplementation on performance 
of lactating dairy cows. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 
60:511-521. 

Divers 

Barnett, G.M. 1980. Les conséquences agronomi- 
ques. Pages 139-187 dans: Colloque sur les 
fumiers, 9 octobre 1980. C.P.V.Q., MAPAQ. 

Batra, T.R.; McAllister, A.J.; Chesnais, J.P.; Daris- 
se, J.P.F.; Lee, A.J.; Roy, G.L.; Vesely, J.A.; 
Winter, K.A. 1980. Comparison of several pu- 
reline bull groups for reproductive traits and 
calving ease of their daughters. J. Dairy Sci. 63 
(Suppl. l):97-98. (Résumé) 

B. de Passillé, A.M. 1980. Le comportement du 
porcelet. Pages 41-51 dans: Symposium de la 
production porcine: L'efficacité dans les mater- 
nités, Québec, 22 mai 1980. C.P.A.Q., 
MAPAQ. 

Beauchemin, K.; Lachance, B.; St-Laurent, G. 
1980. Carcass study of heavy veal calves fed 
milk-replacer or grain. J. Anim. Sci. 51 
(Suppl. 1):344. (Résumé) 



Beauchemin, K.; Lachance, B.; St-Laurent, G. 
1980. Performance of heavy calves fed milk- 
replacer or grain. J. Anim. Sci. 51 (Suppl. 
1):344. (Résumé) 

Beauchemin, K.; St-Laurent, G.; Lachance, B. 
1980. Alimentation et régie du veau lourd 
d'abattage nourri d'aliments d'allaitement ou 
de grains. Journées de recherche bovine, 
Drummondville, 17-18 septembre 1980. C- 
P.A.Q., MAPAQ. (Résumé) 

Carrier, F. 1980. Agriculture contre azote, phos- 
phate, potassium dans le bassin Saint-Fran]ois. 
Agric. Can., station de recherches, Lennoxvil- 
le, Québec. 206 p. 

Chesnais, J.P.; Batra, T.R.; Darisse, J.P.F.; Hick- 
man, C.G.; Lee, A.J.; McAllister, A.J.; Roy, 
G.L.; Vesely, J.A.; Winter, K.W. 1979. Com- 
parison among eight strains of bulls for the 
milk production of their daughters. J. Dairy 
Sci. 62 (Suppl. 1 ): 1 86. (Résumé) 

Chesnais, J. P.; McAllister, A.J.; Batra, T.R.; Daris- 
se, J.P.F.; Hickman, C.G.; Lee, A. J.; Roy, 
G.L.; Vesely, J. A.; Winter, K.A. 1980. Foun- 
dation animal performance in the National 
Dairy Breeding Project. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 
60:560. (Résumé) 

Dionne, J.L. 1980. En sols acides, les plantes meu- 
rent d'intoxication. Bull. Agric. (février):56. 

Dionne, J.L. 1980. La luzerne demande aussi du 
magnésium. Bull. Agric. (mars):79, 82 et 85. 

Dionne, J.L. 1980. La réaction du sol en relation 
avec la croissance des végétaux. Pages 19-33 
dans: Rapport de la journée d'information sur 
la chaux agricole, Saint-Hyacinthe, 18 octobre 
1979. C.P.V.Q., MAPAQ, Agdex 534. 

Dufour, J. 1980. Pour des brebis plus prolifiques. 
Bull. Agric. (janvier):l 16-1 17. 

Dufour, J. 1980. Quand les brebis produiront à 
l'année longue. Bull. Agric. (août):32, 34-35. 

Dufour, J.J.; Adelakoun, V.; Matton, P. 1980. Pro- 
babilité accrue de gémellité par une ration 
riche en énergie servie avant une stimulation à 
la PMSG, et des concentrations hormonales 
stéroïdiennes lors d'ovulations simples, doubles 
et multiples chez les bovins de boucherie. Jour- 
nées de recherche bovine, Drummondville, 17- 
18 septembre 1980. C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. 
(Résumé) 

Dupuis, G.; Rony, D.; Flipot, P.; Lalande, G. 1980. 
Utilisation des fientes de poules et pomme de 
terre dans l'alimentation des bouvillons. Jour- 
nées de recherche bovine, Drummondville, 17- 
18 septembre 1980. C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. 
(Résumé) 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, LENNOXVILLE, QUÉBEC 



145 



Fahmy, M. H. 1978. Une lignée de porcs résistants 
à l'anémie? Bull. Agric. (mars): 1 24-126. 

Fahmy, M. H. 1979. La truie hybride réchappe plus 
de porcelets. Bull. Agric. (avril):40. 

Fahmy, M. H. 1979. Research review. Sheep Can. 
Mag. 4(1):40. 

Fahmy, M.H. 1979. Research review. Sheep Can. 
Mag. 4(3):36. 

Fahmy, M.H. 1979. Research review. Sheep Can. 
Mag.4(4):46-47. 

Fahmy, M.H. 1979. The performance of eight 
breeds of swine in crossbreeding. West. Hog J. 
(Winter):36. 

Fahmy, M.H. 1980. Bientôt au Canada, les races 
ovines Romanov et Bleu du Maine. Bull. Agric. 
(mars):98et 101. 

Fahmy, M.H. 1980. Quelles races utiliser dans le 
croisement des porcs. Bull. Agric. (jan- 
vier):60P-61P. 

Fahmy, M.H. 1980. Research review. Sheep Can. 
Mag. 5(l):46-47. 

Fahmy, M.H. 1980. Research review. Sheep Can. 
Mag. 5(3):43. 

Fahmy, M.H.; Cossette, M. 1980. Les petits sont 
éliminés par les gros. Bull. Agric. (mai):IOP, 
12P et 14P. 

Fahmy, M. H.; Cossette, M. 1980. Pour améliorer 
ses chances d'avoir de grosses portées à sevrer. 
Bull. Agric. (mars):24P et 26P. 

Flipot, P.; Genest, J.; Mason, W. 1980. Moins de 
viande à l'acre en semant le mais plus dense. 
Bull. Agric. (avril):! 30 et 133. 

Flipot, P.; Mason, W.; Lalande, G. 1980. Effet du 
stade de maturité des herbages sur les perfor- 
mances des taurillons Hereford. Journées de 
recherche bovine, Drummondville, 17-18 sep- 
tembre 1980. C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. (Résumé) 

Fournier, L.; Roy, G.L. 1980. Amélioration de la 
productivité par les croisements. Pages 49-57 
dans: Symposium production viande bovine: La 
productivité de l'entreprise vache-veau, 17 
avril 1980. C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. 

Jubinville, J.; Bouchard, R.; Bruneau, Y.; Dionne, 
J.L.; Perron, M.; Roy, G. 1978. Pâturage, ou 
non. Aspect technique et économique. Pages 
35-45 dans: Symposium bovins laitiers: C'est 
une question de régie, Québec, 28 septembre 
1978. C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. 

Lachance, B. 1980. Est-il possible de produire du 
veau lourd en santé? Bull. Agric. (septem- 
bre):!^, 1 19 et 122. 



Lachance, B. 1980. 1973-1980. Projets de recher- 
che sur le veau. Nouvelles de la recherche 
(février). 4 feuillets. 

Lachance, B.; Beauchemin, K. 1980. Digestibilité 
du maïs entier (rond). Hebdoveau 1 (37):2. 

Lachance, B.; Beauchemin, K. 1980. Veaux de 
grain — au maïs entier (rond). Hebdo veau 1 
(36):2. 

Lachance, B.; Bouchard, R.; Roy, G. 1980. L'in- 
fluence de la qualité du foin et des aliments 
d'allaitement sur les performances des génisses 
laitières de la naissance à 4 mois. Journées de 
recherche bovine, Drummondville, 17-18 sep- 
tembre 1980. C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. (Résumé) 

Lachance, B.; St-Laurent, G. 1980. Finis, .les 
«veaux de lait» d'autrefois. Bull. Agric. 
(août):59, 62 et 89. 

Lalande, G. 1980. Doit-on faire vêler les génisses 
destinées à la boucherie avant de les abattre? 
Bull. Agric. (septembre):32 et 34. (Publié sous 
le nom de G. Roy). 

Lalande, G. 1980. Ensilage de mais et ensilage de 
luzerne, deux aliments qui se complètent. Bull. 
Agric. (janvier):35-36 

Lalande, G.; Dufour, J.J.; Flipot, P. 1980. Perfor- 
mance bouchère et économique des taures de 
boucherie primipares destinées à l'abattage. 
Journées de recherche bovine, Drummondville, 
17-18 septembre 1980. C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. 
(Résumé) 

Lee, A.J.; McAllister, A.J.; Batra, T.R.; Chesnais, 
J.P.; Darisse, J.P.F.; Harris, D.L.; Roy, G.L.; 
Vesely, J.A.; Winter, K.A. 1980. First lacta- 
tion performance in pureline and crossline dai- 
ry cattle. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:561. (Résumé) 

Lee, A. J.; McAllister, A. J.; Batra, T.R.; Chesnais, 
J. P.; Darisse, J.P.F.; Roy, G.L.; Vesely, J.A.; 
Winter, K.A. 1980. Breed group differences for 
growth in pureline foundation phase of the 
National Dairy Cattle Breeding Project. J. 
Anim. Sci. 51 (Suppl. 1 ):122. (Résumé) 

McAllister, A.L.; Batra, T.R.: Chesnais. J. P.; Da- 
risse, J.P.F.; Emsley, J. A.; Lee, A. J.; Nagai. J.; 
Roy, G.L.; Vesely, J.A.; Winter. K.A. 1978. 
The National Cooperative Dairy Cattle Bree- 
ding Project. Agric. Can., Anim. Res. Inst.. 
Tech. Bull. 1.46 p. 

MAPAQ (en collaboration). 1979. Guide d'établis- 
sement: élevage spécialisé: veau de lait, veau de 
grains, veau d'embouche (type laitier ou croi- 
sé). Éditeur officiel, Québec. 115p. 

MAPAQ (en collaboration). 1979. Viande bovine. 
C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. Agdex 420. 



146 



RESEARCH BRWCH REPORT l^SO 



MAPAQ (en collaboration). 1980. Guide d'établis- 
sement: élevage spécialisé: veau de lait, veau de 
grains, veau d'embouche (type laitier ou croi- 
sé). Éditeur officiel, Québec. 100 p. 

MAPAQ (en collaboration). 1980. Mouton. C- 
P.A.Q., MAPAQ. Agdex 430. 

Mason, W. 1980. Les ruminants préfèrent-ils une 
variété de mil à une autre? Bull. Agric. 
(juin):6. 

Matton, P.; Adelakoun, V.; Dufour, JJ. 1980. Ni- 
veau de la progestérone plasmatique et lutéale 
et sécrétion «in vitro» de progestérone par le 
corps jaune suite à une stimulation au HCG 
dans le cas de rétention placentaire. Journées 
de recherche bovine, Drummondville, 17-18 
septembre 1980. C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. 
(Résumé) 

Maurasse, C; Matton, P.; Dufour, JJ. 1980. Ef- 
fects of feeding regimes on ovarian follicular 
population in heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 51 (Suppl. 
l):302-303. (Résumé) 

Maurasse, C; Matton, P.; Dufour, J.J. 1980. In- 
fluence du niveau alimentaire accru pendant 
une courte période sur le développement folli- 
culaire chez la vache. Journées de recherche 
bovine, Drummondville, 17-18 septembre 
1980. C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. (Résumé) 

Parent, G.; Fahmy, M. H.; Pelletier, N. 1980. L'uti- 
lisation judicieuse du potentiel génétique des 
brebis. Pages 23-37 dans: Symposium sur la 
production ovine: Une priorité oubliée, novem- 
bre 1980. C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. 

Pelletier, G.; Dunnigan, J. 1980. Effects of gluco- 
corticoids on the development of digestive en- 
zymes of the abomasal mucosa and pancreas in 
the newborn dairy calf. J. Anim. Sci. 
51 (Suppl. 1):388. (Résumé) 

Pelletier, G.; Roy, G.; Dionne, J.L.; Genest, J. 
1980. Comparaison de différents systèmes 
d'alimentation pour la vache laitière. Journées 
de recherche bovine, Drummondville, 17-18 
septembre 1980. C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. 
(Résumé) 



Pesant, A. 1980. Comment notre luzerne s'accom- 
mode de cet hiver pas comme les autres. Bull. 
Agric. (mars):10 et 1 2. 

Pesant, A. 1980. La luzerne s'en tire assez bien. 
Bull. Agric. (avril):6. 

Pesant, A. 1980. La motoneige laisse des traces. 
Bull. Agric. (février):64, 66, 69-70. 

Pesant, A. 1980. Les dangers de la culture du maïs 
en sols accidentés. Bull. Agric. (avril): 141. 

Pesant, A.; Mehuys, G.; Dubé, A. 1980. L'érosion 
du sol par l'eau au Québec. Pages 62-74 dans: 
8 e Colloque de Génie rural: Érosion et conser- 
vation des sols. Université Laval, Québec. 

Plante, C; Martin, R.; Fillion, R.; Lachance, B. 
1978. La génisse laitière: productrice de de- 
main. Pages 47-63 dans: Symposium bovins 
laitiers: C'est une question de régie, Québec, 
28 septembre 1978. C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. 

Rony, D.D.; Dupuis, G.; Pelletier, G. 1980. Répon- 
ses de digestibilité avec des moutons et perfor- 
mance de bouvillons alimentés avec des fourra- 
ges conservés en silo-presse et en silo-tour. 
Journées de recherche bovine, Drummondville, 
17-18 septembre 1980. C.P.A.Q., MAPAQ. 
(Résumé) 

Roy, G.L. 1980. Des lactations artificielles? Bull. 
Agric. (avril): 133- 134. 

Roy, G.L.; Dionne, J.L.; Pelletier, G.; Genest, J. 
1980. Pâturage versus ensilage pour la produc- 
tion de lait. Journées de recherche bovine, 
Drummondville, 17-18 septembre 1980. C- 
P.A.Q., MAPAQ. (Résumé) 

Roy, G.L.; McAllister, A.J.; Batra, T.R.; Chesnais, 
J.P.; Darisse, J.P.F.; Lee, A.J.; Vesely, J.A.; 
Winter, K.A. 1980. Calving ease and repro- 
duction in pureline and crossline dairy cattle. 
Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:560-561. (Résumé) 

Winter, K.A.; McAllister, A.J.; Batra, T.R.; Ches- 
nais, J. P.; Darisse, J.P.F.; Emsley, A.B.; Lee, 
A.J.; Roy, G.L.; Vesely, J. A. 1980. Heifer 
growth in pureline and crossline dairy cattle. 
Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:560. (Résumé) 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, LENNOXVILLE, QUÉBEC 



147 



Station de recherches 
Sainte-Foy, Québec 

CADRES PROFESSIONNELS 



S.J. Bourget, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.S., Ph.D. Directeur 

C. Gagnon, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. Directeur adjoint 

R. Labelle Services administratifs 

Support scientifique 

P. Venne, 1 B. Bibl., M.L.S. Bibliothèque 

Amélioration des plantes 

J.M. Deschênes, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. Chef de la section; écologie 

M. Bernier-Cardou, B.Sc, M.Sc. Statistiques 

M.R. Bullen, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. Génétique des plantes fourragères 

J.P. Dubuc, B.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. Génétique des céréales 

A. Légère, B.Sc, M.Sc. Malherbologie 

R. Michaud, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. Génétique des légumineuses 

J.C. St-Pierre, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. Physiologie des plantes fourragères 

J. Surprenant, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. Génétique des graminées 

fourragères 

Physiologie des plantes 

R. Paquin, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. Chef de la section; survie à l'hiver 

R. Bolduc, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. Résistance au froid, cytologie 

H.J. Hope, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. Résistance au froid, mécanisme 

C. Willemot, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. Résistance au froid, mécanisme 

Phytoprotection 

C. Gagnon, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. Chef de la section; maladies des 

légumineuses 
L. Bordeleau, B.Sc (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. Microbiologie 

A. Comeau, B.Sc, Ph.D. Entomologie 

STATION DE RECHERCHES, SAINTE-FOY, QUÉBEC 149 



L. Couture, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 
C. Richard, B.Sc, M.Sc, D.Sc 
J. Santerre, B.A., B.Sc, M.Sc 



Maladies des céréales 
Maladies des légumineuses 
Nématologie 



Sols 



C. De Kimpe, B.A., Ing. Chim. et Ind. agr., 
D.Sc. 

D. Isfan, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

M. Laverdière, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 
J. Zizka, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. 



Chef de la section; genèse 

Chimie et fertilité 
Pédogénèse et minéralogie 
Fertilité 



Economie 



J.V. Lebeau, 2 B.S.A., M.Sc. 



Rentabilité des bovins laitiers 



Ferme expérimentale, La Pocatière 



J.E. Comeau, B.Sc (Agr.), M.Sc. 
L. Belzile, B.Sc (Agr.), M.Sc. 
A. Frève, B.Sc (Agr.), M.Sc. 
R. Rioux, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. 



Régisseur 

Plantes fourragères 
Pommes de terre 
Herbicides et malherbologie 



Ferme expérimentale, Normandin 



J.P.F. Darisse, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. 
R. Drapeau, B.Sc (Agr.), M.Sc. 



Régisseur; bovins laitiers et céréales 
Plantes fourragères 



Départ 



Y. Martel, B.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. 

Promu Directeur de la station de recherches à 
Lennoxville 



Chimie et fertilité des sols 



CHERCHEUR INVITE 



H. Antoun, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

150 



Écologie du Rhizobium 

RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



André Bouchard 

(patron, J.M. Deschênes) 
Michel Germain 

(patron, J.M. Deschênes) 
Claudel Lemieux 

(patron, J.M. Deschênes) 
Yves Polynice 

(patron, J.M. Deschênes) 
Louis Vézina 

(patron, R. Paquin) 
Benoît Landry 

(patron, A. Comeau) 
Yves Dion 

(patron, A. Comeau) 
Jacques Surprenant 

(patron, C. Richard) 
Danielle Prévost 

(patron, L. Bordeleau) 

JOHANNE STEVEY 

(patron, L. Bordeleau) 
Carole Lafrenière 

(patron, L. Bordeleau) 
Renée Sauvageau 

(patron, L. Bordeleau) 
Serge Laberge 

(patron, L. Bordeleau) 



ETUDIANTS 

Étudiants à la maîtrise 

Biologie des mauvaises herbes 

Régie des plantes fourragères 

Écologie des mauvaises herbes 

Écologie des jachères 

Physiologie 

Biochimie 

Amélioration et pathologie 
végétale 
Phytopathologie 

Microbiologie 

Biochimie 

Microbiologie 

Microbiologie 

Microbiologie 

Étudiant au doctorat 



Esam Seddyk 

(patron, C. De Kimpe) 



Pédogénèse, chimie du sol 



'Détaché de la Direction générale des affaires financières et administratives, Division des bibliothèques. 
! Détaché de la Direction générale de la commercialisation et de l'économie. 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, SAINTE-FOY, QUÉBEC 



151 



INTRODUCTION 



La station de recherches de Sainte- Foy et ses fermes expérimentales de La Pocatière et 
Normandin forment un imposant groupe d'établissements voués au progrès de l'agriculture de 
l'est du pays et surtout du centre du Québec, du Bas Saint-Laurent et du Saguenay-Lac-Saint- 
Jean. Les principaux intérêts de recherches portent sur les plantes fourragères, les céréales et 
les sols. On poursuit également d'importants travaux de recherches en génétique des ovins et 
des bovins laitiers de même qu'en horticulture aux fermes de La Pocatière et de Normandin. 

On compte parmi les principales réalisations de la station l'homologation de trois variétés 
d'avoine, l'homologation d'une variété d'orge en collaboration avec l'université Laval et 
l'homologation d'une quatrième variété d'avoine en coopération avec la station de recherches à 
Charlottetown. La découverte d'une nouvelle souche de Rhizobium meliloti a également 
révolutionné le domaine des inoculants pour la luzerne au Québec. À l'automne 1981, un 
nouveau cultivar de luzerne sera homologué. Ce dernier offre une bonne résistance aux 
maladies et aux conditions hivernales néfastes. 

Des renseignements plus complets sont disponibles en vous adressant à: Station de 
recherches, Agriculture Canada, 2560 boulevard Hochelaga, Sainte- Foy (Québec) Gl V 2J6. 

S.J. Bourget 
Directeur 



LES PLANTES 

Les légumineuses fourragères 

De nouveaux cultivars de luzerne soumis 
aux essais d'évaluation ont été proposés au 
comité des herbages du C.P.V.Q. pour être 
inclus dans les recommandations. Un cultivar 
expérimental créé à la station à Sainte-Foy, 
SQ Syn-2, sélectionné pour la survivance à 
l'hiver, a montré 10% plus de persistance que 
le cultivar (cv.) Iroquois, 14% plus que le cv. 
Saranac et 20% plus que le cv. Thor. Un 
champ a été établi à la ferme expérimentale à 
Indian Head (Sask.) pour la production de 
semence de sélectionneur. L'homologation de 
ce cultivar sous le nom Apica a re]u l'appro- 
bation du comité canadien d'experts en plan- 
tes fourragères. Un second cultivar expéri- 
mental, Mn Syn-2, également soumis aux 
mêmes essais a montré beaucoup de vigueur 
et une bonne survivance à l'hiver. Son évalua- 
tion sera poursuivie. 

L'évaluation de lots de semence de luzerne 
vendue dans le commerce et en provenance 
d'Australie et d'Argentine a révélé que ces 
luzernes ne persistaient à peu près pas sous 
nos conditions. Une mise en garde fut émise 
aux producteurs. 

Au cours du printemps, plus de 200 plants 
de luzerne furent prélevés dans les champs 
fortement endommagés par l'hiver pour cons- 
tituer une nouvelle pépinière de plants qui 
serviront dans de futurs croisements. 



La sélection pour la résistance au flétris- 
sement bactérien s'est poursuivie. Les plants 
résistants sélectionnés en 1979 du cv. Grimm 
furent soumis à des croisements, et des pépi- 
nières de discordance furent établies à La 
Pocatière et à Normandin en vue de dévelop- 
per de nouvelles populations. 

Une méthode, mise au point pour la sélec- 
tion de luzerne résistante au pourridié fusa- 
rien, est maintenant utilisée pour la sélection 
des cultivars Angus, Iroquois, Saranac AR et 
Titan. Le progrès réalisé par deux cycles de 
sélection chez ces quatre cultivars sera évalué. 
L'évaluation du degré de résistance à cette 
maladie, réalisée chez 12 cultivars et 2 li- 
gnées, montre une différence entre les culti- 
vars quant au niveau de résistance à cette 
infection. Cette résistance semble fortement 
reliée au potentiel de survivance à l'hiver des 
cultivars. 

L'évaluation au champ de la résistance à la 
tache leptosphaerulinienne a révélé une très 
légère augmentation chez la descendance de 
plants sélectionnés, comparativement à une 
population non sélectionnée à cette fin. 

La sélection pour la résistance à la tige 
noire a rapporté jusqu'ici 122 plants montrant 
de la résistance. 

L'enquête sur le flétrissement verticillien 
n'a pas révélé la présence de cette maladie au 
Québec en 1980. 

Les études d'influence réciproque de l'infec- 
tion et de la résistance au froid montrent 



52 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



d'une part que le pourridié et le flétrissement 
fusarien affectent l'endurcissement au froid 
de la luzerne, d'autre part que les dégâts 
causés par le gel est un facteur important 
dans la pénétration des champignons dans la 
racine et le développement de la maladie. 

Mauvaises herbes. Les études sur la biolo- 
gie de l'ortie royale montrent que: a) le poids 
sec par plant est fonction du moment d'appa- 
rition de celui-ci, les plants hâtifs étant les 
plus lourds; b) le poids sec et la quantité de 
graines produites par plant varient de fa]on 
inversement proportionnelle à la densité de la 
population; c) les plants tardifs produisent 
davantage de graines par unité de poids sec 
que les individus hâtifs; l'effort de reproduc- 
tion serait donc plus grand chez les plants 
tardifs; d) les individus tardifs, bien qu'en 
apparence plus chétifs, atteignent la maturité 
au même moment que les plants hâtifs, ils 
complètent donc leur cycle vital en un temps 
plus court que les hâtifs; e) la production de 
matière sèche par unité de surface augmente 
de fa]on constante jusqu'au moment de la 
floraison, peu importe la densité. 

Les résultats d'essais d'herbicides dans les 
mélanges fourragers montrent qu'aucun des 
herbicides utilisés ne donne un contrôle satis- 
faisant, à l'exception du 2,4-DB et du TF- 
1 169 en mélange. 

Fixation d'azote. Nous avons déterminé 
qu'il n'existe pas de lien génétique direct entre 
l'activité du nitrate reductase chez Rhizo- 
bium meliloti et son activité nitrogénasique 
en symbiose avec la luzerne. Cependant, l'ef- 
ficacité symbiotique à fixer de l'azote est en 
corrélation avec l'efficacité métabolique des 
Rhizobium en système hétérotrophe en cultu- 
re pure. Le soufre et le niveau d'azote minéral 
influencent la nodulation et la fixation dans le 
système luzerne- Rhizobium. Nous avons aus- 
si identifié l'antifongique endomycine, produit 
par un actinomycète, dans le système écologi- 
que pour contrôler la fusariose chez la 
luzerne. 

La survivance à l'hiver 

Influence du climat. L'endurcissement au 
gel de la luzerne est en relation étroite avec 
l'abaissement de la température de l'air. La 
plante continue à s'endurcir sous la neige. Le 
maximum de résistance est atteint entre jan- 
vier et mars. La perte de résistance commence 
à la disparition de la neige, dépend de la 
température de l'air et du sol, et s'échelonne 
sur quatre à six semaines ce qui empêche les 



dommages causés par les gelées tardives. 
L'humidité des sols argileux ne varie que de 
24 à 35% au cours de l'automne. La luzerne 
dont les racines sont prises dans la glace à 
-2°C résiste trois semaines à ce traitement, le 
blé d'hiver, une semaine. 

Il y a corrélation entre l'accumulation de la 
proline dans les collets de la luzerne et la 
résistance à la gelée à l'automne jusqu'à la 
perte du feuillage ainsi qu'au printemps. La 
perte du feuillage arrête l'accumulation de la 
proline et du pourcentage de la matière sèche 
des collets. Le dosage de la proline ne peut 
cependant être utilisé comme mesure de la 
résistance au gel, mais pourrait être utilisé 
dans un programme de sélection. La proline 
s'accumule dans les collets maintenus à 1°C, 
même si le feuillage est à 20°C. Le contraire 
n'est pas vrai. Après une semaine d'endurcis- 
sement, la proline ne s'accumule plus dans les 
collets séparés des parties aériennes et main- 
tenus à 1°C pendant deux semaines. Cepen- 
dant elle continue à s'accumuler dans ces 
parties aériennes après séparation. 

Au chapitre de la télédétection, le radar et 
la photo infrarouge ont été comparés. L'infra- 
rouge a permis d'établir des concordances 
avec la température des sols. 

Physiologie de la résistance. Une méthode 
de germination des plantules de luzerne a été 
mise au point en conditions aseptiques en 
présence de Sisthane, un fongicide systémi- 
que. Des plantules âgées de 2 jours peuvent 
être endurcies de cette façon. 

La gelée favorise le développement de la 
pourriture des racines et de la flétrissure 
fusarienne, et ces maladies réduisent la résis- 
tance à la gelée de la luzerne. 

La résistance au gel de 16 lignées de dacty- 
le est en corrélation avec leur résistance à 
l'hiver. 

Biochimie de la résistance. Le sucrose sta- 
bilise directement la fixation de la phosphata- 
se acide aux membranes cellulaires au cours 
de l'endurcissement au gel du blé d'hiver. Les 
méthodes d'ultragel rapide des tissus et de 
coupes cryogéniques au moyen de microtomes 
cryostatiques ont été étudiées dans le but 
d'observer directement des plants gelés par 
congélation programmée ou ramenés du 
champ en hiver. Une méthode enzymologique, 
le dosage de la phosphatase acide, est en 
bonne voie d'être mise au point pour la sélec- 
tion génétique de plantes qui résistent au gel. 

Quand la plante s'endurcit au gel, les pro- 
téines qu'elle élabore sont de plus en plus 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, SAINTE-FOY, QUÉBEC 



153 



résistantes à l'hydrolyse par les enzymes de la 
plante non endurcie. Un pic d'hydrolyse des 
protéines provenant de plantes endurcies, 
après 2 à 3 jours de désendurcissement, sug- 
gère que certaines protéines synthétisées par 
la plante sont essentielles au maintien de la 
résistance au gel. 

Les céréales 

Amélioration du blé. Deux nouvelles varié- 
tés de blé ont été homologuées en 1980, soit 
Ankra et Casavant. Ces variétés sont promet- 
teuses pour l'agriculture québécoise. Ankra 
est une variété adaptée à toutes les régions; 
son rendement est supérieur à ceux de Opal et 
de Glenlea tandis que sa maturité, sa hauteur, 
son poids de 1000 grains, sa densité et la force 
de sa paille sont intermédiaires entre ceux de 
Opal et de Glenlea. La variété Casavant offre 
un rendement de 3% supérieur à Laval 19 et 
de 8% supérieur à Concorde; ces deux variétés 
ont un meilleur rendement qu'Opal. De plus, 
son grain est lourd et dense, sa paille a la 
force de celle de Concorde et elle arrive à 
maturité 2 jours plus tard. 

La variété Laval 19 a été inscrite dans les 
recommandations du Conseil des production? 
végétales car son comportement dans 18 sites 
d'essais pendant deux ans a démontré sa 
supériorité sur les témoins déjà recommandés 
au Québec. 

Amélioration de l'orge et de l'avoine. Une 
nouvelle variété d'orge, Sophie, a été homolo- 
guée en 1980. Elle provient d'un effort con- 
joint de la station à Sainte-Foy et de l'univer- 
sité Laval. Cette variété offre un rendement 
de 2% supérieur aux témoins et elle est de 4 
jours plus tardive. Ses caractéristiques en font 
une candidate idéale pour les mélanges céréa- 
liers avec des variétés de blé et d'avoine, telles 
Casavant, Lamar et Manie, dont les maturités 
sont plus tardives. 

Deux lignées évaluées en 1980, QB1 79.95 
et QB513.101, semblent très prometteuses car 
elles ont donné un rendement de 7% supérieur 
au meilleur témoin sur une paille plus forte 
tout en étant 2 jours plus hâtives. 

Pour l'avoine, les variétés Manie et Oxford 
ont été recommandées aux agriculteurs par le 
Conseil des productions végétales du Québec. 
Dans les Maritimes, la lignée QO151.103, 
produite à la station à Sainte-Foy, est une 
amélioration substantielle car toutes les ca- 
ractéristiques importantes, telles le rende- 
ment, la force de paille, la grosseur et le poids 



des grains, le pourcentage d'écale et sa tolé- 
rance à Septoria sont améliorées. Elle fera 
l'objet d'une homologation en 1981. 

Résistance aux maladies. Une importante 
source de résistance au virus de la jaunisse 
nanisante de l'orge (V.J.N.O.) a été identifiée 
dans la variété Norrland. Les efforts visent à 
transférer cette résistance dans les variétés 
adaptées à nos conditions de croissance. 

Les espèces voisines de nos céréales com- 
munes font l'objet de recherches intensives 
pour trouver d'autres gènes majeurs de résis- 
tance au V.J.N.O. La production d'antisé- 
rums spécifiques au V.J.N.O. permet une 
identification rapide et efficace de la présence 
du virus dans une plante. 

Les recherches effectuées sur les maladies 
fongiques ont permis d'identifier l'immunité 
de OA421.7 à la rouille tandis que Fiddler est 
résistant. Le développement de la tache septo- 
rienne de l'avoine et de la rayure réticulée de 
l'orge est moindre dans des mélanges 50% 
d'avoine et 50% d'orge. Le fongicide Q-5177 
est le plus valable chez l'orge et l'avoine pour 
le contrôle des Fusarium spp. 

Biologie et écologie des mauvaises herbes. 
Les régions 04 et 12 du Québec ont fait l'objet 
d'inventaire et d'évaluation de pertes en 1980. 
Les résultats sommaires démontrent un faible 
taux d'utilisation d'herbicides, l'importance 
des antécédents culturaux sur les populations 
de mauvaises herbes et aussi l'importance du 
chiendent, des mauvaises herbes à feuilles 
larges et des graminées vivaces dans les 
champs de céréales. 



LES SOLS 



La fertilité 



Amendements organiques. Une expérience 
a été menée en serre pour étudier l'effet d'un 
compost fait de sciure de bois et de lisier de 
porcs sur les rendements du mil. L'équivalent 
d'une application de 224 t/ha de compost sur 
un loam sablo-graveleux Saint-André a fait 
passer les rendements résultant de 3 coupes de 
mil de 3,5 g/pot pour le traitement témoin à 
12,3 g/pot. Lorsque le compost seul a été 
utilisé comme milieu de culture, le rendement 
a été de 22,0 g/pot. 

La valeur fertilisante d'un compost fores- 
tier a été comparée à celle du fumier de vache 
dans une expérience en serre sur le sol Ka- 
mouraska. Des doses de 0, 100, 200, 400 et 
800 kg N/ha ont été ajoutées au sol. La plante 



154 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



témoin est le mil. Pour la première coupe faite 
sur les pots ayant le compost, les rendements 
décroissent de 3,78 à 2,28 g/pot pour les pots 
ayant reçu et 800 kg N/ha, alors que pour la 
deuxième coupe, les rendements diminuent de 
2,41 à 1,88 g/pot. Après la deuxième coupe, il 
y a eu addition d'engrais et lors de la troisiè- 
me coupe, les rendements ont augmenté de 
6,9 à 8,46 g/pot pour les doses de et 800 kg 
N/ha sous forme de compost. Dans le cas du 
sol ayant reçu des doses croissantes de fumier 
de vache, il y a eu un effet positif lors des trois 
coupes. Ainsi, lors de la première coupe, les 
valeurs augmentent de 3,78 à 5,37 g/pot pour 
les doses de et 800 kg N/ha, les rendements 
passent de 2,41 à 3,60 g/pot pour ces mêmes 
doses lors de la deuxième coupe et enfin lors 
de la troisième coupe, mais après addition 
d'engrais, de 6,90 à 9,02 g/pot pour les 
mêmes quantités de fumier. Les rendements 
obtenus avec le fumier de vache sont dans 
tous les cas supérieurs à ceux obtenus avec le 
compost forestier. 

La pédogénèse 

Sols à texture légère. L'effet du modelage 
des champs en planches sur l'hétérogénéité 
des propriétés des sols a été évalué dans six 
champs de maïs en monoculture. L'épaisseur 
de l'horizon Ap varie de 15 à 41 cm. La 
teneur en matière organique varie de 10 à 250 
t/ha et influence la densité apparente et réelle 
du sol. La teneur maximale en eau disponible 
entre 33,3 kPa et 1,5 MPa dans les horizons 
Ap est comprise entre 0,5 et 4 cm d'eau. Pour 
l'ensemble des champs, les rendements en 
grain varient de 1626 à 10 231 kg/ha. À 
l'intérieur d'un champ, les différences attei- 
gnent cependant 74%. Les rendements les plus 
élevés ont été observés sur les sites élevés, 
moyens ou intermédiaires des planches et ne 
peuvent être expliqués de manière satisfaisan- 
te par l'hétérogénéité du sol. 

Le travail entrepris sur les sols sableux 
d'origine éolienne et deltaïque, et dont il avait 
déjà été question dans le rapport précédent, a 
été poursuivi. On a ajouté trois autres séries 
de sols. Sur les treize profils étudiés, neuf ont 
été classés dans l'ordre podzolique et quatre 
dans l'ordre brunisolique. 

Cependant, pour 12 profils, la valeur du pH 
mesuré dans NaF est supérieure à 10,2, qui 
est la limite pour les sols podzoliques. Diver- 
ses formes d'aluminium ont donc été identi- 
fiées dans les solutions de dithionite-citrate- 
bicarbonate, oxalate et pyrophosphate. Ce 



sont les valeurs de Al dans l'oxalate qui sont 
le mieux reliées au pH NaF. Le développe- 
ment des profils est relié à la composition 
minéralogique et à la migration plus ou moins 
rapide des complexes organo-métalliques. 
Pour les 13 sols, le taux d'absorption du 
phosphore varie de 23 à 397 //,g P/g de sol 
dans les horizons A, de 301 à 1578 /ig P/g de 
sol dans les horizons B et de 71 à 296 /ig P/g 
de sol dans les horizons C. Ces valeurs sont 
reliées à Al et Al p dans les horizons A, à Al p 
et C org dans les horizons B et à (Al -I- Fe) 
dans les horizons C. 

Les valeurs de la capacité d'échange de la 
matière organique passent de 168 méq/100 g 
dans l'horizon A, à 293 méq/100 g dans 
l'horizon B et à 138 méq/100 g dans l'horizon 
C. Les valeurs ont été comparées à celles 
obtenues pour les sols gleysoliques de basses 
terres. Elles sont plus élevées à cause d'un 
plus grand degré de transformation de la 
matière organique. Pour la fraction argileuse, 
les valeurs moyennes de la C.É.C. dans les 
horizons A, B et C sont de 76, 40 et 53 méq/ 
100 g. Elles sont plus élevées dans l'horizon A 
à cause de la présence de minéraux 2/1 
gonflants à charge élevée. 

Mise en culture des sols. Des mélanges de 
sols, en proportions diverses, ont été effectués 
à partir d'horizons L-H, Ae, Bhf et Bf de 
deux sols podzoliques, afin de simuler l'effet 
du labour à différentes profondeurs. Les mé- 
langes ainsi obtenus au départ avant tout 
amendement possèdent les caractéristiques 
suivantes: 

• pH(H 2 0)de3,79à4,85 

• carbone organique de 2,4 à 3 1 % 

• cations échangeables (K, Ca, Mg) de 0,15 à 
11,82 méq/100 g 

• phosphore assimilable de 45 à 580 kg/ha 

• azote total de 0, 1 2 à 1 ,36% 

• Fe et Al (dans dithionite) Fe d de 0,22 à 
3,52%; Al d de 0,06 à 1,70% 

• Fe et Al (dans oxalate) Fe de 0,14 à 3,00%; 
Al de 0,05 à 2,46% 

•Fe et Al (dans pyrophosphate) Fe de 0,13 à 
2,24%; Al p de 0,04 à 1,84% 

Les mélanges ont été subdivisés avant 
d'être amendés à pH 5,5 dans certains cas, 
pour être ensuite incubés à une température 
de 40°C au taux de saturation, ou mis en pot 
pour semis d'orge. Un dispositif expérimental 
destiné à tenir compte des paramètres à étu- 
dier (mélange, chaulage, fertilisation) a été 
mis au point et une première récolte a été 
obtenue. 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, SAINTE-FOY, QUÉBEC 



155 



Les rendements en grain varient de 0,14 à 
15,86 g/pot pour le sol Laurentide et de à 
20,25 g/pot pour le sol Leeds. Les rendements 
les plus élevés correspondent aux mélanges les 
plus riches en matière organique. 

Propriétés physiques des sols. L'analyse 
statistique des propriétés physiques de 21 sols 
du Québec a montré que la matière organique 
a un effet significatif sur les propriétés suivan- 
tes: densité réelle des particules, rétention 
d'eau à 33,3 kPa et 1,5 MPa, limites de 
liquidité et de plasticité, densité maximum 
lors de la compaction et minimum lors du 
tassement, teneur en eau pour le maximum et 
le minimum de densité. D'autre part, le conte- 
nu en argile a un effet significatif sur la 
rétention d'eau à 33,3 kPa et 1,5 MPa, l'indi- 
ce de plasticité, les pourcentages d'agrégats 
stables dans l'air et dans l'eau, les densités 
maximum et minimum en compaction et tas- 
sement, sur la conductivité hydraulique satu- 
rée au minimum de tassement. 



FERME EXPERIMENTALE 
LA POCATIÈRE 

Les céréales 

Biologie et écologie des mauvaises herbes. 
Un inventaire des mauvaises herbes présentes 
dans les cultures céréalières du comté de 
Kamouraska a débuté en 1980. Cent six 
champs ont été visités et 120 espèces de 
mauvaises herbes identifiées. Les espèces re- 
trouvées dans plus de 50% des champs sont le 
chiendent, la vesce jargeau, le chénopode 
blanc, l'ortie royale, le pissenlit, la stellaire 
graminoïde, la renouée liseron et la spargoute. 
Le chiendent était présent dans 90% des 
champs avec une densité moyenne de 39 tiges 
par mètre carré. 

Régie. L'azote dans l'orge a quadruplé la 
phytomasse du chénopode blanc alors que 
celle de la spargoute et de l'ortie royale a été 
peu affectée. Le propanil (1,0 kg/ha), le 
metribuzin (0,3 kg/ha) et le diclofop-méthyl 
(0,7 kg/ha) ont assuré une excellente répres- 
sion de la sétaire glauque dans l'orge. 

Les plantes fourragères 

Chiendent. La répression du chiendent a 
amélioré l'établissement et la persistance du 
trèfle rouge et de la luzerne. En 1980, la 
couverture des légumineuses était de 35% 
dans la parcelle témoin et de 88% dans la 
parcelle où le chiendent avait été réprimé avec 



le BAS 9052 en 1979 à l'établissement. Sur 
les semis de 1980, à la première coupe, la 
couverture de la luzerne était de 52% dans le 
témoin et de 97% lorsque le chiendent a été 
réprimé avec le BAS 9052 ou le TF 1 169. En 
septembre, la couverture de la luzerne était de 
35% dans le témoin et de 93% dans les 
parcelles traitées avec les herbicides. 

Biologie et écologie des mauvaises herbes. 
Un inventaire des mauvaises herbes présentes 
dans les prairies de première année de produc- 
tion dans le comté de Kamouraska a été mené 
en 1980. Le chiendent, la céraiste vulgaire, le 
plantain majeur et la stellaire graminoïde 
étaient présents dans tous les champs visités. 
Le chiendent était la mauvaise herbe la plus 
importante avec une densité de 224 plants par 
mètre carré. 

Dans le maïs à ensilage, 52 espèces de 
mauvaises herbes ont été dénombrées. Le 
chiendent est la mauvaise herbe la plus impor- 
tante (29 tiges par mètre carré) suivi de la 
prêle des champs (27 tiges par mètre carré). 
Les autres espèces relativement importantes 
sont la sétaire glauque, la vesce jargeau, le 
pissenlit, le chénopode blanc, le pied-de-coq et 
l'ortie royale. 

Régie du semis. En semis direct, l'étude du 
degré d'établissement de quatre espèces four- 
ragères effectuée en période de sécheresse sur 
trois types de sol a été variable. Sur le loam 
graveleux Saint-André, le mil et le trèfle 
rouge se sont les mieux implantés, la luzerne 
s'y est très peu implantée et le brome pas du 
tout. Sur l'argile Kamouraska, c'est le trèfle 
rouge qui s'est le mieux établi, suivi de la 
luzerne et du mil, avec une absence quasi 
totale du brome. Sur l'argile Du Creux, la 
meilleure espèce a été le mil suivi de près par 
le trèfle rouge, puis de la luzerne et finalement 
du brome dont la présence a été encore une 
fois très faible. Il semble que le brome soit 
l'espèce la moins apte à s'implanter en semis 
direct. 

Régie de coupe. Les semis de trèfle rouge 
du printemps de 1978 soumis à différents 
régimes de coupe ont subi au cours de l'hiver 
1979-1980 des dommages très sérieux. Sur 
l'argile Kamouraska la destruction du semis a 
été complète. Les résultats obtenus sur le 
loam graveleux Saint-André ont montré que 
la survie du cultivar Hungaropoli était supé- 
rieure à celle de Lakeland. 

Besoins en azote. Les besoins en azote des 
graminées fourragères peuvent être satisfaits 



156 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



soit par des applications d'engrais azotés soit 
en les cultivant en présence de légumineuses. 
Le mil et la luzerne ont été semés selon 
différents modes de semis et ont reçu des doses 
variables d'azote minéral. Le rendement de la 
luzerne pure a été légèrement influencé par 
les applications d'azote peu importe le mode 
de semis. La réponse du mil pur aux applica- 
tions d'engrais azotés a été linéaire. Toutes les 
associations mil-luzerne ont répondu faible- 
ment aux applications d'azote minéral. 

Les pommes de terre 

Les herbicides. Le buttage à la levée a 
réduit l'activité du metolachlor d'un mois. 
L'activité de l'EPTC n'a pas été réduite. Le 
buttage à la levée a fait augmenter les mau- 
vaises herbes surtout entre les rangs par 
rapport au buttage au début de la floraison. 
Plusieurs herbicides, tels que l'alachlor et le 
metolachlor, donnent une excellente répres- 
sion des graminées annuelles lorsqu'appliqués 
avant la levée. Après la levée, nous avons 
obtenu des résultats très prometteurs avec le 
diclofop-méthyl, le BAS 9052 et le TF 1 169. 

Les défanants. Il est encore difficile de 
prévoir les effets des défanants d'année en 
année. Leur activité est réduite par une fertili- 
sation élevée en azote. L'éthephon n'a pas 
réussi à corriger cette situation. 

Sélection de lignées. L'essai avancé d'adap- 
tation et l'essai d'adaptation auront quatre et 
onze lignées provenant des lignées sélection- 
nées à La Pocatière en 1979 et 1980. En 1980, 
1579 nouvelles lignées provenant de Frederic- 
ton (N.-B.) et sélectionnées au stade de qua- 
tre buttes (F 2 ) ont été plantées sur deux sols. 
À l'arrachage, 162 lignées ont été sélection- 
nées. 

L'essai hâtif effectué en collaboration avec 
les stations provinciales a permis de tester 22 
lignées. Les résultats de rendement et de 
croustille comparés aux quatre témoins ont 
permis de déterminer les meilleures (7) à La 
Pocatière. 

Les arbres fruitiers. Les pommiers ont 
produit des fruits de très bonne qualité en 
1980. Les meilleurs rendements sont obtenus 
lorsque la greffe est faite l'année après l'im- 
plantation du porte-greffe. 

Les pruniers ont eu une très bonne floraison 
mais les fleurs ont avorté entraînant des ren- 
dements pratiquement nuls (quelques fruits 
par arbre). De plus, les cultivars Crescent, 



Gfeenville, Lanark et Pipestone ont été les 
plus sensibles à la criblure des feuilles. 

Les poiriers plantés en 1944 ont donné de 
bons rendements (221,3 kg/arbre) et c'est 
Phileson qui a produit le plus (302,0 kg/ 
arbre). 



FERME EXPERIMENTALE 
NORMANDIN 

Les céréales 

Blé de printemps. Un peu plus de 3200 
sélections d'épis ont été faites dans du maté- 
riel en générations F 2 à F 5 et elles viennent 
s'ajouter aux 9 lignées en essais préliminaires, 
aux 26 observations avancées et aux 21 en 
essais coopératifs et qui ont été identifiées 
pour leur précocité et leur rendement en 
grain. Quelques sélections ont produit plus 
que le groupe témoin, ce qui laisse prévoir des 
possibilités d'homologation à court terme. 

Le blé Glenlea est moins exigeant en fumu- 
re azotée que le blé Opal, d'après les résultats 
de 3 ans. En effet, son rendement a été le plus 
élevé à la suite d'un apport de 90 kg/ha de N 
fractionné à parts égales au semis et au 
tallage, alors qu'Opal a mieux répondu avec 
120 kg/ha de N apportés aux mêmes périodes. 
Les deux cultivars ont produit plus de grain à 
la suite de ce mode de fertilisation qu'à des 
taux supérieurs ou inférieurs de N au semis 
seulement ou en application fractionnée. La 
qualité du grain n'a pas été affectée par les 
taux et périodes de fumure. 

L'orge. Les rendements de l'orge cv. Lau- 
rier ont été de 2605 et 2970 kg/ha pour des 
taux de semis respectifs de 130 et 90 kg/ha; le 
taux de semis le plus élevé a fait diminuer la 
production de 12,3% par rapport au taux 
normal. 

L'influence de quatre époques de labour, 
soit le 15 août, 15 septembre, 15 octobre et 15 
mai, n'a pas été significative sur la production 
de l'orge cv. Loyola, mais le labour de prin- 
temps a fait diminuer la qualité du grain par 
rapport aux labours de fin de saison. Par 
ailleurs, il y a eu augmentation de la biomasse 
de mauvaises herbes annuelles avec le retard 
des dates de labour et une diminution parallè- 
le des vivaces. La densité des mauvaises her- 
bes était de 121, 119, 79 et 98 plants par 
mètre carré respectivement, pour les dates 
mentionnées. 

La régie de la gourgane. Depuis 1978, on a 
démontré que sous nos conditions climatiques 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, SAINTE-FOY, QUÉBEC 



157 



il est préférable de semer la gourgane entre le 
10 et le 20 mai, car plus tôt, la production de 
graines diminue de 400 kg/ha et, après le 20 
mai, la diminution atteint 900 kg/ha par 
rapport à la période précitée. 

Des observations sur la production de grai- 
nes et certaines données météorologiques ont 
été faites dans le but d'établir une corrélation 
possible entre production et facteurs climati- 
ques, entre autres, la pluviométrie et la 
nébulosité. 

L'exploitation de trois graminées fourragè- 
res. On a étudié l'influence de cinq stades de 
croissance durant trois années sur les rende- 
ments et les compositions organique et miné- 
rale des fléoles Climax et Drummond, des 
bromes Saratoga et Canadien et des dactyles 
Hercules et Rideau. Au premier cycle de 
végétation, le rendement en matière sèche des 



six cultivars a augmenté progressivement jus- 
qu'au stade de la grenaison. La plus haute 
production annuelle a été atteinte chez la 
fléole et le brome lorsque la première coupe a 
été prélevée au stade de la floraison. Chez le 
dactyle, il n'y a pas eu de différence significa- 
tive dans les rendements totaux du stade de la 
montaison au stade de la grenaison. La protéi- 
ne brute, les matières grasses et les cendres 
ont baissé, et la fibre brute a augmenté gra- 
duellement avec l'avancement en âge des 
plantes. Tous les cultivars, en vieillissant, 
contenaient de moins en moins de phosphore 
et de potassium. En règle générale, les varia- 
tions dans les teneurs en calcium, sodium, fer, 
cuivre, manganèse et zinc n'étaient pas reliées 
aux stades de croissance. À l'intérieur de 
chaque espèce, il n'y a eu que quelques diffé- 
rences significatives entre les cultivars au 
point de vue rendement et composition 
chimique. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recherches 

Antoun, H.; Bordeleau, L.M.; Gagnon, C. 1980. 
Identification d'un isolât d'actinomycète par la 
caractérisation partielle d'un antibiotique qu'il 
produit. Phytoprotection 61:79-87. 

Antoun, H.; Bordeleau, L.M.; Prévost, D.; Lachan- 
ce, R.A. 1980. Absence of correlation between 
nitrate reductase and symbiotic nitrogen fixa- 
tion efficiency in Rhizobium meliloti. Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:209-212. 

Boivin, B. 1980. A Survey of Canadian herbaria. 
Université Laval. Québec. 187 p. 

Bolduc, R. 1980. Une méthode enzymologique à 
appliquer pour la sélection de plantes résistan- 
tes au froid. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60: 1 303- 1 308. 

Bordeleau, L.M.; Lalande, R.; Antoun, H. 1980. 
Oxygen and mannitol consumption of Rhizo- 
bium meliloti in relation to symbiotic nitrogen 
fixation efficiency. Plant Soil 56:439-443. 

Bullen, M.R. 1980. A photo box for the analysis of 
canopy in layers. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:771- 

772. 

Couture, L. 1980. Assessment of severity of foliage 
diseases of cereals in cooperative evaluation 
tests. Can. Plant Dis. Surv. 60( 1 ):8- 1 0. 

Darisse, J.P.F.; Gervais, P.; St-Pierre, J.C. 1980. 
Influence du stade de croissance sur le rende- 
ment et la composition chimique de deux culti- 
vars de la fléole des prés, du brome et du 
dactyle. Nat. Can. (Québec) 107(2):55-62. 



De Kimpe, C.R.; Laverdière, M.R. 1980. Effet du 
drainage souterrain sur quelques propriétés de 
sols argileux du Québec. Can. J. Soil Sci. 
60:83-96. 

De Kimpe, C.R.; Laverdière, M.R. 1980. Amor- 
phous material and aluminum interlayers in 
Quebec Spodosols. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 
44:639-642. 

Deschênes, J. M. 1980. Status of Canada thistle 
{Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) in pastures and 
hayfields in Eastern Canada and recommenda- 
tions for its control. Proc. Can. Thistle Symp. 
Mars 1980. p. 187-193. 

Deschênes, J. M.; St-Pierre, C.A. 1980. Effets des 
températures du sol, des dates de semis et des 
mauvaises herbes sur les composantes de ren- 
dement de l'avoine. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:61- 
68. 

Dostaler, D.; Pelletier, G.J.; Couture, L. 1980. 
Dynamique de la tache helminthosporienne de 
l'orge: densité d'inoculum et opportunité des 
inoculations. Phytoprotection 61:19-25. 

Isfan, D. 1979. Nitrogen rate-yield precipitation 
relationship and N rate forecasting for corn 
crops. Agron. J. 71:1045-1051. 

Page, F.; De Kimpe, C.R.; Bourbeau, G.A.; Rom- 
pré, M. 1980. Formation d'horizons cimentés 
dans les sols sableux du delta des rivières 
Manicouagan et Outardes, Québec. Can. J. 
Soil Sci. 60:163-175. 



158 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Paquin, R.; Ladouceur, G. 1980. Efficacité des 
images radar et infrarouge thermique, et de la 
photo couleur infrarouge pour l'inventaire des 
cultures. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:1077-1085. 

Paquin, R.; Mehuys, G. 1980. Influence of soil 
moisture on cold tolerance of alfalfa. Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:139-147. 

Paquin, R.; Pelletier, H. 1980. Influence de l'envi- 
ronnement sur l'acclimatation au froid de la 
luzerne (Medicago sativa Pers.) et sa résistan- 
ce au gel. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:1351-1366. 

Paquin, R.; St-Pierre, J.C. 1980. Endurcissement, 
résistance au gel et contenu en proline libre de 
la fléole des prés {Phleum pratense L.). Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:525-532. 

Richard, C; Guibord, M.O'C. 1980. Relationship 
of alfalfa blotch leafminer with spring black 
stem. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:265-266. 

Richard, C; Michaud, R.; Frève, A.; Gagnon, C. 
1980. Selection for root and crown rot resistan- 
ce in alfalfa. Crop Sci. 20:691-695. 

Rivard, R.; De Kimpe, C.R. 1980. Propriétés de 
quelques sols riches en gravier dans la région 
de Québec. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:263-273. 

Rioux, R.; Comeau, J.E. 1980. Influence des sytè- 
mes de culture sur la croissance et le rende- 
ment des pommes de terre. Can. J. Plant Sci. 
60:591-598. 

St-Pierre, C.A.; Dubuc, J.P. 1980. Le blé d'autom- 
ne pour border les parcelles d'orge. Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:273-275. 

Surprenant, J.; Richard, C; Guibord, M.O'C; Ga- 
gnon, C. 1980. Étude de quelques aspects de 
l'évaluation des pertes dues aux maladies chez 
la luzerne. Phytoprotection 61:1-8. 

Werner, P. A.; Rioux, R. 1979. Agropyron repens. 
dans: Mulligan, G. A. (éd.). La biologie des 
mauvaises herbes du Canada, communications 
1 à 32. Agric. Can. Publ. 1693. Ottawa, p. 
266-280. 

Willemot, C. 1979. Chemical modification of lipids 
during frost hardening, dans: Lyons, J.M.; 
Graham, D.; Raison, J.K. Low temperature 
stress in crop plants. Academic Press, New 
York. p. 411-431. 

Willemot, C. 1980. Sterols in hardening winter 
wheat. Phytochemistry 19:1071-1073. 

Willemot, C; Pelletier, L. 1980. Effect of light and 
temperature on linolenic acid levels and frost 
resistance of winter wheat. Can. J. Plant Sci. 
60:649-656. 



Divers 

Batra, T.R.; McAllister, A.J.; Chesnais, J. P.; Daris- 
se, J.P.F.; Lee, A.J.; Roy, G.L.; Vesely, J.A.; 
Winter, K.A. 1980. Comparison of several pu- 
reline bull groups for reproductive traits and 
calving ease of their daughters. J. Dairy Sci. 63 
(Suppl. 1):97 (Résumé). 

Belzile, L. 1979. Degré de réalisation du potentiel 
de productivité des terres agricoles (fourrages 
et céréales) du comté de Kamouraska. Serv. 
Can. Faune. 20 p. 

Belzile, L. 1979. Évaluation de cultivars de dactyle 
pour le Québec. Bull. C.P.V.Q. 12 p. 

Belzile, L. 1980. Le rendement du dactyle semé 
dans l'argile de Kamouraska. Can. Agric. 
25(3):21-22. 

Belzile, L. 1980. Winter survival on alfalfa (1978- 
79) at La Pocatière. dans: Ouellet, CE. Survey 
report on the winter survival of alfalfa ( 1 978— 
79). Agrometeorol. Sect., Land Resour. Res. 
Inst., Res. Branch, Agric. Can., Ottawa Misc. 
Bull. 14. 

Belzile, L. 1980. Compte-rendu du voyage du comi- 
té des herbages du C.P.V.Q. .dans les Mariti- 
mes. 12 p. 

Belzile, L; Desjardins, R. 1979. Revue de littératu- 
re sur l'établissement des plantes fourragères. 
C.P.V.Q. 134 p. 

Bolduc, R. 1979. Technique pour l'échantillonnage 
des cultures dans le sol gelé. Can. Agric. 
24(4):19-21. 

Chesnais, J.P.; McAllister, A.J.; Darisse, J.P. F.; 
Lee, A.J.; Roy, G.L.; Vesely, J.A.; Winter, 
K.A. 1980. Milk, protein and fat yield during 
the first three lactations of foundation phase 
cows in the National Cooperative Dairy Cattle 
Breeding Project. Can. Soc. Anim. Sci. Annu. 
Meet. (Résumé). 

Chesnais, J. P.; Batra, T.R; Darisse, J.P.F.; Hick- 
man, CG; Lee, A. J.; McAllister, A. J.; Roy, 
G.L.; Vesely, J.A.; Winter, K.A. 1979. Com- 
parison among eight strains of bulls for the 
milk production of their daughters. J. Dairy 
Sci. 62 (Suppl. 1 ):1 86 (Résumé). 

Comeau, A. 1980. Un ennemi méconnu des céréa- 
les: le virus de la jaunisse nanisante de l'orge. 
Le meunier québécois, avril 1980, p. 14 et 18. 

Comeau, A. 1980. La résistance au virus de la 
jaunisse nanisante de l'orge chez Avena steri- 
lis. Bull, des Ressources phytogénétiques du 
Canada (PGR) no 8, avril 1980, p. 6-7. 

Comeau, J.E.; Rioux, R. 1980. Les pommes de 
terre, faut les connaître. Bull. Agric, mars 
63:20-25. 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, SA1NTE-FOY, QUÉBEC 



159 



Couture, L. 1979. Évaluation de traitements de 
semences chez l'orge. Pestic. Res. Rep. 1979, 
p. 464-465. 

Couture, L. 1979. Évaluation de traitements de 
semences chez l'avoine. Pestic. Res. Rep. 1979, 
p. 491-492. 

Couture, L. 1980. Mélanges céréaliers et maladies. 
Can. Agric. 25(2):18-20. 

Deschênes, J.M. 1 980. The effect of various herbici- 
des including BAS-9052, Bentazone, TF-1169 
and 2, 4 - DB on weed control for the establi- 
shment of a mixture of alfalfa and timothy. 
G.N.C. Eastern Canada, p. 29-31. 

Deschênes, J.M. 1980. TF-1169 and Agral 90 on 
plots heavily infested with quack grass. Com. 
d'experts sur la malherbologie de l'est du 
Canada, p. 335. 

Deschênes, J.M. et al. 1980. Mauvaises herbes, 
renseignements généraux sur la répression. 
C.P.V.Q. Agdex 640, 35 p. 

Drapeau, R. 1979. Évaluation de cultivars de trèfle 
rouge et de trèfle blanc. Bull. C.P.V.Q. 1 2 p. 

Drapeau, R.; Laliberté, C. 1979. Résultats d'essais 
en plantes fourragères à Normandin. Ferme 
expérimentale, Agric. Can., Normandin, Qué- 
bec. 41 p. 

Drapeau, R. 1980. Winter survival of alfalfa 
(1978-79) at Normandin. dans: Survey report 
of the winter survival of alfalfa. Misc. Bull. 4, 
Agrometeorol. Sect., Land Resour. Res. Inst., 
Agric. Can., Ottawa. 

Dubuc, J. P. 1980. Rapport d'amélioration de l'orge. 
Groupe du Québec, janvier, 1 68 p. 

Dubuc, J.P. 1980. Rapport d'amélioration de l'avoi- 
ne. Groupe du Québec, janvier, 166 p. 

Dubuc, J.P. 1980. Catalogue des stocks génétiques. 
Station de recherche, Agric. Can., Ste-Foy, 
Québec, 17 p. 

Dubuc, J. P. 1980. Document d'analyse de la situa- 
tion des programmes d'amélioration, le marché 
et son potentiel versus l'implication des compa- 
gnies en amélioration des céréales. Comité des 
céréales (C.P.V.Q.), septembre, 5 p. 

Frève, A. 1979. Mise au point d'une méthode de 
sélection de la luzerne pour la résistance au 
Fusarium roseum var. acuminatum. Thèse de 
maîtrise, université Laval, Québec. 74 p. 

Frève, A. 1980. Essais régional hâtif 1979. p. 19-22, 
dans: Banville, G.J. éd. Rapport annuel 1979 
des essais régionaux de pommes de terre au 
Québec. Station de recherches sur la pomme 
de terre, Les Buissons, comité du Saguenay. 
Mars. 



Gaudette, A.; Zizka, J. 1980. Valeurs fertilisantes 
des excréments d'animaux à la ferme. Colloque 
sur les fumiers, C.P.V.Q. Saint-Hyacinthe, 9 
octobre 1980, p. 4-32. 

Hope, H.J. 1980. The use of proteases to detect 
frost hardiness associated changes in protein 
synthesis by winter wheat seedlings. Proc. 
CSPP20:23. 

Lee, A. J.; McAllister, A. J.; Batra, T.R.; Chesnais, 
J. P.; Darisse, J.P.F.; Roy, G.L.; Vesely, J.A.; 
Winter, K.A. 1980. Breed group differences for 
growth in pureline foundation phase of the 
National Cooperative Dairy Cattle Breeding 
Project. Abstr. 72 Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. 
Anim. Sci. p. 122. 

Lemay, F.; Rioux, R. 1980. Inventaire des mauvai- 
ses herbes, comté de Kamouraska, 1980. Com. 
d'experts sur la malherbologie, Rapport de 
recherches, p. 603. 

Lemieux, C; Morriset, P.; Deschênes, J.M. 1980. 
Patrons de mortalité dans des populations vé- 
gétales pures et mixtes à haute densité, Ann. 
ACFAS. Mai. 

McAllister, A.J.; Batra, T.R.; Chesnais, J.P.; Daris- 
se, J.P.F.; Lee, A.J.; Roy, G.L.; Vesely, J.A.; 
Winter, K.A. 1980. The Canadian dairy cattle 
selection and crossbreeding project. Nordic 
Symposium on Crossbreeding in Dairy Cattle. 
Edinburgh. 

Michaud, R. 1979. Évaluation de cultivars de luzer- 
ne pour le Québec. Rapport du C.P.V.Q., 69 p. 

Michaud, R. 1980. Attention aux luzernes sans 
nomé Bull. Agric, février 1980, p. 56 et 61. 

Michaud, R.; Richard, C; Willemot, C; Frève, A. 
1979. Breeding for root and crown rot in alfal- 
fa. Comptes rendus de la "Third Eastern Fora- 
ge Improvement Conference", Ottawa, p. 44. 

Paquin, R. 1979. Use of the synthetic aperture 
radar in assessment of winter damages to crops 
and as a tool for crop identification. Proc. 
Agric. Working Group, Can. Adv. Com. on 
Remote Sensing 8:21-22. 

Paquin, R. 1980. Les plantes survivront-elles à 
l'hiver de 1979-80? Nouvelles de la recherche 
80.03.03.2F; La Terre de Chez Nous 51(2):14; 
Le Meunier québécois 14(7):9. 

Paquin, R. 1980. Influence of environment upon 
acclimation and frost resistance of alfalfa. 
Proc. CSPP, Univ. of Calgary, juillet 14-17, p. 
3. 

Paquin, R. 1980. Crop classification study using 
SAR. dans: The airborne SAR project, a com- 
ponent of the Canadian SURSAT program by 
Intera Environments Consultants Ltd. Report 
ASP-80-l:42. 



160 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Richard, C; Willemot, C. i 980. La luzerne malade Rioux, R. 1980. Onze rapports sur des essais de 
plus endommagée par le froid? Bull. Agric. différents herbicides sur plusieurs mauvaises 

Mars, p. 85-87. herbes et plantes cultivées. Com. d'experts sur 

la malherbologie, Rapport de recherches, p. 15, 

Rioux, R. 1980. Nuisibilité du chiendent dans l'or- 38-39, 206, 225-226, 244, 349-350, 403, 432. 

ge. Phytoprotection 61:114. 

Turnbull, J.E.; Munroe, J.A.; Darisse, J.P.F.; Wil- 

Rioux, R. 1980. Interférence des mauvaises herbes son, G. 1979. Should silo foundations be placed 

dans les pommes de terre. Phytoprotection below frost? ASAE Paper no. 79-4506, ASAE 

6 1 : 1 20. Winter Meet., New Orleans. 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, SAINTE-FOY, QUÉBEC 161 



Station de recherches 
Saint- Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec 



CADRES PROFESSIONNELS 



C.B. Aube, B.Sc. 
M. Hudon, L.Sc 

Y. BONNEAU 

R. Thériault, B.Sc 



(Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 
(Agr.), M.Sc. (Ent.) 



Doc.Ing. 



Directeur 
Directeur adjoint 
Services administratifs 
Génie agricole 



I. Wallace, B.A., M.L.S. 



Support scientifique 

Bibliothèque 



Cultures fruitières 



G.L. Rousselle, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. Chef de section; génétique 



L. Bérard, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

N.J. Bostanian, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

L.J. Coulombe, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

R.L. Granger, B.Sc, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

M. Lareau, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. 

R.O. Paradis, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

I. Rivard, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. 



Physiologie de la sénescence 
Acarologie-entomologie 
Phytopathologie 
Physiologie 
Gestion des cultures 
Écologie de la faune entomologique 
Écologie et contrôle de la faune 
entomologique 



Cultures maraîchères 



P. Martel, B.A., B.Sc, Ph.D. 




Chef de section; toxicologie 


G. Bélair, B.Sc. 




Nématologie 


A. Bélanger, B.Sc, Ph.D. 




Chimie des pesticides 


D. Benoît, B.Sc, M.Sc. 




Malherbologie 


R. Bernier, B.A., B.Sc. (Agr.) 2 




Gestion des cultures 


J.A. Campbell, B.A., B.Ed., M.Sc. 


, Ph.D. 


Chimie des sols 


M.S. Chiang, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, 


Ph.D. 


Génétique 


R. Crête, L.S.A., M.Sc. 




Phytopathologie 


J. Millette, B.Sc (Agr. Eng.), M.Sc. 


Hydrologie 


L. Parent, B.S.A., M.Sc. 




Physique des sols 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, SAINT-JEAN, QUÉBEC 



163 



B. Vigier, B.Sc. (Agr.) 



Gestion des cultures 



Ferme expérimentale, L'Assomption 

P.P. Lukosevicius, Diplomlandwirt, M.Sc., Ph.D. Surintendant 

N. Arnold, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. Physiologie 

M. Dupré, B.A., 3S.A. Protection 

M. Lamarre, B.Sc. (Agr.) Phytotechnie 

I.S. Ogilvie, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. Génétique 

Départ 

J.J. Jasmin, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc. Directeur 

Promu Directeur général au Bureau régional de la 
Région du Québec 



GOUVERNEMENT DE LA PROVINCE DE QUÉBEC 

Protection des vergers 

M. Mailloux, B.S.A., M.Sc. Entomologie 



'Détaché de la Direction générale des aiïaircs financières et administratives. Division des bibliothèques, 
actuellement en Haïti sur un projet de TACDI. 



64 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



INTRODUCTION 



Ce rapport résume les principaux résultats de recherches obtenus à la station de 
recherches à Saint- Jean-sur-Richelieu et à la ferme expérimentale de L'Assomption. Saint- 
Jean est responsable de la recherche sur le maïs, les légumes, les fruits et les petits fruits ainsi 
que sur la gestion des sols organiques et poursuit ses travaux à Sainte-Clothilde, Frelighsburg, 
L'Acadie et Farnham. La région de Saint-Jean, située au sud de Montréal, est caractérisée par 
la présence de sols organiques et minéraux dont une partie est située en bordure des 
Appalaches, ce qui favorise une agriculture variée. La ferme expérimentale de L'Assomption, 
située à quelque 80 km au nord de Saint-Jean, est responsable de la recherche sur le tabac, les 
plantes ornementales et l'amélioration du maïs; la ferme à L'Assomption possède du terrain à 
Lavaltrie pour ses travaux sur le tabac. 

L'année 1980 a été marquée par l'attribution de contrats à des conseils pour préparer les 
plans du nouvel édifice laboratoire-bureau qui devrait être terminé en 1983. Ce rapport donne 
les grandes lignes de nos réalisations en 1980. Ces réalisations sont caractérisées par des 
progrès substantiels dans l'amélioration des crucifères et du tabac, la gestion du maïs et la 
protection des arbres fruitiers et des légumes. Pour de plus amples renseignements sur nos 
réalisations, pour des tirés-à-part de nos publications, vous pouvez communiquer avec la station 
de recherches, Direction générale de la recherche, Agriculture Canada, Saint-Jean-sur- 
Richelieu, C.P. 457, Province de Québec, J3B 6Z8. 

Claude B. Aube 
Directeur 



ARBRES FRUITIERS 



Conduite des pommiers nains et semi-nains 

À Frelighsburg, on trouve les cultivars 
Mcintosh et Spartan greffés sur M9, M7, 
Ottawa 3 et M26 qui composent des pom- 
miers plantés à 740, 1480 et 2960 unités par 
hectare. Ces arbres formés en «cloche étroi- 
te», «palmette oblique», «palmette de Van 
Roechoudt» et «cône de plein vent» ont donné 
leur quatrième récolte en 1980. 

Cette année, les plus hauts rendements 
proviennent d'arbres de Spartan/Ottawa 3 
plantés à 2960 unités par hectare et formés en 
cloche étroite. Cette combinaison qui permet 
d'obtenir un bénéfice net de $3438/ha atteint 
presque le seuil de rentabilité avec un rende- 
ment de 23 051 kg/ha. La combinaison Spar- 
tan/M9 à 2960 unités par hectare en cloche 
étroite est la deuxième en importance. Son 
rendement est de 20 424 kg/ha. Par contre, 
McIntosh/M9 en palmette de Van Roechoudt 
à 740 pommiers par hectare avec un rende- 
ment de 555 kg/ha est la combinaison la 
moins rentable. Les pommiers de Spartan en 
cône de plein vent à 1480/ha donnent une 
moyenne générale de 13 500 kg/ha. 



Evaluation de cultivars 

Poiriers. À Frelighsburg, en 1980, des poi- 
riers de 1 1 ans provenant de cultivars ou 
sélections Krôl Sobiesky, Beauté Flamande, 
Phileson, Enie, Miney, Moe, Meney, 066- 
0361, Patten, O-301 et Païersmith ont rappor- 
té respectivement 54, 50, 38,4, 29,6, 26,5, 
22,8, 16,2, 5,2, 5,0 et 1,5 kg en moyenne par 
arbre. Cet automne à La Pocatière, des poi- 
riers âgés de 20 ans provenant de cultivars 
Favorite de Clapp, Beurré Bosc et Bartlett 
donnent respectivement une moyenne de 76, 
28,4 et 9,6 kg par arbre tandis que d'autres 
poiriers âgés de 36 ans provenant de cultivars 
Phileson, Miney, Favorite de Clapp, Menie, 
0-291 ont une récolte de 287,9, 264, 196,1, 
157,8 et 48,8 kg en moyenne par arbre. Dans 
le but d'évaluer 25 nouveaux cultivars, des 
parcelles de poiriers sont plantées à Frelighs- 
burg et Rockburn cette année. 

Pruniers. L'hiver de 1979-1980 s'est avéré 
l'un des plus destructeurs des pruniers de la 
région de Frelighsburg. Ainsi dans un verger 
expérimental de 3 ans contenant 30 cultivars 
et sélections, 10 ont subi de très graves pertes 
par le froid. Aucun de ces arbres n'a encore 
commencé à rapporter. Dans un autre verger 
expérimental composé de pruniers de 5 ans à 
La Pocatière, les cultivars et sélections qui 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, SAINT-JEAN, QUÉBEC 



165 



commencent à rapporter cette année sont: 
Reine Claude, Damas Bleue, V-33024, Brad- 
shaw, V-33028, Early Italian et Grosse Bleue. 
Les quatre premiers se montrent particulière- 
ment précoces et rapportent une moyenne de 
3 à 5 kg par arbre. 

Griottiers. À Frelighsburg, des arbres de 10 
ans provenant de cultivars Marasca di Os- 
theim, Montmorency, Suda Hardy, North 
Star et English Morello rapportent respective- 
ment une moyenne de 33,4, 29,3, 28,9, 16,6 et 
4,1 kg par arbre. Le cultivar North Star se 
montre très sensible au mildiou. Les deux 
cultivars dont les noyaux des fruits s'enlèvent 
le mieux sont Marasca di Ostheim et 
Montmorency. 

Protection des pommeraies 

Maladies. Chacun des sept différents pro- 
grammes de fongicides appliqués en eradica- 
tion à six reprises au cours de la saison ont 
réussi à réprimer suffisamment la tavelure sur 
le feuillage des pommiers, mais seuls le Bay- 
core 50 WP utilisé aux taux de 1,2 et 1,6 kg/ 
ha et le CGA 6425 1 1 OWP à 1 ,0 kg/ha ont pu 
fournir plus de 95% de fruits sains à la récolte. 
Dans une autre série d'essais, ces deux mêmes 
produits ont manifesté un pouvoir d'éradica- 
tion de la maladie comparable à celui du 
fongicide Easout 70WP. 

Insectes. Observée sur le pommier surtout 
au printemps, la punaise terne s'attaque alors 
aux bourgeons. Les dégâts sur les fruits plus 
tard dans la saison seraient attribuables prin- 
cipalement aux larves de la punaise de la 
pomme et de la lygide du pommier ainsi que, 
à un moindre degré, à celles de Heterocordy- 
lus malinus (Reuter) et de la punaise de la 
molène. Toutefois, l'imputation des piqûres à 
une espèce de punaise en particulier demeure 
souvent difficile. 

Appliqués aux stades du pré-bouton rose et 
du calice, les pyréthrinoïdes Ambush, Bel- 
mark et Ripcord se sont avérés également 
efficaces pour réduire simultanément les dé- 
gâts des punaises et du charançon de la prune 
sur les pommes, mais le fait d'effectuer une 
troisième application 2 semaines après le 
calice n'a pas amélioré la répression des pu- 
naises. 

Suite à l'application du diméthoate sur des 
pommiers Cortland au stade du bouton rose 
pour prévenir les dégâts de la punaise terne 
sur les bourgeons à fruit, le nectar extrait des 
fleurs 5 et 6 jours après le traitement conte- 
nait respectivement 5,20 et 3,32 ppm du 



produit insecticide. Comme la dose létale de 
diméthoate pour les abeilles est estimée à 95 
ng par ouvrière, un taux de 3 à 5 ppm de cet 
insecticide dans le nectar des fleurs serait 
considéré comme fatal aux abeilles butineu- 
ses. En conséquence, pour protéger ces insec- 
tes pollinisateurs, l'emploi de ce produit en 
période pré-florale sur les pommiers devrait se 
faire au moins une semaine avant l'éclosion 
des fleurs, c'est-à-dire normalement avant 
l'apparition du bouton rose. 

Par ailleurs, une étude effectuée dans un 
verger expérimental à Frelighsburg a permis 
de démontrer la grande importance des insec- 
tes pollinisateurs (abeilles domestiques et 
abeilles sauvages) pour l'obtention d'une, ré- 
colte commercialement rentable et de déter- 
miner l'influence de certains facteurs abioti- 
ques, comme la température, l'humidité 
relative, le vent, et autres, sur l'activité de ces 
précieux auxiliaires. 



PETITS FRUITS 

Bleuet. Même après un hiver sans neige et 
des températures minimum atteignant -26°C, 
la productivité de la plupart des cultivars de 
bleuet en corymbe à l'essai s'est accrue en 
1980 pour atteindre des rendements allant 
jusqu'à 25 000 kg/ha. Les cultivars Bluecrop, 
Blueray et Berkeley s'avèrent toujours les plus 
productifs. Les observations cytologiques de 
plusieurs clones indigènes de bleuet en corym- 
be ont révélé que ces derniers étaient tétra- 
ploïdes, mais que certains semblaient posséder 
une certaine instabilité à ce niveau. 

Framboise. Le cultivar Festival s'est encore 
avéré le plus productif suivi de 70-11, 69-4 
(sélection de Kentville), Matsqui et Haida. 
Newburg, le cultivar le plus répandu au Qué- 
bec, a été le moins productif. Le courbage des 
tiges durant l'hiver, la production bis-annuel- 
le, l'irrigation et l'apport de fumier n'ont pas 
modifié de façon significative la productivité 
de Willamette, Newburg et Festival. Les 
traitements de fertilisation à l'azote ont été les 
seuls à contribuer à une augmentation des 
rendements. 



LEGUMES 

Amélioration génétique des crucifères, 
résistance à la hernie 

Deux lignées, issues d'une troisième généra- 
tion de rétrocroisements entre le rutabaga, 



66 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Brassica napus L., et le chou, B. oleracea L. 
var. capitata L., ont produit plus de 70% de 
plants résistants aux races 2 et 6 de Plasmo- 
diophora brassicae Wor., organisme causant 
la hernie des crucifères, lors d'essais en plein 
champ en 1980. Ces plants résistants avaient 
une pomme de grosseur moyenne, ferme, et de 
couleur vert bleu foncé. De plus les tissus 
foliaires de la pomme contenaient moins 
d'ions thiocyanate (SCN"), précurseurs à la 
formation de la goitrine qui peut causer le 
goitre, que les tissus de plants infectés par la 
hernie. Nous espérons produire à la station à 
Saint-Jean des cultivars de crucifères résis- 
tants à la hernie et à basse teneur en SCN". 

Des croisements résistants à plusieurs races 
de P. brassicae ont été effectués avec le 
brocoli et le chou-fleur, et il reste à en amélio- 
rer les qualités horticoles. 

L'irradiation aux rayons gamma de semen- 
ce de la lignée consanguine 8-41 qui est 
résistante à la race 6 a produit un mutant 
résistant à la race 2 de l'organisme causant la 
hernie. La progéniture issue de cette mutation 
a donné des plants résistants aux deux races 
au cours des essais effectués en plein champ 
en 1980. 

Il est à noter que les gênes responsables de 
la résistance et qui ont été transférés du 
rutabaga au chou sont dominants tandis que 
ceux produits par l'irradiation aux rayons 
gamma sont récessifs. La production d'hybri- 
des F, pour l'industrie sera plus facile en 
utilisant le transfert de gênes résistants 
dominants. 

Gestion des sols organiques 

De meilleurs rendements de carottes ont été 
obtenus par le contrôle des niveaux de la 
nappe phréatique et l'emploi de méthodes 
culturales appropriées tout en réduisant l'af- 
faissement du sol organique. Les rendements 
d'oignons vendables ont été augmentés en 
irriguant les cultures. L'insecticide isofenphos 
appliqué sous forme granulaire au semis a été 
très efficace pour contrôler la mouche de 
l'oignon dans différents sols organiques et 
persiste à 50% de la dose appliquée à la 
récolte. À la récolte, 0,003 et 0,010 ppm 
d'isofenphos sont retrouvés dans les bulbes 
d'oignon alors que 3 et 8 ppm sont retrouvés 
dans les racines traitées aux taux respectifs de 
2 et 4 kg i.a./ha. Le manque d'oxygène crée 
un stress aux cultures de carottes et ce stress a 
été repéré au Northern Arm Bog et à Colinet 



à Terre-Neuve ainsi qu'à Farnham et Sainte- 
Clothilde au Québec. Ce stress dû au manque 
d'oxygène est diminué par un meilleur draina- 
ge et un meilleur choix des pratiques cultura- 
les comme la culture sur billon. 

Protection des légumes 

Le Birlane s'est avéré supérieur à cinq 
autres insecticides à l'essai pour la répression 
de la mouche du chou. Tous les insecticides 
testés incluant le Birlane ont été efficaces 
contre la mouche de l'oignon. 

Les populations de doryphore de la pomme 
de terre des différentes régions du Québec 
sont toutes résistantes au DDT et certaines au 
carbaryl (Sevin). Les populations de la région 
de Compton sont résistantes à tous les pestici- 
des à l'exception des pyréthrinoïdes de synthè- 
se. 

Les nématicides oxamyl et aldicarb appli- 
qués dans le sillon pour la carotte et à la volée 
pour la laitue ont donné les meilleurs résultats 
pour la répression du nematode cécidogène. 
Pour une même population de nematodes, la 
carotte GoldPak est la plus sensible, l'épinard, 
la laitue et l'oignon sont plus tolérants. 



MAÏS 

Gestion de la production 

Parmi les façons culturales, ce sont la 
méthode conventionnelle, le semis sur billon et 
le non-travail du sol qui ont donné les meil- 
leurs rendements en comparaison de ceux 
obtenus avec le labour-hersage fait soit à 
l'automne, soit au printemps; cependant avec 
la méthode conventionnelle, un plus faible 
pourcentage d'humidité des grains à la récolte 
fut observé. 



TABAC 



Production 



Cultivars. Lors d'essais préliminaires de 22 
lignées de tabac à cigare, les lignées L64-224 
et L64-279 ont démontré une plus forte résis- 
tance au pourridié noir que le cultivar 
RH211. 

Fertilisation. On a démontré que sur le sol 
Soulanges, les engrais azotés influencent le 
rendement, la qualité et le revenu. Le nitrate 
de potasse procure le moins bon rendement. 
Pour la qualité, l'urée et le phosphate d'am- 
moniaque donnent des revenus identiques. Les 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, SAINT-JEAN, QUÉBEC 



167 



sources de phosphore et de potassium n'ont 
pas eu d'influence sur les critères étudiés. 

Sur le sol Uplands, les sources d'azote, de 
phosphore et de potassium n'ont pas eu d'in- 
fluence significative sur le rendement, la qua- 
lité et le revenu. 

Protection 

Nematodes. Des essais de quatre nématici- 
des chez cinq producteurs démontrent que les 
nématicides fumigants améliorent nettement 
le rendement lorsque la population est élevée. 
Lorsqu'il y a association nématodes-champi- 
gnons, les nématicides qui contiennent de la 
chloropicrine s'avèrent les meilleurs. 

La multiplication de Pratylenchus pene- 
trans (Cobb) Filipjev et Stekh. dans 10 types 
de sol à tabac à cigarette semble être reliée 
directement au type de sol. La multiplication 
des nematodes dans la rhizosphère des plants 
de tabac suite à l'application de nématicides 
fumigants est demeurée inexistante dans les 
premiers 8 cm de profondeur durant toute la 
saison de végétation. Dans la bande traitée, la 
population augmente peu, mais beaucoup 
dans celle non traitée. 

Vers gris. Nous avons poursuivi et amélioré 
l'élevage massif des vers gris au laboratoire en 
vue surtout de la production des virus en 
quantité suffisante pour les travaux en plein 
champ et au laboratoire. De plus, nous avons 



poursuivi l'étude de paramètres pouvant amé- 
liorer la production de virus pour infection de 
cultures cellulaires. La pathogénicité du virus 
de la polyédrose nucléaire d'Agrotis segetum 
pour les larves de vers gris en fonction des 
stades I, III et V a été évaluée et quantifiée au 
laboratoire. 

Les effets synergétiques antagonistes de 
mélange de virus ont été évalués au laboratoi- 
re. Des larves ont été infectées simultanément 
par le virus de la polyédrose cytoplasmique 
(C.P.V.) d'Euxoa scandens (Riley) et par le 
virus de la polyédrose nucléaire (N.P.V.), 
d'A segetum. La mortalité des larves a été 
évaluée et comparée à celle due à un seul 
virus. 

Des larves du troisième stade d'£. scandens 
ont été infectées au laboratoire par le C.P.V. 
et traitées par un insecticide (Ambush) à 
différents temps post-infection (de zéro à 3 
semaines). Des mortalités dues à l'insecticide 
ont été significativement plus élevées dans le 
cas des larves infectées en particulier depuis 4 
à 7 jours. 

Pour la première fois, le virus de la polyé- 
drose nucléaire d'/L segetum a été expérimen- 
té en plein champ sur les larves d'£\ scandens 
de troisième stade. Des traitements en tuyau 
par différentes doses de virus ont été pratiqués 
et les mortalités larvaires ont été enregistrées 
à différents temps. Les résultats prouvent 
l'efficacité du N.P.V. pour tuer les larves. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Recherche 

Arnold, N.P. et al. 1980. A kiln for curing small 
lots of flue-cured tobacco. The Lighter 
50(3):28-31. 

Bostanian, N.J.; Paradis, R.O.; Pitre, D. 1980. 
Essais de lutte chimique contre le puceron 
lanigère du pommier, Eriosoma lanigerum 
(Hausm.) dans le sud-ouest du Québec. Phyto- 
protection 61(l):35-38. 

Bostanian, N.J.; Paradis, R.O.; Pitre, D. 1980. 
Pesticide evaluations against the European red 
mite, Panonychus ulnii (Koch), infesting 
young apple trees in a greenhouse. Phytopro- 
tection61(2):61-64. 

Bostanian, N.J.; Paradis, R.O.; Pitre, D.; Price, 
K.C. 1980. Action de nouveaux pesticides con- 
tre le tétranyque à deux points, Tetranychus 
urticae Koch sur des fraisiers en serre. Phyto- 
protection 61(l):30-34. 



Campbell, J.A.; Millette, J.A.; Roy, M. 1980. An 
inexpensive instrument for measuring soil wa- 
ter table levels. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:575-577. 



Chiang, B.Y.; Chiang, M.S.; Grant. W.F.; Crête, 
R. 1980. Transfer of resistance to race 2 of 
Plasmodiophora brassicae from Brassica na- 
pus to cabbage {B. oleracea ssp. capitata). IV. 
A resistant 18-chromosome B, plant and its B : 
progenies. Euphytica 29:47-55. 

Chiang, M.S.; Perron, J. P. 1980. Effects of seedling 
density and soil moisture on attractiveness of 
egg laying by the onion maggot. Phytoprotcc- 
tion61(l):9-l2. 

Coulombe, L.J.; Jacob, A. 1980. Eradication au- 
tomnale de Venturia inaequalis pour réduire le 
nombre de traitements contre la tavelure du 
pommier la saison suivante. Phytoprotection 
61(2):48-54. 



168 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT WS0 



Crête, R.; Chiang, M.S. 1980. Screening Brassicas 
for resistance to clubroot, Plasmodiophora 
brassicae Wor. Can. Plant Dis. Surv. 60( 1 ): 1 7- 
19. 

Hudon, M.; Chiang, M.S.; Shapiro, I.D.; Perever- 
zev, D.S. 1980. Sovieto-Canadian entomologi- 
cal investigations on the influence of resistant 
and susceptible maize inbred lines on the fe- 
cundity of the European corn borer Ostrinia 
nubilalis (Hbn.). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Québec 
25(l):36-54. 

Hudon, M.; Martel, P. 1980. État des insectes 
nuisibles dans certaines cultures du sud-ouest 
du Québec en 1978. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Qué- 
bec 25(2):68-71. 

Khan, S.U.; Hamilton, H.A. 1980. Extractable and 
bound (nonextractable) residues of prometryn 
and its metabolites in an organic soil. Agric. 
Food Chem. 28(1): 126. 

Kozumplik, V.; Lamarre, M. 1980. Effects of plan- 
ting distance, stage and height of topping on 
some morphological characteristics of cigar to- 
bacco. Arh. Poljopr. Nauke 32(1 18): 101-1 1 1. 

Lamarre, M. 1980. L'influence du stade et du mode 
d'application de certains drageonnicides sur la 
composition du tabac à cigarette. Le Briquet 
50(2):23-26. 

Laporte, G. 1980. Influence des précipitations sur le 
rendement du tabac à cigare. Le Briquet 
50(3):25-28. 

Lukosevicius, P.P. 1980. Tobacco culture in Que- 
bec. The Lighter 50(3):5-l 1. 

Mathur, S. P.; Bélanger, A.; Hamilton, H. A.; Khan, 
S.U. 1980. Influence on microflora and persis- 
tence of field-applied disulfoton, permethrin 
and prometryn in an organic soil. Pedobiologia 
20:237-242. 

Ogilvie, I.S.; Kozumplik, V. 1980. Genetic analysis 
of quantitative characters in cigar and pipe 
tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum. I. Morphological 
characters. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 22:173-182. 

Ogilvie, I.S.; Laporte, G.; Hergert, G. 1980. Me- 
chanization of harvesting and curing of stalk- 
cut air-cured tobacco. The Lighter 50(3): 17- 

25. 

Parent, L.E.; Pauzé, F.J.; Bourbeau, G.A. 1980. 
Méthode nouvelle de préparation de coupes 
minces des tourbes et des gyttja. Can. J. Soil 
Sci. 60:487-496. 

Pion, S.; de Oliveira, D.; Paradis, R.O. 1980. 
Agents pollinisateurs et productivité du fraisier 
'Redcoat' Fragaria x ananassa Duch. Phyto- 
protection61(2):72-78. 

Rivard, L; Paradis, R.O.; Mailloux, M. 1980. Les 
ravageurs des cultures fruitières du Québec en 
1979. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Québec 25(2):77-80. 



Vigier, B.; Campbell, J.A. 1980. Calibration of a 
single gamma probe for measuring wet bulk 
density in organic soil. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:133- 
135. 

Vigier, B.; Raghaven, G.S.V. 1980. Soil compaction 
efTect in clay soils on common root rot in 
canning peas. Can. Plant Dis. Surv. 60(4):42- 

45. 

Vrain, T.C.; Rousselle, G.L. 1980. Distribution of 
plant-parasitic nematodes in Quebec apple or- 
chards. Plant Dis. 64:582-583. 

Divers 

Bélanger, A. 1980. Effet des pluies acides sur les 
terres agricoles. Le Richelieu Agric. , hebdo., 
Saint-Jean (Québec) (avril 1980). 

Coulombe, L.J. 1980. Vous les voulez belles et 
bonnes? Bull. Agric. (avril), p. 1 1 8, 1 20, 1 2 1 . 

Coulombe, L.J. 1980. Framboisiers et gadeliers «ne 
viennent pas tout seuls». Bull. Agric. (mai), p. 
16, 17, 18,21. 

Hudon, M. 1980. Assisting the Canadian seed corn 
industry. Can. Agric, hiver 1980. 

Hudon, M.; Vigier, B. 1980. En sol argileux, c'est 
labour d'automne et hersage de printemps. 
Bull. Agric. (mai), p. 58 et 60. 

Lareau, M.J. 1980. On cultivera un jour des 
bleuets. Bull. Agric. (juin). 

Lareau, M.J.; Granger, R.L. 1980. Moins de fraises 
cette année. Le Richelieu Agric. 4:29. 

Lareau, M.J. 1980. La culture du bleuet au Qué- 
bec. Station de recherches, Saint-Jean (Qué- 
bec) Bull. Tech. 14,27 p. 

Miiller, D.I.; Granger, R.L. 1980. Put your apple 
trees in "tip top shape". Am. Fruit Grow. 
100(1 1):9. 

Martel, P. 1980. Gare aux doryphores de la pomme 
de terre. Nouvelles et articles documentaires. 
N° 1875. (30 mai 1980) p. 7-8. 

Paradis, R.O. 1980. Lutte dirigée contre les insec- 
tes. Nouvelles et articles documentaires. N° 
1879. (juin 1980) p. 7-9. 

Parent, L; Jasmin, J.J. 1980. Guide d'utilisation des 
tourbières au Québec et dans les Maritimes. 
Station de recherches, Saint-Jean (Québec) 
Bull. Tech. 15,41 p. 

Rayment, A. F.; Campbell, J.A. 1980. The influence 
of different drainage techniques on water out- 
flow, soil aeration and crop growth on a New- 
foundland peat soil. 6th Int. Peat Congress, 
Duluth, Minn., August 17-23, 1980. 

Rivard, I. 1980. Les pomiculteurs sont-ils si mal 
servis? La Terre de Chez-Nous, mars 1980, p. 
3 et 24. 



STATION DE RECHERCHES, SAINT-JEAN, QUÉBEC 



169 



ONTARIO REGION 
RÉGION DE L'ONTARIO 



C2s 



I 

Dr. J. J. Cartier 





Dr. H. Baenziger Mr. G. B. Matthews 



EXECUTIVE OF THE ONTARIO REGION 
L'EXÉCUTIF DE LA RÉGION DE L'ONTARIO 

Director General 
Directeur général 

J. J. Cartier, B.A., B.Sc, Ph.D. 

Program Specialist 
Spécialiste en programmes 

H. Baenziger, Ing. Agr., M. Se, Ph.D. 

Chief, Finance and Administration 
Chef, finances et administration 

G. B. Matthews 



ONTARIO REGION m 



PREFACE 



In the reorganization of the Branch in August 
1980, the research stations at Harrow, Delhi, 
Vineland, and Ottawa; the London and Animal 
research institutes; and the experimental farms at 
Smithfield, Kapuskasing, and Thunder Bay were 
brought together to form the new Ontario Region. 
The two research institutes were renamed research 
centres. Dr. J. J. Cartier was named Director 
General. The total staff of the region numbers 
about 780; the total budget is approximately $27 
million. 

The Animal Research Centre conducts research 
in nine program areas, including animal waste 
utilization, trace mineral and beef cattle nutrition, 
dairy cattle breeding and production, dairy cattle 
nutrition, swine production, poultry breeding, poul- 
try nutrition, sheep production, and animal feed 
safety and nutrition. Beef cattle nutrition is carried 
out cooperatively with the Experimental Farm at 
Kapuskasing, and one of the thrusts of this research 
is to develop improved systems of beef production in 
the clay belt of northern Ontario and western 
Quebec. 

The Ottawa Research Station carries out plant 
breeding programs in cereal crops, forage crops, 
soybeans, and ornamentals. These programs are 
supported by research in various aspects of produc- 
tion technology and feature disciplines such as plant 
pathology and physiology, entomology, cytogenet- 
ics, and weed science. A highlight during 1980 was 
the substantial strengthening of the genetic engi- 
neering team, to provide needed backup for the 
breeding programs of the future. 

The London Research Centre's major objectives 
are in the areas of integrated pest management and 
environmental quality. Integrated pest management 
research aims to improve methods for the control of 
important insect pests in field crops and stored 
products while reducing the amount of chemicals 
used. Improvements are also developed in plant 
disease control methods. Environmental quality 
research aims at elucidating factors that influence 
pesticide behavior, persistence, and ultimate fate in 
the environment. It also attempts to clarify the 
effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms in the 
soil and to assess the ecological impact of these 
effects. 



The Vineland Research Station research pro- 
gram focuses on integrated pest management proce- 
dures for orchard and vegetable crops, grapes, and 
some forage crops. The primary objective is to 
reduce the amount of chemical pesticides used 
while maintaining the quality and quantity of 
produce. A 1980 highlight for Vineland was the 
organization and successful staging of the seventh 
meeting of the International Council for the Study 
of Viruses and Virus Diseases of the Grapevine. 

The primary mandate of the Delhi Research 
Station is to provide research support to the tobacco 
industry in Ontario. However, results of research 
are often applicable to tobacco production in 
Quebec and in the Maritime Provinces. The pro- 
gram at Delhi is directed toward development of 
more efficient production technology, improved 
cultivars, and improved tobacco quality. During 
1980 plans were formulated and approved for a 
research program on alternate crops for tobacco 
soils. Initially, this research will focus on peanut 
production technology and on certain aspects of 
peanut quality. 

The Harrow Research Station has one of the 
most diverse programs in the Ontario Region. It 
features breeding and production research in corn, 
soybeans, winter wheat, field beans, and burley 
tobacco, as well as in a variety of horticultural crops 
including several tree fruit and vegetable species. 
Improvement of pest control procedures, including 
those for weed control, are important objectives of 
research in most of these crops. During 1980, 
Harrow Research Station scientists organized an 
international workshop on peach canker, in an 
effort to find new approaches to this serious 
problem. 

Two Ontario Region establishment directors 
retired at the end of 1980: Dr. J. M. Fulton, 
Director at Harrow; and Dr. A. J. McGinnis, 
Director at Vineland. Dr. S. R. Miller was ap- 
pointed Superintendent at the Smithfield Experi- 
mental Farm. 

Detailed information on the various station 
programs may be obtained by writing to the 
establishments concerned or by addressing inquiries 
to Ontario Region Headquarters, Research Branch. 
Agriculture Canada, Experimental Farm, Ottawa, 
Ont. K1A0C6. 

J. J. Cartier 



174 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT I^SO 



PREFACE 



Lors de la restructuration de la Direction géné- 
rale, en août 1980, les stations de recherche 
d'Harrow, de Delhi, de Vineland et d'Ottawa, 
l'Institut de recherche de London, l'Institut de 
recherche zootechnique et les fermes expérimenta- 
les de Smithfield, de Kapuskasing et de Thunder 
Bay ont été regroupés pour constituer la nouvelle 
région de l'Ontario. Les deux instituts de recherche 
seront dorénavant appelés centres de recherche. M. 
JJ. Cartier a été nommé directeur général de cette 
région. Le nombre total d'employés s'établit à 
environ 780 et le budget se chiffre à environ $27 
millions. 

Le Centre de recherche zootechnique englobe 
neuf grands domaines de recherches: la valorisation 
des déchets d'origine animale; les oligo-éléments et 
la nutrition des bovins de boucherie; l'élevage et la 
production des bovins laitiers; la nutrition des 
bovins laitiers; la production du porc; l'élevage de la 
volaille; la nutrition de la volaille; la production du 
mouton et l'innocuité et la valeur nutritive des 
aliments pour animaux. Les recherches sur la 
nutrition des bovins de boucherie réalisées en 
collaboration avec la Ferme expérimentale de 
Kapuskasing ont notamment pour objectif de met- 
tre au point des systèmes améliorés de production 
du boeuf dans la région de l'enclave argileuse du 
Nord de l'Ontario et de l'Ouest du Québec. 

La station de recherche d'Ottawa s'intéresse à 
l'amélioration des céréales et des cultures fourragè- 
res, du soja et des plantes ornementales. La réalisa- 
tion de ces programmes est appuyée par des travaux 
intéressant divers aspects des techniques de produc- 
tion et utilisant des disciplines telles que la patholo- 
gie et la physiologie végétales, l'entomologie, la 
cytogénétique et la malherbologie. Un des faits 
saillants de l'année 1980 a été le renforcement 
substantiel de l'équipe de recherches en génétique 
destinée à appuyer les futurs programmes 
d'amélioration. 

Les principaux objectifs poursuivis par le Centre 
de recherche de London relèvent de la lutte antipa- 
rasitaire intégrée et de la qualité de l'environne- 
ment. La recherche sur la lutte antiparasitaire 
intégrée vise à améliorer les méthodes de lutte 
contre les ravageurs les plus importants des cultures 
et des produits entreposés, tout en diminuant la 
quantité d'insecticides chimiques utilisés. Des amé- 
liorations sont aussi apportées dans les méthodes de 
lutte contre les maladies des plantes. Les recherches 
dans le domaine de la qualité de l'environnement 
visent à déterminer les facteurs qui influent sur le 
comportement des pesticides, leur rémanence et 
leur devenir dans l'environnement. Elles cherchent 
aussi à déterminer les effets des pesticides sur les 
organismes inoffensifs ou utiles du sol et à évaluer 
l'incidence écologique de ces effets. 



Le programme de la station de recherche de 
Vineland met surtout l'accent sur les méthodes de 
lutte antiparasitaire intégrée dans les vergers, les 
cultures maraîchères, les vignobles et certaines 
cultures fourragères. Le principal objectif visé est 
de diminuer la quantité de pesticides chimiques 
utilisés tout en maintenant la qualité et la quantité 
du produit. Un des faits saillants en 1980 à 
Vineland a été l'organisation et la tenue de la 
septième conférence du Conseil international sur 
l'étude des virus et des viroses de la vigne. 

La station de recherche de Delhi s'occupe princi- 
palement du tabac, au profit de l'industrie du tabac 
de l'Ontario. Toutefois, les résultats de ses recher- 
ches s'appliquent souvent à la production de tabac 
du Québec et des Maritimes. La station concentre 
ses efforts sur la mise au point de méthodes de 
production plus efficaces et de cultivars améliorés, 
ainsi que sur l'amélioration de la qualité du tabac. 
L'année 1980 a vu la planification et l'approbation 
d'un programme de recherches portant sur les 
cultures de rechange pour les terres à tabac. Au 
début, la recherche mettra l'accent sur les techni- 
ques de production d'arachides et sur certains 
aspects de la qualité de ce produit. 

Le programme de la station de recherche d'Har- 
row est un des plus diversifiés de la région. Il 
comporte la recherche sur l'amélioration et la 
production du mais, du soja, du blé d'hiver, du 
haricot de grande culture, du tabac Burley ainsi que 
toute une gamme de cultures horticoles, dont 
plusieurs espèces d'arbres fruitiers et de légumes. 
L'amélioration des méthodes de lutte antiparasitai- 
re, notamment contre les mauvaises herbes, compte 
parmi les objectifs importants de la recherche pour 
la plupart de ces cultures. En 1980, les chercheurs 
de la station ont organisé un atelier international 
sur le chancre de la pêche, afin de trouver de 
nouvelles méthodes pour lutter contre cette grave 
maladie. 

Deux des directeurs de la région ont pris leur 
retraite à la fin de 1980: M. J.M. Fulton, directeur 
de la station d'Harrow; et M. A.J. McGinnis, 
directeur de la station de Vineland. M. S.R. Miller 
a été nommé régisseur de la ferme expérimentale de 
Smithfield. 

Pour de plus amples renseignements sur les 
programmes des diverses stations de notre région, 
prière d'écrire aux établissements de recherche 
concernés ou de s'adresser à l'Administration cen- 
trale de la région de l'Ontario, Direction générale 
de la recherche, Agriculture Canada, Ferme expéri- 
mentale, Ottawa (Ontario) Kl A 0C6. 

JJ. Cartier 



ONTARIO REGION 



175 



Animal Research Centre 
Ottawa, Ontario 

PROFESSIONAL STAFF 
Administration 



R. S. Gowe, B.S.A., M.S., Ph.D. 
S. C. Thompson, B.Sc, M.A., Ph.D. 
D. A. Léger, B.Sc. 
D. L. Blakely, B.A. 

J. R. Harrison, B.Sc. 
G. R. Ford 



Director 

Deputy Director 
Assistant to the Director 
Chief, Administration and 

Resources 
Administrative Officer, Finance 
Administrative Officer, Personnel 



Scientific Support 



K. G. Hilson, 1 B.Sc., M.Sc. 

K. B. Last 1 

H. M. Mucha 1 

A. Saboui 2 

I. G. Smith, 3 B.Math. 

S. G. Dykstra, 4 B.A., B.L.S. 

K. E. Hartin, D.V.M. 



Project Manager; Computer 
services 
Systems and programming 
Systems and programming 
Systems and programming 
Systems and programming 
Librarian 
Veterinarian 



Animal Waste Utilization Program 



N. K. Patni, B.Ch.E., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Program Chairman; Livestock waste 
utilization and farm pollution 
abatement 



Trace Mineral and Beef Cattle Nutrition Program 



M. Ivan, 5 Ing., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Program Chairman; Nutrition and 
metabolism of trace minerals, Mn, 
Cu, Zn, Fe 



animal research centre 



177 



M. Hidiroglou, D.V.M., Dip. Nutr. 
D. M. Veira, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Vitamin D nutrition 
Beef cattle nutrition 



Dairy Cattle Breeding and Production Program 



A. J. McAllister, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. 

T. R. Batra, B.V.Sc., M.V.Sc., M.S., Ph.D. 

A. J. Hackett, D.V.M., M.Sc., Ph.D. 
A. J. Lee, B.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. 

C. Y. Lin, 6 B.S., M.S., Ph.D. 
G. J. Marcus, B.A., Ph.D. 
J. Nagai, B.Sc, D.Agr. 



Program Chairman; Dairy cattle 

breeding and production, applied 

quantitative genetics 
Dairy cattle breeding, applied 

quantitative genetics 
Female reproductive physiology 
Dairy cattle breeding and 

production, applied quantitative' 

genetics 
Dairy cattle breeding, applied 

quantitative genetics 
Maternal-embryonic physiological 

interactions 
Quantitative genetics, mice 



Dairy Cattle Nutrition Program 



F. D. Sauer, D.V.M., M.S., Ph.D. 

A. S. Atwal, 7 B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 
J. D. Erfle, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
K. J. Jenkins, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
J. R. Lessard, B.A., B.S.A., M.S., Ph.D. 
S. Mahadevan, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

R. M. Teather, B.Sc, Ph.D. 



Program Chairman; Rumen 
metabolism and nutrition 

Forage evaluation and nutrition 

Rumen metabolism and nutrition 

Calf nutrition 

Forage conservation and nutrition 

Rumen physiology and ruminant 
nutrition 

Rumen microbiology 



Swine Production Program 



J. I. Elliot, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



A. F. Fortin, B.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. 
D. G. Fraser, 8 B.A., Ph.D. 



Program Chairman; Sow nutrition 
and artificial rearing 
Carcass evaluation 
Animal behaviorism — swine, sheep, 
cattle 
D. W. Friend, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. Sow nutrition and reproduction 

H. A. Robertson, 9 B.Sc, Ph.D., C.Chem., F.R.I.C, Female reproductive physiology 
F.R.S.E. 

N. K. Sarkar, B.Sc, M.Sc, D.Sc Protein biochemistry 



178 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Poultry Breeding Program 



J. S. Gavora, Ing., C.Sc. 

J. R. Chambers, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
R. W. Fairfull, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

R. S. Gowe, B.S.A., M.S., Ph.D. 

A. A. Grunder, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

K. G. Hollands, B.A., B.S.A., M.S.A. 
C. P. W. Tsang, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Program Chairman; Egg stock 

breeding and management, broiler 

breeding, disease resistance 

genetics 

Broiler breeding, goose research 
Egg stock breeding and 

management 
Egg stock breeding and 

management 
Broiler breeding, eggshell quality 

genetics, goose research, disease 

resistance genetics 
Eggshell quality genetics, disease 

resistance genetics 
Eggshell quality genetics 



Poultry Nutrition Program 



R. M. G. Hamilton, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

N. A. G. Cave, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

I. R. Sibbald, 10 B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Program Chairman; Nutrition and 
physiology, eggshell quality 

Amino acids and proteins, broiler 
breeder nutrition and management 

Avian energetics and feedingstuff 
evaluation 



Sheep Production Program 



D. P. Heaney, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. 

L. Ainsworth, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

P. S. Fiser, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

G. A. Langford, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

J. N. P. Shrestha," B.V.Sc.A.H., M.S., Ph.D. 



Program Chairman; Nutrition and 
intensive management 
Female reproductive physiology 
Male reproductive physiology 
Male reproductive physiology 
Breeding and intensive management 



Animal Feed Safety and Nutrition Program 



H. L. Trenholm, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

M. H. Akhtar, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
E. R. Farnworth, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

T. S. Foster, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

J. K. G. Kramer, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Program Chairman; Mycotoxins, 

toxicology 

Pesticide metabolism and residues 
Lipids and mycotoxins nutrition 

and biochemistry 

Pesticide metabolism and residues 
Lipid chemistry and biochemistry 



animal research centre 



79 



Departures 

J. P. Chesnais, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. Dairy cattle breeding, applied 

Transferred to Animal Production quantitative genetics 

Division, Food Production and Inspection Branch, 

January 1980 
W. A. Jordan, B.S.A. Beef cattle management 

Retired December 1980 



VISITING SCIENTISTS 



K. Saio, B.Sc, B.Agr., D.Agr. Biométrie aspects of animal 

Faculty of Agriculture, breeding programs 

University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan 
M. J. Schang, Ing., M.Sc. Feedingstuff evaluation 

Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuraria, 

Pergamino, Argentina 



Agriculture Institute of Canada exchange fellow 

H. C. Patterson, B.Sc, M.Sc Sheep and goat production 

Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer 
Affairs, St. Michael, Barbados 



Canadian Executive Service overseas fellow 

L. A. F. de Avila, D.V.M. Swine and broiler chicken 

Sadia-Concordia S.A. Industriae production 
Comercio, Concordia, Brazil 

International Atomic Energy Agency training fellow 

B. Sakala Hormone radioimmunoassay 
National Council for Scientific procedures 

Research, Lusaka, Zambia 

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council postdoctorate fellow 

R. J. Boila, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. Nonprotein nitrogen sources and 

1978-1980 ruminant function 

P. M. Hocking, B.Agr., Ph.D. Dairy cattle crossbreeding 
1980-1981 

C. Shorrock, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. Beef cattle nutrition and 
1980-1981 management 

180 RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Graduate students 

J. A. Carnegie, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. Reproductive physiology 

D. V. Gill, B.Sc., Ph.D. Reproductive physiology 

F. Levine, B.Sc. Reproductive physiology 



'Seconded from Data Processing Division, Finance and Administration Branch. 

'Appointed May 1980. 

'Appointed June 1980. 

4 Seconded from Libraries Division, Finance and Administration Branch. 

-On transfer of work at Laboratoire des Maladies Nutritionnelles, l'Institut National de la recherche agronomique, 

Beaumont, France, from August 1980 to July 1981. 
'Appointed September 1980. 
'Appointed December 1980. 
"Appointed December 1980. 
9 On leave at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Kartoum, Kartoum, Sudan, from February to March 

1980. 
"'On transfer of work at the Animal Research Council, Poultry Research Centre, Edinburgh, Scotland, from 

August 1979 to July 1980. 
"Appointed September 1980. 



ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTRE 



INTRODUCTION 



The Animal Research Centre (ARC) is the main Canadian center for breeding and 
genetics research with dairy cattle, sheep, and poultry; it also has major research programs in 
the nutrition of dairy cattle, swine, sheep, beef, and poultry; as well, ARC has research 
programs in animal waste utilization and management, trace minerals, ruminant digestive 
physiology, and animal feed safety and nutrition. The nine research program teams are 
multidisciplinary and are comprised of scientists with a broad range of scientific expertise. 
Both applied research and basic research that is directly related to the solution of the problem 
is carried out within these teams. 

The Animal Research Centre continues to devote a large effort to studying the problems 
of intensively housed and managed cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry. Scientists of several 
disciplines — in particular genetics, nutrition, and reproductive physiology — are involved in 
both multidisciplinary as well as unidisciplinary studies to resolve the numerous problems 
associated with improving the productivity of intensively housed animals. 

Increasing emphasis is being placed on animal behavior and its relationship to intensive 
housing systems. An ethologist position was added to the scientific staff of the Centre in 1980. 

Research staff have also been added to the Dairy Cattle Nutrition Team to augment the 
applied program, to the Sheep Production Team to include a quantitative geneticist, and to the 
Dairy Cattle Breeding and Production Team to include another geneticist. This will strengthen 
the work on forage utilization for dairy cattle and the breeding programs for dairy cattle and 
sheep. 

Increasing effort is being devoted to the transfer of results from the researcher to the 
farmer-user. This thrust is typified by the publication this year of a technical bulletin entitled 
Research for an intensive total confinement sheep production system, which summarizes the 
research program in sheep production over the last 10 yr and relates it to on-farm use. Many of 
the techniques on controlled reproduction that were developed at the Centre are now being 
evaluated in field trials in two Canadian provinces. They are being widely accepted by sheep 
producers. 

This annual report highlights research progress in the various scientific programs. 
Significant advances were made in 1980 in the following areas: formic acid-preserved alfalfa 
silage can replace soybean meal in dairy cattle rations and produce significant savings in feed 
costs per lactation; urea can substitute for soybean meal in higher protein dairy cattle feeds 
and yield major savings; dietary protein can be reduced toward the end of the laying cycle in 
hens without decreasing poultry egg production; a minimal-disease sheep flock has been 
established by hysterectomy, which will be a vital tool in assessing the effects of clinical and 
subclinical diseases on sheep production; reentrant cannulas have been developed and tested for 
sheep and calves to substantially increase information on ruminant digestive physiology; 
research with soluble fish protein concentrate shows its usefulness in swine and calf diets; and 
research on mycotoxins was expanded from a program in zearalenone to include vomitoxin, a 
fungus toxin contaminant of wheat of current concern in Eastern Canada. 

The staff at the Centre are the scientific authorities for a number of federal contract 
research programs and projects with private companies and universities. Contract research 
plays an important role, together with government in-house research, in solving problems 
facing Canadian agriculture. The Centre supervised contract research programs in the areas of 
reproductive physiology, swine nutrition, ruminant nutrition, and livestock feed from waste. 
Some of this work is described in this report. 

Two of the Centre's researchers received major honors in 1980. In July, the Gustav 
Bohstedt Award was presented to Dr. Michael Hidiroglou by the American Society of Animal 
Science on behalf of the Salt Institute. The award recognized his significant contributions in 
mineral and trace mineral research. In October, the Minister of Agriculture presented the 
federal government's Merit Award to Dr. Robb S. Gowe. This major award recognized his 
outstanding scientific achievements as a poultry geneticist as well as his management and 
leadership of the Animal Research Centre and the development of the Centre's facilities at the 
Greenbelt Farm. 

182 RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Detailed information on the research accomplishments, methodology, and results can be 
obtained from the publications listed at the end of this report. Reprints of these publications 
and copies of this report are available on request from the Animal Research Centre, 
Headquarters Building, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ont. Kl A 0C6. 

R. S. Gowe 
Director 



WASTE UTILIZATION PROGRAM 

Pipeline transportation of liquid manure 

Field trials on pumping dairy cattle liquid 
manure (DCLM) from a livestock barn to a 
remote, plastic-lined and plastic-covered 1000 
m 3 field storage were conducted. Four differ- 
ent commercially available pumps were used 
to pump DCLM, with 4.8-9.7% total solids 
content, through a buried 900-m long, 100- 
mm diameter high-density polythene pipeline. 
Only one pump with 1100 kPa discharge 
pressure was able to pump DCLM with a 
solids content greater than 8%. Pressure drops 
due to friction ranged from 31 to 99 m of 
water column per 1000 m of straight pipe and 
were greater than previously published values 
for 100-mm diameter plastic pipes. The 
remote field storage was found to be unsuit- 
able for use in very cold weather owing to 
freezing in the manure-removal pipes. 

Effect of rate and time of manure 
application on soil, drainage water, and 
corn crop 

In a 6-yr cooperative study with Engineer- 
ing and Statistical Research Institute and 
Land Resource Research Institute, DCLM 
was applied yearly at three rates of manure 
nitrogen (N) (224, 560, and 879 kg/ha) and 
four different schedules (spring, fall, winter, 
and half in spring - half in fall) to sandy clay 
loam soil in continuous corn production. Two 
control plots, one with chemical fertilizer N at 
134 kg/ha and the other with no treatment, 
were also studied. At harvest inorganic N in 
the top 120-cm soil layer was related to both 
cumulative and annual N inputs. Bicarbonate 
extractable P and exchangeable K increased 
in the surface soil of the plots with the two 
higher rates of DCLM. Tile effluent nitrate N 
concentration in the plot that received the 
highest rate of DCLM was little different 
from the plot receiving chemical fertilizer N. 
Neither rate nor time of application of 
DCLM significantly affected corn yields. 



Groundwater quality near concrete manure 
tanks and under heavily manured cropland 

Leakage of nitrate and ammonia N, ortho- 
phosphate, and K from below-grade, rein- 
forced concrete liquid-manure storages, which 
were built with unsealed wall-to-floor joints, 
was found to be small after 10 yr of continu- 
ous use. However, heavy applications of liquid 
manure for 3-4 yr to well-drained sandy soil 
resulted in nitrate and ammonia N concentra- 
tions in groundwater well above drinking- 
water standards. 

Feed from waste 

Contract research was conducted on waste 
utilization for feed. At the University of 
Waterloo, a process for converting crop 
residues into fungal {Chaetomium cellulolyti- 
cum) single-cell protein (SCP) for animal 
feed was further refined. The SCP nutritive 
quality compared favorably with casein in 
feeding trials on rats and mice. Nutritional 
evaluation of steamed cereal straw by 
STAKE Technology Ltd. established that 
processed straw could be successfully incorpo- 
rated into rations for dairy cows and beef 
steers. Processing conditions were established. 



TRACE MINERAL AND BEEF 
CATTLE NUTRITION PROGRAM 

Beef production in the northern clay belt 
area of Ontario 

In studies at the Kapuskasing Experimental 
Farm, Shorthorn x Hereford steers and bulls 
were fed ad libitum from weaning until 
market weight on direct-cut formic acid- 
treated grass silage (DFGS) (first cut) with 
supplements of high-moisture barley at levels 
of 0, 0.5, 0.9, and 1 .3 kg dry matter (DM) per 
100 kg liveweight. Based upon final weights 
taken at slaughter and allowing for losses due 
to shipping, these levels of barley supplemen- 
tation resulted in daily liveweight gains of 
0.72, 0.84, 1.03, and 1.12 kg; and in feed-to- 
gain ratios of 8.47, 8.05, 6.95, and 6.55. The 



ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTRE 



183 



animals required 257, 217, 193, and 171 days 
to reach market weight, respectively. At all 
levels of dietary energy, bulls grew 9.0% 
faster and required 7.8% less feed per unit 
gain. It was possible on all feeding programs 
to attain a carcass grade of Canada Al or A2 
with both bulls and steers. 

The potential of growing Holstein steers to 
240 kg was examined during a 98-day sum- 
mer feeding trial. Pasture was fertilized with 
N at 80 kg/ha and stocked at the rate of 3.0 
or 4.2 steers per hectare. The higher stocking 
rate resulted in lower average daily gains 
(1.05 versus 1.22 kg) but greater output per 
hectare (431.9 versus 354.3 kg). At the same 
time, another group of steers was fed in a 
feedlot on either DFGS (first cut) or on a 
40:60 mixture of the DFGS plus barley. 
Average daily gains were 1.32 and 1.6 kg and 
feed-to-gain ratios were 5.70 and 5.40 on the 
two diets, respectively. Considering only the 
yield of the first cut of DFGS (DM at 3.37 
t/ha), the liveweight gain from the DFGS fed 
to the feedlot group was 453.4 kg/ha, which 
was 5% greater than best gain of the two 
pasture groups. 



Digestion of corn and alfalfa silage 

The digestion of silage in the stomach and 
small intestine was investigated with sheep 
prepared with reentrant cannulas in the 
proximal duodenum and proximal ileum. The 
silages studied were corn silage (CS); CS with 
0.6% urea added on a fresh-weight basis at 
the time of ensiling; direct-cut alfalfa silage 
treated with formic acid, which was added at 
5 g of acid per kilogram of fresh alfalfa at the 
time of cutting; and wilted alfalfa silage. Urea 
treatment of CS increased the crude protein 
(CP) from 8.1 to 13.2% and had no effect on 
organic matter digestion but increased diges- 
tion of protein in the small intestine by 
increasing microbial synthesis in the stomach. 
The alfalfa silage was made from first cut 
(bud stage) and contained 23% CP. Com- 
pared to wilting, treatment of alfalfa with 
formic acid reduced the digestion of protein in 
the stomach and increased the small intestine 
protein digestion, but this shift in protein 
digestion site was not due to changes in 
microbial output from the stomach. 



Manganese studies 

Three groups of wethers were each fed a 
practical diet containing 20, 300, or 3000 ppm 
Mn for 8 wk. Average daily gains and feed-to- 
gain ratios of sheep fed the 20 and 300 ppm 
Mn diets were similar, but gain was lower and 
the ratio higher for the 3000 ppm Mn diet. 
Feed intake was approximately the same for 
all treatments. Increased dietary Mn raised 
its concentration in soft tissues and bile. Liver 
concentration of Cu increased and concentra- 
tion of Zn decreased with increasing dietary 
Mn. 

Metabolism of vitamin D, in sheep 

The major form of circulating vitamin D 3 "is 
its metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25-OH 
D 3 ), as determined from the metabolic profiles 
of sheep plasma 3 days after administration of 
either isotopically labeled vitamin D 3 or 25- 
OH D 3 or both. The uptake of radioactive 25- 
OH D 3 by the plasma was more rapid in sheep 
housed indoors than outdoors. Plasma and 
tissue radioactivities were greater in sheep 
dosed with labeled 25-OH D 3 than with 
equivalent amounts of labeled vitamin D 3 . 
Placental transmission of intravenously ad- 
ministered label given as vitamin D 3 and its 
25-OH D 3 metabolite was studied in gestating 
ewes. Radioactivity concentrations were 
higher in tissues of animals dosed with 
vitamin D 3 than in tissues of animals given 25- 
OH D 3 . Tissue concentration was greater in 
the ewe than in the fetus. The amount of 
isotope transferred to the fetus varied greatly 
among individual ewes and this may be 
related to the state of vitamin D nutrition of 
the dams. 



DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING AND 
PRODUCTION PROGRAM 

National cooperative dairy cattle breeding 
project (NCDCBP) 

Further comparisons of bulls used in the 
pure line foundation matings have been 
completed for the areas of heifer body mea- 
surements, heifer calving ease, and lactation 
yields through three lactations. The highly 
selected bulls of the breed groups in the 
Ayrshire-based A line (Research Branch, 
Finnish, U.S., and Canadian Ayrshire, Brown 
Swiss, and Norwegian Red) and the Holstein- 
based H line (Research Branch, U.S., and 
Canadian Holstein) were chosen to broaden 



S 4 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT NS0 



the genetic base of the two-parent pure lines 
and were not a random sample of the popula- 
tions from which they were chosen. 

Heifers from the H line were significantly 
larger than those of the A line for all body 
measurements (withers height, heart girth, 
chest width and depth, hook width, and 
shoulder-to-hook length) at all ages except for 
rump length at 82 wk of age. The volume of 
data permitted statistical detection of very 
small differences between the lines because 
there were 496 H line heifers and 344 A line 
heifers. Generally, differences were small in 
the various body measurements among the 
daughters representing the different Holstein 
strains in North America and of little practi- 
cal importance. Progeny of the two Brown 
Swiss bulls tested were consistently larger 
than progeny of other sire groups in the A 
line, but only significantly so for withers 
height at all ages and 82-wk rump length. 
They were followed closely by progeny of the 
Norwegian Red and Finnish Ayrshire sires 
with daughters of Research Branch, Cana- 
dian, and U.S. Ayrshire being similar but 
slightly smaller in size. The daughters of the 
Canadian Ayrshire bulls tended to be a little 
larger than Research Branch and U.S. Ayr- 
shire progeny. 

The average superiority of the Holstein- 
based H line over the Ayrshire-based A line 
over the first three lactations was 1400 kg for 
mature equivalent (ME) milk yield, 39 kg for 
ME protein yield, and 56 kg for ME butterfat 
yield. There were no significant differences in 
these traits among the bull groups in the A 
line but in the H line both the U.S. and 
Canadian Holstein groups had significantly 
higher yields than the Research Branch 
Holstein groups. There was wide variation 
among bulls within a group. Some of the 
Norwegian Red progeny were intermediate 
between the Holstein- and Ayrshire-based 
lines. Much between-herd variation was ob- 
served in these data but within-herd first- 
lactation yields were good predictors of 
subsequent milk yields. 

Calving difficulty was associated with 
higher percentage of calves born dead and 
subsequent higher frequencies of retained 
placenta in both A and H line heifers. H line 
heifers requiring no assistance at time of 
calving had 4% of calves born dead compared 
to 24% when some kind of assistance was 
required. Corresponding values for A line 
heifers were 4% and 19%, respectively. The 



incidence of retained placentas was signifi- 
cantly smaller when calves were born alive in 
both H line (5%) and A line (14%) heifers. 
This incidence increased to 21% in H line and 
33% in A line heifers when calves were dead 
at birth. 

The California mastitis test (CMT) was 
done on 6609 and 4206 quarter samples from 
H and A line cows, respectively, to study the 
effects of line, parity, month-of-freshening, 
and month-of-lactation. The incidence of 
subclinical mastitis as judged by CMT score 
was similar in both lines, and older cows 
tended to be more positive to the mastitis- 
screening test than younger cows. The inci- 
dence of positive quarters was higher for the 
cows calving during summer months, and 
there was an increase in the CMT score in the 
later months of the lactation period. Microor- 
ganisms were isolated from 21.5, 31.5, 42.3, 
and 53.0% of the samples showing a CMT 
reaction of trace, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. 
Klebsiella spp. were found in 40.5% of the 
samples and Streptococcus spp. were isolated 
in 36.8%. Other organisms isolated were 
Staphylococcus aureus (14.9%) and coliforms 
(6.4%). 

Breeding studies using record of 
performance (ROP) data 

Records-in-progress from Ayrshire, Guern- 
sey, Holstein, and Jersey cows calving after 
35 mo of age were used to predict 305-day 
milk and fat yields using U.S. Department of 
Agriculture (USDA) extension factors intro- 
duced in 1965. The differences between the 
actual and projected yields were positive, 
indicating that USDA extension factors were 
underestimating both milk and fat yields for 
the four breeds. For the Holstein breed, 
phenotypic correlations between the projected 
records-in-progress and actual 305-day milk 
yields increased from 0.54 for up to 29 days in 
milk to 0.98 for 270-304 days in milk. Similar 
correlations were also observed for the other 
breeds. The results of this study suggest that 
the USDA extension factors used on Cana- 
dian data underestimate 305-day milk and fat 
yields from shorter partial records. 

A simple procedure was used to modify the 
1965 USDA extension factors for use in 
Canada. The 1965 and revised USDA exten- 
sion factors were compared on 84 075 com- 
plete lactation records accumulated by ROP 
during 1979. When the revised extension 



ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTRE 



185 



factors were applied, the systematic bias was 
eliminated in records longer than 60 days. 

Monitoring the reproductive status of the 
postpartum cow 

Dairy cattle of the H, A, and crossbred 
lines, which are maintained year round in 
total confinement in either a loose-housing or 
a tie-stall barn, were monitored for estrous 
cycle activity and reproductive performance. 
Only 54% of the cows were observed in estrus 
at least once between parturition and day 55, 
whereas rectal palpation indicated that nearly 
all cows had been in estrus or had ovarian 
activity. There was a significant line-by-barn 
interaction in the detection of estrus. For A 
line cows, 74% were observed in estrus in the 
tie-stall barn compared with 48% in the loose- 
housing barn. Conceptions to either first, 
second, third, or fourth or greater services 
were 43, 44, 43, and 37%. Cows in the loose- 
housing barn had significantly more days open 
than those in the tie-stall barn. Failure to 
detect estrus was the major problem contrib- 
uting to a greater than 1 2-mo calving interval. 

Pilot genetic studies with mice and 
computer simulation 

Genetic principles fundamental to the 
current dairy cattle crossbreeding experi- 
ments, but which are difficult to examine, 
were investigated using mice and computer 
simulation. 

Lifetime lactational performance (TP) in 
mice was compared for several (second filial) 
populations produced by four lines of mice 
that were developed for increased milk pro- 
duction or adult weight. Each F 2 female was 
paired with a specific F, male for 200 days, 
and the number of litters produced during this 
time was recorded. Several F : populations 
were compared for TP, which consisted of two 
component traits, number of litters produced 
during 200 days (NL) and average 18-day 
litter weight (LW), where TP = NL x LW 
for individual F 2 females. Two F : female 
populations derived from a cross of a milk 
production line and an adult weight line but 
from two different base populations did not 
differ in TP but did for NL (3.32 versus 4.04). 
Another pair of F 2 female populations derived 
from a cross of a milk production line of one 
base population with an adult weight line of 
the other base population and its reciprocal 
differed for TP (516 versus 434) and NL 
(4.64 versus 3.90) but not LW. An F, female 



population derived from a cross of two milk 
production lines from different base popula- 
tions was superior to one derived from a cross 
of two adult weight for TP (4.88 versus 4.01), 
NL (5.15 versus 3.84), and LW (114 versus 
105). Heritabilities estimated from the sire 
component of variance were 0.23, 0.26, and 
0.44 for TP, NL, and LW, respectively, 
indicating that TP and its component traits 
are moderately heritable. It was concluded 
that TP could differ between random bred 
populations of different genetic origin, owing 
to the difference in its component traits, 
particularly number of litters produced in a 
lifetime. 

A theoretical study with computer simula- 
tion was conducted to assess performance for 
a single character under two mating systems: 
crisscross (CC) and repeated hybrid male 
cross (RHMC). Both systems can be used for 
less prolific species such as dairy cattle, and 
the latter has been adopted in the current 
NCDCBP. Under CC, the expected perform- 
ance fluctuated over generations, whereas 
under RHMC, the performance was constant 
starting with the F 2 generation. Comparison 
of the performance revealed that CC involv- 
ing the first backcross to the better breed male 
(CC.l) was expected to be superior to RHMC 
for various degrees of heterosis (H) and 
differences in performance between the two 
breeds involved (D). The expected perform- 
ance ratio of CCI to RHMC after a few 
generations of crossing approximated 2[1 + 
2H/3 + (D/3)(2 - D)]/(2 + H). When D 
was small (10%) and H substantial (30%), 
CCI was expected to exceed RHMC by 
approximately 6% after a few generations of 
crossing. The results are under investigation 
experimentally with the use of mice. 

Very early pregnancy detection 

A very early pregnancy test based upon an 
immunological reaction o( pregnant animals 
has been reported in sheep. Efforts to confirm 
this Rosette-inhibition test have been unsuc- 
cessful. This failure to reproduce the original 
results casts serious doubt on the validity of 
using this phenomenon to diagnose 
pregnancy. 



186 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



DAIRY CATTLE NUTRITION 
PROGRAM 

Urea in dairy cattle rations 

The average 305-day milk production for 
cattle fed corn with urea added at ensiling 
was 6330 kg, which was equivalent to a 
similar diet with comparable (12-13%) crude 
protein (CP) provided by soybean meal 
supplementation (5920 kg) or urea added to 
the concentrate (5780 kg) but superior to a 
negative control with 9.4% CP (4420 kg). An 
experiment was designed to determine milk 
production when urea, added to corn at 
ensiling, was used to increase 12% CP 
soybean meal or fish meal supplemented diets 
to 15% total CP. Urea-supplemented rations 
were compared to a 12% CP negative control 
ration formulated with soybean meal and to 
two positive control rations supplemented 
with either soybean or fish meal to contain 
15% total CP. Concentrates and corn silage 
were fed ad libitum as a complete feed. 
Preliminary results with cows milking 20-30 
kg/day at peak lactation showed no difference 
in milk production between diets containing 
12 and 15% CP nor between diets supple- 
mented with urea or soybean or fish meal. The 
correction of milk production at 13-16 wk 
postpartum using the first 4 wk of lactation as 
a covariate did not alter the relative treatment 
responses. Daily feed DM intakes were simi- 
lar for all treatments. Rumen ammonia 
concentrations were somewhat lower on the 
12% CP diet as compared with the 15% CP 
diets. There was no clear indication that urea 
in the silage resulted in higher rumen ammo- 
nia levels than were found with soybean or 
fish meal rations. Preliminary results indicate 
that urea ensiled with corn is a highly 
effective protein supplement in dairy rations 
formulated to contain 1 5% CP. 

Alfalfa silage as a source of proteins for 
lactating cows 

Formic acid-treated alfalfa silage (FAS) 
was mixed with corn silage (CS) in propor- 
tions such that the protein content of the 
mixture was 13.5% on a dry basis. A grain 
mix containing 13% protein but with no 
oilseed meal was added to make a complete 
feed with a 60:40 forage-to-grain ratio (ration 
I). A second complete feed containing 38% 
CS, 15% wilted grass-legume silage, 7% hay, 
and 40% of a 2 1 % CP concentrate was used as 
a control (ration II). Two groups of lactating 



cows were fed each of two rations for three 
lactations. The cows fed ration I consumed 
less DM than those fed the control (16.0 
versus 17.5 kg/day). Milk production for a 
308-day lactation was the same for the two 
rations (4947 versus 4972 kg) from 1172 
complete lactations measured in a mixed herd 
of Holstein, Ayrshire, and crossbred cows. Fat 
and protein content of the milk were not 
altered by the diets (3.39% versus 3.42%, and 
3.21% versus 3.27%, respectively). Calving 
interval, days open, services-per-conception, 
and health status were not different between 
rations. However, significant savings in the 
cost of concentrates were realized from using 
FAS as the main source of proteins. These 
savings were estimated at $100 per cow- 
lactation, using the respective prices per tonne 
for soybean meal, corn grain, and barley grain 
of $420, $160, and $175. It is concluded that 
hay can be eliminated from the diet of 
lactating cows fed complete diets and that a 
large portion of the required protein can be 
supplied by FAS. 

Protein degradation in the rumen 

Chemical structures in proteins, which 
make them resistant or susceptible to degra- 
dation by a rumen proteolytic enzyme (prote- 
ase from Bacteroides amylophilus), were 
investigated. It was found that disulfide 
(sulfur-sulfur cross-links) bonds in proteins 
make them resistant to degradation, and 
chemical bonds in proteins involving phenylal- 
anine and leucine were more easily hydro- 
lyzed by the protease than were other bonds. 
This information is being used to modify 
proteins in order to produce feed proteins of 
predictable and controllable rumen degrada- 
tion. 

Currently, crude rumen fluid or commer- 
cially available protease preparations from 
sources other than rumen microorganisms are 
used in in vitro procedures to determine 
rumen degradability of feed proteins. How- 
ever, use of rumen fluid has many disadvan- 
tages, commercial proteases have properties 
different from those of rumen proteases, and 
rumen protease preparations are not avail- 
able. Procedures were developed for the 
preparation of rumen protease for use in the 
in vitro protein degradation measurements. 
The rumen protease prepared is in dry powder 
form with most of the interfering materials 
removed, has all the proteolytic activity of 
fresh rumen fluid, and can be stored dry for at 



ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTRE 



187 



least 1 yr without loss of activity. With the 
use of this material, a procedure for measur- 
ing protein degradation has been standardized 
and degradation rates of common feed pro- 
teins are being determined. 

Calf nutrition 

Two feeding experiments were conducted to 
test the ability of a soluble fish protein 
concentrate (FPC) to replace skim milk 
powder in liquid diets for calves. In a 10-wk 
vealer trial, calves were fed one of three milk 
replacers: skim milk powder as a control, 50% 
of protein provided by FPC and 50% from 
whey and skim milk powder, and 80% of 
protein provided by FPC and 20% from whey 
protein. The average daily weight gains and 
feed-to-gain ratios for the control and the 50% 
FPC diets were similar (0.94 and 0.81 kg, and 
1.4 and 1.4, respectively), but both diets were 
markedly better than the 80% FPC diet (0.61 
kg and 1.9). The results showed that two- 
thirds of the skim milk powder in milk 
replacers for veal calves can be replaced with 
the FPC and whey, with approximately 40% 
saving in feed cost. At the high FPC level, 
several calves initially would not drink the 
diet and those that did performed relatively 
poorly. 

In a second feeding trial, the same milk 
replacers were fed to newborn calves in a calf 
herd replacement early weaning program. 
The milk replacers were fed for the first 4-5 
wk and then calf starter to 9 wk of age. As in 
the vealer experiment, several calves would 
not drink the 80% FPC. Those that did, 
however, suffered only a temporary (1 wk) 
setback in weight gains. Calf performance 
was similar for the control and 50% FPC diets 
for digestibility of DM, N, and lipid; weight 
gains; intakes of both milk replacer and 
starter ration; and age at weaning. As ob- 
served in the vealer trial, the economic benefit 
for the 50% FPC milk replacer over the 
control was a saving of approximately 40% of 
the cost of milk replacer ingredients. 

Rumen bacteriology 

A rumen bacteria culture collection has 
been established and optimal methods for 
long-term culture storage are being deter- 
mined. At present 138 bacterial strains are 
being maintained. A previously unknown 
bacterial species, which plays a role in fiber 
degradation in the rumen, has been isolated 
and is being characterized. 



The response of the rumen microbial popu- 
lation to supplementation of a basal CS diet 
(9.4% CP) with either soybean meal, urea, or 
urea ensiled with corn to bring total dietary N 
to 12.5% CP has been established. Increasing 
dietary N resulted in a considerable increase 
in bacterial numbers, ranging from 90% for 
urea to 230% for urea silage or soybean meal. 
The greatest increase was noted for those 
bacterial species known to require branch 
chain volatile fatty acids for optimum growth 
in vitro. It was concluded that urea ensiled 
with corn was as effective as soybean meal in 
supporting production of bacterial protein in 
the rumen. These studies are now being 
extended to higher levels of dietary N. 

Methods have been developed for the 
selective isolation of the rumen bacterium 
Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and for the labeling 
and isolation of plasmid DNA from this 
species. The general occurrence of plasmids in 
this species has been established, providing 
the first evidence for a role for plasmid- 
determined characteristics in the rumen 
fermentation. 



SWINE PRODUCTION PROGRAM 

Development and maintenance of a minimal- 
disease herd for intensive research 

The minimal-disease herd established in 
1977 is entering its fifth generation and 
continues to be free from rhinitis, virus 
pneumonia, internal and external parasites, 
leptospirosis, transmissible gastroenteritis, 
erysipelas, and parvovirus. Ninety bred, mini- 
mal-disease gilts were supplied to the Univer- 
sity of Guelph and thirty-four to the Univer- 
sity of Saskatchewan to assist in the 
establishment of their minimal-disease herds. 
Periodic performance checks on gilts and 
boars from the Animal Research Centre over 
the growing period of approximately 20-90 
kg, indicate average daily gain and feed-to- 
gain ratios of 0.79 and 0.85 kg, and 2.60 and 
2.53, respectively. 

Energy and protein requirements for 
pregnancy in the once-bred gilt 

A daily feeding level of 1.40 kg during 
early gestation followed by restriction to 0.45 
kg for the last 30 days of gestation is required 
to produce a postpartum gilt carcass within 
the market weight range. This degree of 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



restriction results in reduced piglet birth- 
weight; however the carcass is of adequate 
composition and acceptability. 

Nutrition and management of the neonatal 
Pig 

Under a research contract with the Univer- 
sity of Guelph, the requirement of the very 
young pig for lysine, methionine, threonine, 
and histidine was found to be 12.0, 2.7, 6.0, 
and 4.5 g/kg diet, respectively. Work is 
continuing to establish the methionine-cys- 
tine and phenylalanine-tyrosine interrelation- 
ships. 

The feasibility of using fish protein concen- 
trate to replace a portion of the milk protein 
in piglet milk replacers is being examined. 
Preliminary results indicate that it can supply 
up to 20% of the protein and result in 
improved growth performance. 

Initial data on the effect of a modified 
farrowing system, which automatically re- 
moves piglets from the sow at birth, on 
subsequent piglet viability indicate that suckl- 
ing can be delayed for up to 10 h postpartum 
without visible effect upon the pigs. 

Studies on a continuous-flow technique for 
the separation and concentration of porcine 
y-globulin from abattoir blood continued with 
the development of a system based on differ- 
ential precipitation of proteins using ammo- 
nium sulfate, coupled with continuous-flow 
centrifugation, electrodialysis, and spray dry- 
ing with condensed milk. 

Relationship between backfat thickness and 
total body fat in boars 

The relationship between backfat thickness 
and total body fat is being assessed to 
establish if selection for decreased backfat 
thickness has in fact resulted in reduced total 
body fat or merely resulted in a shift in fat 
deposition from the subcutaneous depot to the 
abdominal cavity or intramuscular depots. 

Reproductive physiology 

The presence of immunosuppressive fac- 
tors, which may play an important role in the 
establishment of pregnancy, have been re- 
ported by Australian workers in sheep. Re- 
search at ARC did not confirm the appear- 
ance of such a factor early in pregnancy in the 
pig. Studies were initiated to assess the 
possible role in immunosuppression of «-feto- 
protein, which is synthesized specifically by 
the fetal yolk sac and liver. 



The occurrence of estrone sulfate in pig 
plasma after day 18 of pregnancy is a positive 
indicator of pregnancy. The plasma concen- 
tration of estrone sulfate is directly related to 
the number of viable fetuses in the pregnant 
Pig. 



POULTRY BREEDING PROGRAM 

Genetics of poultry meat production 

The development of genetic techniques to 
reduce obesity and to improve feed conversion 
of meat-type chickens continued with a search 
for predictors of carcass composition. Broiler 
body weight was the best predictor among live 
body measurements for total amounts and 
percentages of chemical components of the 
carcass (fat, protein, moisture, ash). Shank 
length and breast depth were somewhat 
useful, the latter being indicative of chemical 
component proportions. Nevertheless, the live 
measurements, considered individually or as a 
whole, did not predict carcass chemical 
composition with sufficient accuracy to allow 
their effective practical use in indirect selec- 
tion for improved carcass quality. 

Carcass weight or specific gravity or both 
were the best traits for predicting chemical 
component weights; however, carcass specific 
gravity was a better predictor of chemical 
component percentages. Specific gravities of 
carcass parts were not superior to specific 
gravity of the whole carcass for predicting 
carcass chemical composition. From the sta- 
tistical analyses of the specific gravity data it 
was concluded that carcass specific gravity 
can be used for prediction of the chemical 
composition of groups of carcasses but it is not 
suitable for evaluation of individual carcasses. 

Broiler feed conversion was tested on a 
weekly basis from 2 to 7 wk of age to 
determine the optimum test age and duration. 
Correlations between successive weekly feed 
conversion measurements were low (0.3 or 
less), and it was concluded that a 3-wk test 
interval at or near the end of the broiler 
growth period should be used to appraise 
efficiency of feed utilization. 

'Sire' and 'dam' genetic base populations 
have been synthesized from 16 primary 
commercial breeder strains. The commercial 
stocks employed represent a unique assembly 
of contemporary genetic stocks used in the 
production of broiler chickens throughout the 
world. Besides the synthesis of the base 
populations for projected selection research, 



ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTRE 



189 



data from the stocks were used to assess the 
variation available for future improvement of 
the world's broilers. For example, a study of 
the effects of strain and age of male (39 
versus 59 wk) on hatching egg fertility and 
hatchability revealed only strain differences 
for duration of fertility. Within strains, 
differences among individual males were 
significant for all fertility traits, and fertility 
was also influenced by the age of the males. 
Hatchability declined between 39 and 59 wk 
of age of the males. Generally, the large 
variation among males within strains and the 
small variation among strain means implied 
that there is little additive genetic variation in 
the traits tested. This was consistent with the 
low heritability usually reported for such 
traits. Rapid decline of fertility observed after 
the eighth day postinsemination discourages 
the use of successive insemination intervals of 
more than 1 wk. 

Selection studies in egg production chickens 

Six strains have been under selection for 
high egg production and other economically 
important traits for up to 28 generations. The 
six strains performed well for hen-housed egg 
production, averaging from 234 to 264 eggs. 
For the hatch years 1971-1978, the selected 
strains had an average genetic gain of 18 eggs 
compared with unselected control strains 
maintained in parallel. The strains selected 
for hen-day rate of egg production from age 
at first egg to 273 days of age had later sexual 
maturity and higher rate of lay in the latter 
part of the laying year than the strains 
selected for hen-housed egg production to 273 
days of age. However, the strains selected for 
hen-housed egg production had lower mortal- 
ity to 273 days of age than the strains selected 
for hen-day rate of egg production. For the 
hatch years 1971-1978, the selected strains 
had average genetic gains of 2 g in egg 
weight, 3 Haugh units (albumen quality), 2 
units in egg specific gravity (shell thickness), 
and 1% fewer blood spots. The selected strains 
maintained good performance levels for fertil- 
ity and hatchability, averaging 95% and 86%, 
respectively. 

Reconstitution of the above selected strains 
from inbred lines originally derived from 
these strains between 1970 and 1976, and 
selected for resistance to Marek's disease and 
high egg production, has been completed. 
Three such 'resistance-selected 1 strains are 



now being compared with the original long- 
term selected strains to assess the efficacy of 
the new technique for simultaneous im- 
provement of disease resistance and 
production. 

Eggshell quality 

Even after implementation of recom- 
mended management procedures, egg break- 
age causes serious economic losses to the 
producer, especially in older flocks. A study of 
the plasma levels of estrogens at 20 h after 
oviposition and of plasma calcium levels 6 h 
after the next oviposition indicated no rela- 
tionship between the two parameters in 36- 
wk-old birds versus a positive relationship in 
59-wk-old birds. This suggests that estrogens 
influence plasma calcium levels more in older 
birds, where shell quality is a bigger problem, 
than in young birds. After hens older than 60 
wk had been immunized and had developed 
antibodies against the estrogen estradiol, 
these hens laid more shell-less eggs than 
nonimmunized hens. Thus estradiol seems to 
play a role in shell deposition. 

Studies were initiated on an energy-related 
enzyme, ATPase, of the hen's uterus and its 
relation to shell quality. In two Leghorn 
strains, preliminary results indicated greater 
ATPase activity in the strain with better shell 
quality. 

A polyurethane foam pad placed on the 
laying cage floor to reduce the impact when 
an egg is laid did not influence shell strength 
compared to eggs laid on the wire floor of 
laying cages. This indicated that the initial 
impact the egg receives when laid on the wire 
floor does not negatively influence the subse- 
quent shell strength. 

Disease-resistance genetics 

Cooperative work with the Animal Diseases 
Research Institute in Ottawa on the effects of 
subclinical lymphoid leukosis, an egg-trans- 
mitted viral lymphoproliferative disease, on 
production in chickens was extended from 
layers to meat-type chickens. A reduction by 
up to 28 eggs in egg production per hen 
housed and an increase by up to 29% in 
mortality from causes other than lymphoid 
leukosis was observed in the lymphoid leu- 
kosis virus-infected meat-type birds, thus 
confirming similar findings reported earlier 
from Leghorns. In addition, meat-type chick- 
ens, crosses of dam lines in which lymphoid 
leukosis virus infection was detected, had the 



190 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



mean broiler-age weight 5% lower than their 
test-negative counterparts. 

Examination of the effects of lymphoid 
leukosis and diseases in general on variation 
resulted in the derivation of a formula for the 
estimation of the increase of variance in 
populations affected by disease. Egg transmis- 
sion of the disease resulted in an increase in 
heritability estimated from dam variance 
components. The effect of the disease on sire 
heritability was small. 

Green muscle disease appears to be a 
physiological problem of meat-type poultry 
such as adult meat-type chickens and turkeys. 
It occurs as a degeneration of the deep-laying 
breast muscle and cannot be positively identi- 
fied by inspection of the live animal. Of 
serious concern is a 1980 report that green 
muscle disease has been identified for the first 
time in broiler-age stocks. Postmortem exami- 
nation of birds between 49 and 68 wk old of 
both sexes from 20 commercial broiler 
breeder stocks, including both male and 
female parent strains, showed levels of the 
disease to be 0-43% in males and 0-22% in 
females. Research is continuing on economic 
and practical methods of identifying birds 
that are susceptible to this disease. 

Geese 

Four strains of geese, namely Hungarian, 
Pilgrim, Chinese, and a crossbred strain 
formed from these three breeds, were repro- 
duced and compared for carcass weight and 
down and feather yield. Preliminary analyses 
indicated that Hungarian geese had the 
lightest carcass, whereas the other strains 
were similar to each other. Chinese geese had 
the lowest total feather yield. 



POULTRY NUTRITION PROGRAM 

Laying hens 

A phase-feeding program for winter-housed 
White Leghorn hens reduced feed costs by 
saving 4.2% of the total protein consumed. 
The dietary protein level was reduced from 
15.6 to 14.8% at 273 days of age and then to 
14.0% at 384 days of age without decreasing 
percent hen-day egg production. Egg quality 
was also improved when compared with 
feeding a diet of constant protein content 
(15.6%). The number of visibly cracked eggs 
decreased and fewer eggs of extra large grade 
were obtained during the last 16 wk of the 



laying year, when oversize eggs cause prob- 
lems to the producer. Internal egg quality, as 
determined by Haugh units, was slightly 
higher for phase-fed hens, but there were no 
consistent effects of diet on incidence of egg 
blood spots nor on hen body weight or 
mortality. 

Meat-type birds 

Skip-a-day feeding procedures commonly 
used to control feed intake of chickens are too 
hazardous for use with young chicks under 21 
days of age. A restricted feeding regimen 
consisting of 5% dietary hydrolyzed coconut 
oil fed from 1 to 21 days of age was imposed 
on broiler breeder replacement chicks prior to 
skip-a-day feeding. This resulted in higher 
hen-day percent egg production and greater 
efficiency of feed utilization than for broiler 
breeder hens, which were restricted as chicks 
by only skip-a-day feeding from 21 days of 
age. Egg weight was higher among hens 
restricted from 1 day of age. 

Broiler breeder hens of two breeds exposed 
to a stimulation lighting program providing a 
rapid increase in daylight from 6 to 16 h of 
light per day between 1 39 and 1 68 days of age 
reached 50% egg production at an earlier age 
and had higher hen-day percent egg produc- 
tion than hens exposed to a slow increase to 
the same daylight duration between 139 and 
245 days of age. Rapid change in day length 
was associated with smaller egg size, which 
was apparent also in a reduced percentage of 
eggs of incubation size. Lighting treatment 
had no effect on body weight or mortality. 

Blood calcium and eggshell strength 

Correlation coefficients indicated that there 
was no relationship (r = -0.13 to 0.18) 
between either whole blood ionized calcium or 
plasma total calcium of hens and specific 
gravity, nondestructive deformation, or quasi- 
static compression fracture strength of their 
eggs. The blood samples were obtained from 
force-molted hens that consistently laid eggs 
of low or high specific gravity. 

Measurement of metabolizable energy 

The metabolic plus endogenous energy and 
nitrogen losses of cockerels were independent 
of the amount (0-30 g) of fiber as cellulose or 
sawdust placed in the crops of fasted birds. 
This justifies the use of unfed negative control 
birds in the true metabolizable energy (TME) 



ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTRE 



191 



and true available amino acid (TAAA) bioas- 
says. 

A comparative study showed the TME 
bioassay to be superior to a rapid metaboliz- 
able energy assay reported in Br. Poult. Sci. 
19:303; 1978. Training birds to consume their 
ration within 1 h was not wholly successful, 
and even trained birds reduced their feed 
intakes when assay diets were introduced. The 
high variability in feed intake caused varia- 
tion in metabolizable energy values, which 
could be controlled by making a correction for 
metabolic plus endogenous losses as is done in 
the TME assay. 

Zinc deficiency and feed intake of chicks 

Chicks fed a zinc-deficient diet grew as well 
as those fed an adequate diet when zinc 
sulfate was administered via the crop. How- 
ever, chicks fed the adequate diet grew no 
better than deficient chicks when pair-fed. 
Although zinc may be involved in taste-bud 
formation and function, there was no evidence 
that zinc deficiency expresses itself by reduc- 
ing diet palatability. 



SHEEP PRODUCTION PROGRAM 

Establishment of a minimal-disease flock 

In order to start a minimal-disease flock, 
repopulation by hysterectomy of the entire 
ARC sheep flock was undertaken. Eradication 
of the debilitating disease, Maedi Visna, as 
well as the potential to eliminate other 
troublesome diseases such as pneumonia and 
sore mouth, should result in improved effi- 
ciency and economy of the intensive confine- 
ment system being developed. Special breed- 
ings for the hysterectomy project were 
designed to maintain the genetic base. Hys- 
terectomy was performed on 1110 ewes 
producing 2336 lambs of which 1.4% were 
dead in utero. Of the 2304 lambs alive in 
utero, 92.6% survived the recovery process. Of 
those, 87.3% were weaned at 21 days of age 
from milk replacer and 78.6% survived to 70 
days of age. 

Development of synthetic sire and dam 
strains 

Based on previous research and manage- 
ment experience, an estimate of the produc- 
tivity that can be obtained by using the 
intensive system in a good commercial opera- 
tion was summarized. For every 100 adult 



ewes mated, with 5% death loss and 90% 
fertility, 86 would lamb. With a litter size of 
2.45, 21 1 lambs would be born, 180 would be 
weaned, and 169 raised. The ewes would lamb 
at 8-mo intervals and with an average of 1.5 
lamb crops per ewe per year; overall expected 
productivity would be 253 lambs raised per 
year per 100 adult ewes mated. 

An economic study by the University of 
Saskatchewan indicated that a confinement 
system of lamb production can hold its own 
against traditional methods, although it does 
not yet present a clear advantage in terms of 
net farm income. The total confinement 
system being developed by the ARC research 
program provides an effective tool for obtain- 
ing information and results that are applica- 
ble to any degree of intensification chosen by 
a producer. 

Artificial insemination 

Research has shown that the use of proge- 
stagen to induce a synchronized estrus is 
necessary for the practical application of 
artificial insemination (AI) in sheep. Preg- 
nant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) to 
improve synchronization of ovulation is essen- 
tial for good fertility when using AI. 

Studies have continued on the use of 
pharmacological agents to improve sperm 
transport in the ewe reproductive tract in 
order to increase the fertility achieved with 
frozen semen and to reduce the number of 
sperm required with fresh or frozen semen. 
Estradiol- 17/3, which was reported to facili- 
tate sperm transport, did not improve fertility 
in ewes inseminated with frozen semen but 
did increase early embryonic mortality. 

New diluents containing dextran in com- 
bination with buffers, sugars, and glycerol 
resulted in greater survival of frozen sperm in 
both straws and pellets and in increased 
fertility compared with commonly used dilu- 
ents. Hypertonic skim milk diluents at 600 
and 750 m0s/kg provide adequate protection 
during freezing and thawing, and good fertil- 
ity. The effects of penetrating cryopreserv- 
atives on sperm survival were evaluated. 
Glycerol at concentrations of 4-6% were 
found to be optimal using medium cooling 
rates. Dimethylsulfoxide, on the other hand, 
did not result in acceptable survival regardless 
of concentration or cooling velocity. 

Straws thawed in water at 39°C resulted in 
significantly greater sperm survival than when 
they were thawed at room temperature. When 



192 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



ram semen is frozen in pellets on dry ice, 
sperm survival is affected more by pellet 
geometry (ratio of area exposed to dry ice to 
volume) than by pellet volume. 

Studies on seasonal variation in ram semen 
freezability showed that semen collected in 
early spring contained a larger proportion of 
abnormal sperm, but its freezability was 
comparable to fall-collected semen. Freezabil- 
ity decreased during the summer months. 
However, the effect of the ram on freezability 
appeared to be greater than the effect of the 
season. 

Controlled lamb production 

Supervised field trials have been carried out 
in Ontario to evaluate controlled lamb pro- 
duction under commercial flock conditions 
using progestagen impregnated intravaginal 
sponges to synchronize estrus followed by 
PMSG injections. Estrus was induced within 
48 h after sponge removal in over 90% of ewes 
treated, irrespective of the breed used and the 
month of the year the treatment was applied. 
When adult ewes were bred after sponge 
treatment during August-November, 65% 
lambed to breeding at the synchronized estrus 
and a further 22% lambed to the follow-up 
estrus, which was comparable to that of 
untreated ewes during exposure to rams for 
35 days. The treated ewes lambed over two 
distinct periods of 5 days. When adult ewes 
were bred after sponge treatment in April- 
May, the lambing results appeared to be 
dependent on the breed used and more 
specifically upon ram performance and the 
quality of semen produced. The use of AI in 
field trials with commercial flocks was initi- 
ated during the anestrus season using proce- 
dures developed at ARC. The results provided 
further indication that greater emphasis must 
be placed on management rams during the 
nonbreeding season to obtain good semen 
quality. 

The results to date indicate that the proge- 
stagen sponge treatment can be applied 
successfully under commercial flock condi- 
tions. Similar field trials are under way in 
Newfoundland. 

Pregnancy diagnosis 

Results from several trials on ultrasonic 
pregnancy testing, using two commercially 
available instruments, indicated approx- 
imately 90% accuracy in diagnosing pregnant 
ewes at between 7 and 8 wk after conception. 



EaVlier testing may be useful, but will result 
in a higher proportion of false negative 
diagnoses, which must be retested later in 
gestation for accurate confirmation. 



ANIMAL FEED SAFETY AND 
NUTRITION PROGRAM 

Mycotoxins 

Mycotoxins are produced by molds on plant 
crops in the field and during storage. When 
ingested by livestock and poultry, decreased 
performance or deleterious health effects or 
both may occur. Research efforts on mycotox- 
ins continued to emphasize work on the 
toxicology and nutritional effects of the 
mycotoxin zearalenone (Z), although re- 
search included studies of other mycotoxins of 
concern to the Canadian agricultural commu- 
nity. 

The development of a rapid, sensitive, high- 
performance liquid chromatographic method 
for detection of Z and its metabolites in blood 
enabled further research on the absorption, 
metabolism, and elimination of Z. When a 
single oral doze of Z was administered to 
young female pigs, free Z could be detected in 
the blood within 10 min. Free Z blood levels 
peaked within 30 min after dosing and 
returned to nondetectable levels by 24 h. 

Vomitoxin (V) contamination of grain 
crops was of concern to the agricultural 
industry and health authorities in 1980. Pink 
discoloration typical of mycotoxin-producing 
mold was noted on the harvested crop of white 
winter wheat. V was detected in samples 
collected from various areas in Ontario. In 
collaboration with industry, samples were 
screened for mycotoxins, and a series of 
feeding trials to determine the effects of V on 
swine and poultry were initiated. 

A preliminary report of a research contract 
with the Sibbald Group documented cases of 
ill effects in farm animals fed mycotoxin- 
containing feedstuff's and described facilities 
available in Canada where mycotoxin analysis 
can be carried out. 

Cooperative work continued with Biosyste- 
matics Research Institute to establish a 
relationship between the mycological profile 
of a cornfield and resultant toxin levels. 
Fusarium molds have been isolated that are 
capable of producing Z, T-2 toxin, and 
diacetoxyscirpenol toxins under laboratory 
conditions. 



ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTRE 



193 



Rapeseed oil nutrition 

Male rats fed diets. rich in fat for at least 4 
mo develop myocardial necrosis. The inci- 
dence of this necrosis varies, depending on the 
type of fat or oil fed. Previous studies with 
swine, monkeys, and female rats at ARC and 
elsewhere have not been able to show a 
relationship between pathological lesions and 
the amount or source of fat in the diet. As a 
consequence, work is focusing on the peculiar 
cause of heart lesions in male rats. Specific 
cardiotoxins as well as erucic acid have been 
eliminated as the primary cause of the prob- 
lem largely based on previous ARC studies. 

Several investigators have observed that 
certain fatty acids were associated with a 
high, others with a low, incidence of heart 
lesions. A statistical analysis of published 
data on heart lesions in male rats identified a 
correlation between dietary fatty acids and 
heart lesions. Most of the variation within 
experiments could be explained by the level of 
saturated fatty acids and linolenic acid with 
their effects similar in magnitude but opposite 
in direction. 

The statistical study provided a model to 
test the effect of several dietary fatty acids. 
Soybean and low erucic acid rapeseed 
(LEAR) oils were selected because both 
contained linolenic acid. The same level of 
saturated fatty acids in the form of cocoa 
butter was added to the oils. An equal amount 
of a synthetic triolein was added so that the 
addition of cocoa butter would not dilute 
possible cardiotoxins in the oil. The cardio- 
pathological results showed that both soybean 
and LEAR oils developed a high incidence of 
heart lesions when fed to male rats. The 
incidence of lesions was significantly reduced 
by the addition of saturates, whereas the 
addition of triolein had no effect. These 
results do not support the hypothesis that the 
two vegetable oils contained cardiotoxins. 
Because both dilutions were identical, a 
similar reduction would have been expected if 
these lesions were caused by cardiotoxins in 
the oil. The results show that saturated fatty 
acids significantly reduced the incidence of 
heart lesions, even in the presence of linolenic 
acid. When oleic acid was added to the diet, 
there was little cardiopathogenic response, as 
predicted by the results of the statistical 
analysis. 

These results provide experimental ev- 
idence that the heart lesions are related to the 
balance of dietary fatty acids. Studies are in 



progress on male rats fed the test oils to relate 
the cardiopathogenicity observed in the rats to 
the absorption of specific dietary fatty acids 
and the resultant cardiac lipid changes. 

Pesticide metabolism 

Atrazine. Combined in vitro and in vivo 
studies in a cooperative project with the 
Chemistry and Biology Research Institute 
suggest that in the chicken, metabolism of 
atrazine proceeds mainly by partial TV-dealky- 
lation accompanied by hydrolysis. Further 
research indicates that the formation of 
2-hydroxy, partly N-dealkylated metabolites 
occurs by the hydrolysis of the respective 
2-chloro metabolites rather than by partial 
TV-dealkylation of hydroxyatrazine. 

Tetrachlorvinphos. In vivo studies with 
laying hens revealed that approximately 71% 
of the daily oral dose of l4 C-labeled insecticide 
was eliminated via the excreta within 24 h. 
Radioactivity in parts per billion was also 
detected in eggs, tissues, and organs, but it 
gradually declined after dosing ceased. A 
metabolic pathway was postulated for tetra- 
chlorvinphos in chickens. 

Trichlorfon. A quantitative gas chromato- 
graphic method was developed for the analy- 
sis of trichlorfon, desmethyl trichlorfon, and 
dichlorvos in biological samples. The method 
involves silylation of extracts of the com- 
pounds with Tri-Sil followed by detection and 
quantitation of the derivatives by gas 
chromatography. 

Fenvalerate. Preliminary data from in vitro 
studies indicated one or more enzymes in the 
crude preparation from chicken liver homo- 
genates that produced at least two metab- 
olites, which would have resulted from hydrol- 
ysis at the ether linkage. An in vivo trial in 
laying hens indicated that consumption of the 
insecticide at 100 ppm did not produce 
significant changes in egg production, body 
weight, or feed consumption. No adverse 
toxicological effects were noted. Radioactivity 
could not be detected in eggs. Approximately 
100% of the total administered dose of l4 C- 
fenvalerate had appeared in the excreta by 
144 h after the seventh and final daily dose. 

Cypermethrin and decamethrin. Cyper- 
methrin, its optical and geometrical isomers, 
six possible metabolites, and ring-labeled ,4 C- 
cypermethrin have been synthesized. Spectro- 
scopic and physical data for each compound 
has been collected. Similar work is proceeding 



194 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



on the synthesis of decamethrin and its 
metabolites. The compounds and data will 
assist in the identification of residues and 



metabolites of these synthetic pyrethroids in 
biological samples from in vivo and in vitro 
studies. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Ainsworth, L; Tsang, B. K.; Downey, B. R.; 
Marcus, G. J.; Armstrong, D. T. 1980. Interre- 
lationships between follicular fluid steroid 
levels, gonadotropic stimuli and oocyte matu- 
ration during preovulatory development of 
porcine follicles. Biol. Reprod. 23:621-627. 

Akhtar, M. H.; Foster, T. S. 1980. Fate of tetra- 
chlorvinphos and its isomer in soluble fraction 
(105 000 g) from goose and turkey liver 
homogenates. J. Agric. Food Chem. 28:693- 
697. 

Akhtar, M. H.; Foster, T. S. 1980. Metabolism and 
excretion of tetrachlorvinphos in dairy cows. J. 
Agric. Food Chem. 28:698-704. 

Batra, T. R. 1980. The incidence of subclinical 
mastitis and related pathogens in two lines of 
dairy cattle. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:743-748. 

Boila, R. J.; Erfle, J. D.; Sauer, F. D. 1980. 
Evaluation of the two stage technique for the 
in vitro estimation of the dry matter digestibil- 
ity of corn silage. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:367- 
378. 

Cave, N. A. G.; Williams, C. J. 1980. A chick assay 
for availability of lysine in wheat. Poult. Sci. 
59:799-804. 

Chan, J. S. D.; Grinwich, D. L.; Robertson, H. A.; 
Friesen, H. G. 1980. Maintenance of receptors 
for luteinizing hormone by ovine placental 
lactogen in pseudopregnant rats. Biol. Reprod. 
23:60-63. 

Cipera, J. D. 1980. Composition of oviducts of 
laying hens: Investigation of segments involved 
with shell formation. Poult. Sci. 59:635-642. 

Cipera, J. D. 1980. Sources of carbon for the 
biosynthesis of egg shell carbonate in hen. 
Comparison of six l4 C labeled compounds as 
sources of carbon in egg shells, albumen, and 
yolk. Poult. Sci. 59:1529-1537. 

Downey, B. R.; Ainsworth, L. 1980. Reversal of 
indomethacin blockade of ovulation in gilts by 
prostaglandins. Prostaglandins 19:17-22. 

Dwyer, R. J.; Robertson, H. A. 1980. Oestrogen 
sulphatase and sulphotransferase activity in 
the endometrium of the sow and ewe during 
pregnancy. J. Reprod. Fertil. 60:187-191. 



Eisen, E. J.; Nagai, J.; Bakker, H.; Hayes, J. F. 
1980. Effect of litter size at birth on lactation 
in mice. J. Anim. Sci. 60:680-688. 

Elliot, J. I.; King, G. J.; Robertson, H. A. 1980. 
Reproductive performance of the sow subse- 
quent to weaning piglets at birth. Can. J. 
Anim. Sci. 60:65-71. 

Emmons, D. B.; Lister, E. E.; Beckett, D. C; 
Jenkins, K. J. 1980. Quality of protein in milk 
replacers for young calves. V. Effect of method 
of dispersing fat on curd formation and whey 
syneresis. J. Dairy Sci. 63:417-425. 

Farnworth, E. R.; Hill, D. C. 1980. Utilization of 
administered folacin derivatives by rats fed a 
diet low in methionine and folacin. Can. J. 
Physiol. Pharmacol. 58:988-990. 

Farnworth, E. R.; Neish, G. A. 1980. Analysis of 
corn seeds for fungi and mycotoxins. Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:727-731. 

Fiser, P. S.; Macpherson, J. W.; Reinhart, B. S.; 
Fairfull, R. W. 1980. The effect of sodium 
pentobarbital on the preservation of fertilizing 
capacity of turkey spermatozoa. Poult. Sci. 
59:941-942. 

Fortin, A. 1980. The effect of slaughter weight on 
the carcass characteristics of Yorkshire bar- 
rows and gilts. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:265-274. 

Fortin, A.; Sim, D. W.; Talbot, S. 1980. Ultrasonic 
measurements of backfat thickness at different 
locations on the warm pork carcass and com- 
parisons of ruler and ultrasonic procedures. 
Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:635-641. 

Foster, T. S.; Khan, S. U.; Akhtar, M. H. 1980. 
Metabolism of deethylatrazine, deisopropyla- 
trazine, and hydroxyatrazine by the soluble 
fraction (105 000 g) from goose liver homogen- 
ates. J. Agric. Food Chem. 28:1083-1085. 

Gavora, J. S.; Spencer, J. L. 1979. Studies on 
genetic resistance to Marek's disease — A re- 
view. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 
2:359-371. 

Gavora, J. S.; Spencer, J. L.; Gowe, R. S.; Harris, 
D. L. 1980. Lymphoid leukosis virus infection: 
Effects on production and mortality and conse- 
quences in selection for high egg production. 
Poult. Sci. 59:2165-2178. 



ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTRE 



195 



Grunder, A. A.; Guyer, R. B.; Buss, E. G.; 
Claggett, C. O. 1980. Calcium-binding pro- 
teins in serum: quantitative differences 
between thick and thin shell lines of chickens. 
Poult. Sci. 59:880-884. 

Guyer, R. B.; Grunder, A. A.; Buss, E. G.; 
Claggett, C. O. 1980. Calcium-binding pro- 
teins in serum of chickens: vitellogenin and 
albumin. Poult. Sci. 59:874-879. 

Hackett, A. J.; Robertson, H. A. 1980. Effect of 
dose and time of injection of prostaglandin ¥ 2(X 
in cycling ewes. Theriogenology 1 3:347-35 1 . 

Hamilton, R. M. G. 1980. The effects of dietary 
phosphorus, vitamin D 3 , and 25-hydroxy vita- 
min D 3 levels on feed intake, productive per- 
formance, and egg and shell quality in two 
strains of force-molted White Leghorns. Poult. 
Sci. 59:598-604. 

Hamilton, R. M. G.; Sibbald, I. R. 1980. The 
effects of level and source of ammonium 
sulphate on feed intake, egg production and 
egg quality in White Leghorn pullets and force 
molted hens. Poult. Sci. 59:1 19-127. 

Hamilton, R. M. G.; Thompson, B. K. 1980. Effects 
of sodium plus potassium to chloride ratio in 
practical-type diets on blood gas levels in three 
strains of White Leghorn hens and the rela- 
tionship between acid-base balance and egg 
shell strength. Poult. Sci. 59:1294-1303. 

Hidiroglou, M. 1980. Zinc, copper and manganese 
deficiencies and the ruminant skeleton: A 
review. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:579-590. 

Hidiroglou, M. 1980. Trace elements in the fetal 
and neonate ruminant. A review. Can. Vet. J. 
21:328-335. 

Hidiroglou, M.; Ivan, M.; Ihnat, M. 1980. Silicon 
in plasma of sheep. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42:139- 
140. 

Hidiroglou, M.; Ivan, M.; Proulx, J. C; Lessard, J. 
R. 1980. Effect of a single intramuscular dose 
of vitamin D on concentrations of lipo-soluble 
vitamins in the plasma of heifers winter-fed oat 
silage, grass silage or hay. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 
60:311-318. 

Hidiroglou, M.; Williams, C. J. 1980. Transfer of 
tritium labelled vitamin D 3 and hydroxyvita- 
min D 3 in the ovine placenta. Am. J. Vet. Res. 
42:141-142. 

Hidiroglou, M.; Williams, C. J. 1980. Fate of 
isotopically labelled cholecalciferol and 25- 
hydroxycholecalciferol in sheep. J. Dairy Sci. 
63:945-950. 



Hidiroglou, M.; Williams, C. J.; Khan, S. U.; 
Siddiqui, I. R. 1979. Amino acid and glyco- 
saminoglycan composition of epiphyseal carti- 
lage in neonate and osteoporotic lambs. Int. J. 
Vitam. Nutr. Res. 49:359-363. 

Hollands, K. G.; Grunder, A. A.; Williams, C. J. 
1980. Response to five generations of selection 
for blood cholesterol levels in White Leghorns. 
Poult. Sci. 59:1316-1323. 

Hollands, K. G.; Grunder, A. A.; Williams, C. J.; 
Gavora, J. S. 1980. Plasma creatine phos- 
phokinase as an indicator of degenerative 
myopathy in live turkeys. Br. Poult. Sci. 
21:161-169. 

Ivan, M.; Hidiroglou, M. 1980. The Ottawa plastic 
metabolism cage for sheep. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 
60:539-541. 

Ivan, M; Hidiroglou, M. 1980. Effects of dietary 
manganese on growth and manganese metab- 
olism in sheep. J. Dairy Sci. 63:385-390. 

Jenkins, K. J.; Emmons, D. B. 1979. Effect of fat 
dispersion method on performance of calves 
fed high-fat milk replacers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 

59:713-720. 

Jordan, W. A.; Thompson, B. K.; Ivan, M.; Hidiro- 
glou, M. 1980. Effects of dietary cement kiln 
dust supplements on growth of lambs. Can. J. 
Anim. Sci. 60:87-91. 

Khan, S. U.; Foster, T. S.; Akhtar, M. H. 1979. In 
vitro metabolism of a mixture of atrazine and 
simazine by the soluble fraction (105 000 g) 
from goose, pig, and sheep liver homogenates. 
Pestic. Sci. 10:460-466. 

Khan, S. U.; Morris, G. F.; Hidiroglou, M. 1980. 
Rapid estimation of sulfide in rumen and blood 
with a sulfide-specific ion electrode. Mi- 
crochem. J. 15:388-395. 

King, G. J.; Atkinson, B. A.; Robertson, H. A. 
1980. Development of the bovine placentome 
from days 20 to 29 gestation. J. Reprod. Fertil. 
59:95-100. 

Kramer, J. K. G.; Fouchard, R. C; Farnworth, E. 
R. 1980. Effect of solvents on the resolution of 
neutral lipids on chromarods. J. Chromatogr. 
198:279-285. 

Kramer, J. K. G. 1980. Comparative studies on 
composition of cardiac phospholipids in rats 
fed different vegetable oils. Lipids 15:651-660. 

Langford, G. A.; Marcus, G. J.; Hackett, A. J.; 
Ainsworth, L.; Wolynetz, M. S. 1980. Influ- 
ence of estradiol- 17/3 on fertility in confined 
sheep inseminated with frozen semen. J. Anim. 
Sci. 51:911-916. 



196 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Mahadevan, S.; Erfle, J. D.; Sauer, F. D. 1980. 
Degradation of soluble and insoluble proteins 
by Bacteroides amylophilus protease and by 
rumen microorganisms. J. Anim. Sci. 50:723- 
728. 

Marcus, G. J.; Lucis, R.; Ainsworth, L. 1979. 
Metabolism of progesterone by chorionic cells 
of the early sheep conceptus in vitro. Steroids 
34:807-815. 

McAllister, A. J. 1980. Are today's dairy cattle 
breeding programs suitable for tomorrow's 
production requirements? Can. J. Anim. Sci. 
60:253-264. 

Modler, H. W.; Muller, P. G.; Elliot, J. I.; Emmons, 
D. B. 1980. Economic and technical aspects of 
feeding whey to live stock. J. Dairy Sci. 
63:838-855. 

Nagai, J.; Harris, D. L.; McAllister, A. J. 1980. 
Growth, feed efficiency and lifetime perform- 
ance of crosses between lines selected for 
nursing ability and/or adult weight in mice. 
Theor. Appl. Genet. 58:59-69. 

Ojamma, K. M.; Elliot, J. I.; Hartsock, T. G. 1980. 
Effects of gestation feeding level on glycogen 
reserves and blood parameters in newborn 
piglets. J. Anim. Sci. 51:620-628. 

Patni, N. K. 1980. Pipeline transportation of liquid 
manure. Smith, R. J., ed. Livestock waste: A 
renewable resource. American Society of Agri- 
cultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich. pp. 387- 
391. 

Reid, W. S.; Buckely, D. J.; Nicholls, C. F.; Cave, 
N. A. G. 1980. An automatic feed dispensing 
system for poultry in floor pens. Can. J. Anim. 
Sci. 60:193-195. 

Robertson, H. A.; Chan, J. S. D.; Friesen, H. G. 
1980. The use of a pregnancy-specific antigen, 
chorionic sommatomammotrophin, as an indi- 
cator of pregnancy in sheep. J. Reprod. Fertil. 
58:279-281. 

Robertson, H. A.; Chan, J. S. D.; Hackett, A. J.; 
Marcus, G. J.; Friesen, H. G. 1980. Diagnosis 
of pregnancy in the ewe at mid-gestation. 
Anim. Reprod. Sci. 3:69-71. 

Robertson, H. A.; Dwyer, R. J.; King, G. J. 1980. 
Effect of oestrogen antisera early in gestation 
on pregnancy maintenance in the pig. J. Re- 
prod. Fertil. 58: 1 1 5- 1 20. 

Sauer, F. D.; Erfle, J. D.; Mahadevan, S. 1980. 
Methane production by the membranous frac- 
tion of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophi- 
cum. Biochem. J. 190:177-182. 



Sauer, F. D.; Kramer, J. K. G. 1980. The metab- 
olism of long-chain monoenoic fatty acids in 
heart muscle and their cardiopathogenic impli- 
cations. Draper, H. H., ed. Advances in nutri- 
tion research. Vol. III. Plenum Press, New 
York, N.Y. pp. 207-230. 

Sauer, F. D.; Lessard, J. R.; McAllister, J. A.; 
Standish, J. F. 1980. Evaluation of an alfalfa 
silage - corn silage roughage feeding program 
for raising dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 63:2080- 
2089. 

Sauer, F. D.; Mahadevan, S.; Erfle, J. D. 1980. 
Valinomycin inhibited methane synthesis in 
Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. 
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 95:715-721. 

Sibbald, I. R. 1980. Metabolizable energy in 
poultry nutrition. BioScience 30:736-741. 

Sibbald, L R. 1980. The clearance time and rate of 
passage of feed residues. Poult. Sci. 59:374- 
377. 

Sibbald, I. R. 1980. The effects of dietary cellulose 
and sand on the combined metabolic plus 
endogenous energy and amino acid outputs of 
adult cockerels. Poult. Sci. 59:836-844. 

Sibbald, I. R. 1980. Gut clearance and true metab- 
olizable energy value of dehydrated alfalfa 
supplemented with sodium chloride. Poult. Sci. 
59:939-940. 

Sibbald, I. R. 1980. The passage of oat and other 
feed residues through the adult cockerel. Poult. 
Sci. 59:2136-2144. 

Sibbald, I. R. 1980. The effect of heat treatment on 
the clearance time, true metabolizable energy 
and true available amino acids of raw soybean 
flakes. Poult. Sci. 59:2358-2360. 

Sibbald, I. R.; Barrette, J. P.; Price, K. 1980. 
Predicting true metabolizable energy, gross 
energy, carbohydrate and proximate analysis 
values by assuming additivity. Poult. Sci. 
59:805-807. 

Sibbald, I. R.; Kramer, J. K. G. 1980. The effect of 
the basal diet on the utilization of fat as a 
source of true metabolizable energy, lipid and 
fatty acids. Poult. Sci. 59:316-324. 

Sibbald, I. R.; Kramer, J. K. G. 1980. The effects of 
fractions of yellow corn on the true metaboliz- 
able energy of beef tallow. Poult. Sci. 59:1505- 
1509. 

Sibbald, I. R.; Price, K. 1980. Variability in 
metabolic plus endogenous energy losses in 
adult cockerels and in the true metabolizable 
energy values and rates of passage of dehy- 
drated alfalfa. Poult. Sci. 59: 1 275- 1 279. 



ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTRE 



197 



Sibbald, I. R.; Price, K.; Barrette, J. P. 1980. True 
metabolizable energy for poultry of commer- 
cial diets measured by bioassay and predicted 
from chemical data. Poult. Sci. 59:808-81 1. 

Teather, R. M.; Erfle, J. D.; Boila, R. J.; Sauer, F. 
D. 1980. Effect of dietary nitrogen on the 
rumen microbial population in lactating dairy 
cattle. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 49:231-238. 

Trenholm, H. L.; Warner, R.; Farnworth, E. R. 
1980. Gas chromatographic detection of the 
mycotoxin zearalenone in blood serum. J. 
Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 63:604-61 1. 

Uhthoff, H. K.; Liskova-Kiar, M.; Hidiroglou, M. 
1980. Morphological studies of front limb 
deformities in lambs. Vet. Pathol. 17:362-371. 

Walsh, D. S.; Vesely, J. A.; Mahadevan, S. 1980. 
Relationship between milk production and 
circulating hormones in dairy cows. J. Dairy 
Sci. 63:290-294. 

Miscellaneous 

Ainsworth, L. 1980. Controlled lamb production — 
looking ahead in the Canadian sheep industry. 
Proceedings Seminar, Ontario Sheep Associa- 
tion, Ottawa, Ont. 9 pp. 

Ainsworth, L. 1980. Controlled lamb production. 
Sheep Can. 5(4):13-17. 

Ainsworth, L.; Fiser, P. S.; Langford, G. A. 1980. 
Thanks to controlled reproduction techniques 
year-round lambing arrives. 1980-1981 Live- 
stock Special Supplement, Manitoba Coopera- 
tor (28 Aug.). pp. 15-16. 

Ainsworth, L.; Heaney, D. P. 1980. Effect of 
GnRH-induced LH release and exogenous 
progesterone treatment on ovarian activity in 
the early post-partum ewe. J. Anim. Sci. 
51(Suppl. 1):253 (abstract). 

Akhtar, M. H.; Foster, T. S. 1980. Metabolism and 
excretion of tetrachlorvinphos by lactating 
cows. Canadex 672. 

Animal Research Institute/Institute de Recherches 
Zootechniques. 1980. Staff and Program/Per- 
sonnel et programme. Agriculture Canada. 69/ 
74 pp. 

Atkinson, B. A.; King, G. J.; Robertson, H. A. 
1980. Development of the bovine placenta 
from 20 to 45 days. Proceedings of the IXth 
International Congress on animal reproduction 
and artificial insemination, Madrid, Spain. 3 
pp. 

Batra, T. R.; Fiser, P. S.; McAllister, A. J. 1980. 
Effect of glycerol equilibration time on the 
survival of bull sperm frozen in pellets. Pro- 
ceedings of the Eastern Branch Annual Meet- 
ing, Canadian Society of Animal Science, 
Ridgetown, Ont. (abstract). 1 p. 



Batra, T. R.; McAllister, A. J. 1980. Extending 
records in progress to 305-day equivalent by 
USDA factors. Proceedings of the Eastern 
Branch Annual Meeting, Canadian Society of 
Animal Science, Ridgetown, Ont. (abstract). 1 
P- 

Batra, T. R.; McAllister, A. J.; Chesnais, J. P.; 
Darisse, J. P. F.; Lee, A. J.; Roy, G. L.; Vesely, 
J. A.; Winter, K. A. 1980. Comparison of 
several pureline bull groups for reproductive 
traits and calving ease of their daughters. J. 
Dairy Sci. 63(Suppl. 1 ):97 (abstract). 

Batra, T. R.; McAllister, A. J.; Chesnais, J. P.; 
Emsley, J. A. B.; Lee, A. J. 1980. Semen 
quality and body measurements of pureline 
and crossline bulls. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:561 
(abstract). 

Cave, N. A. G. 1980. Effect of intermittent lighting 
on feed efficiency and broiler carcass fat. Poult. 
Sci. 59:1590 (abstract). 

Chambers, J. R.; Fortin, A. 1980. Chemical carcass 
composition prediction in broiler chickens. 
Proceedings of the 72nd Annual Meeting, 
American Society of Animal Science, Ithaca, 
N.Y. (abstract). 168 p. 

Chambers, J. R.; Gavora, J. S. 1980. Genetic 
changes in meat-type chickens in the last 
twenty years. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:1044 
(abstract). 

Chesnais, J. P.; McAllister, A. J.; Batra, T. R.; 
Darisse, J. P. F.; Hickman, C. G.; Lee, A. J.; 
Roy, G. L.; Vesely, J. A.; Winter, K. A. 1980. 
Foundation animal performance in the na- 
tional dairy breeding project. Can. J. Anim. 
Sci. 60:560 (abstract). 

Crawford, R. D.; Flowers, F. H.; Miller, J.; Nagai, 
J.; Percy, D.; Rowsell, H. C; Thibert, P. 1980. 
Research animals in Canada. Canadian Coun- 
cil of Animal Care, Ottawa, Ont. 26 pp. 

Elliot, J. I. 1980. Reduce piglet deaths. Hog 
Market Place Quart. 1 980(2):5 1 -55. 

Elliot, J. I.; Friend, D. W. 1980. Reproductive 
improvement sought for early-bred gilts. Hog 
Market Place Quart. 1980(4):32, 34-35. 

Elliot, J. I.; Lodge, G. A.; Larmond, E.; Fortin, A. 
F. 1980. The once-bred gilt as a market hog. 
Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting, 
Canadian Society of Animal Science, Edmon- 
ton, Alta. (abstract 80-5009). p. 72. 

Erfle, J. D.; Sauer, F. D.; Mahadevan, S. 1980. 
Adenylate energy charge as a measure of 
rumen microbial metabolic activity. J. Dairy 
Sci. 63(Suppl. 1):156 (abstract). 



198 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Ersdale, W. J. 1980. Nutritional evaluations and 
feasibility studies to elucidate the potential of 
selected "steaming" treatments of crop and 
forest residue materials at small scale for use 
in animal production. Final Reports. STAKE 
Technology Ltd., Ottawa, Ont. Agriculture 
Canada/Animal Research Institute research 
contract Nos. DSS 07SZ.0 1845-9-0831. 21 
pp., DSS 07SZ.01845-8-0541. 56 pp., DSS 
07SZ.01845-7-0891. 119 pp. 

Fairfull, R. W.; Gowe, R. S. 1980. Actual and 
theoretical values of inbreeding coefficients in 
two control strains. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 
22:662. 

Farnworth, E. R.; Kramer, J. K. G.; Thompson, B. 
K. 1980. Qualitative and quantitative analysis 
of neutral lipids on Iatroscan chromarods. 
Proceedings of the Symposium on the analyti- 
cal chemistry of rapeseed and products, 
Canada/Sweden exchange rapeseed research, 
Winnipeg, Man. (abstract No. 7). 1 p. 

Fiser, P. S. 1979. New extenders for freezing ram 
semen. Cryobiology 16:614-615 (abstract). 

Fiser, P. S. 1980. Some aspects of freezing of ram 
semen. Proceedings seminar, Ontario Sheep 
Association, Ottawa, Ont. 5 pp. 

Fiser, P. S.; Langford, G. A. 1980. Effect of pellet 
size on survival of ram spermatozoa frozen on 
dry ice. Cryobiology 17:619 (abstract). 

Fortin, A. 1980. Fat thickness measured with three 
ultrasonic instruments on live ram lambs and 
prediction of cutability. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 
60:1065 (abstract). 

Foster, T. S. 1980. Pesticides. Agriculture Canada, 
Food Market Commentary 2:14. 

Friend, D. W. 1980. Whither once-bred gilts. Hog 
Market Place Quart. 1980(3):58, 60, 62. 

Gavora, J. S.; Spencer, J. L. 1980. Is genetic 
resistance to Marek's disease important in 
vaccinated flocks? Can. Poultryman 67(8):40. 

Gavora, J. S.; Spencer, J. L. 1980. Marek's disease 
in chickens. Genetic resistance to a viral 
neoplastic disease — A review. Skamene, E.; 
Kongshavn, P. A.; Landry, M., eds. Genetic 
control of natural resistance to infection and 
malignancy. Academic Press, New York, N.Y. 
pp. 361-365. 

Gavora, J. S.; Spencer, J. L.; Gowe, R. S.; Emsley, 
J. A. B.; Pettit, J. 1980. Performance of diallel 
crosses of Leghorn strains under various de- 
grees of protection and exposure to Marek's 
disease. Biggs, P. M., ed. Resistance and 
immunity to Marek's disease. Commission of 
the European Economic Communities, Luxem- 
bourg, pp. 455-471. 



Gowe,*R. S.; Fairfull, R. W. 1979. Random-bred 
control strains: chickens. Altman, P. L.; Katz, 
D. D., eds. Biological handbooks III. Inbred 
and genetically defined strains of laboratory 
animals. Part 2. Hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, 
and chicken. Federation of American Societies 
for Experimental Biology, Bethesda, MD. pp. 
615-619. 

Gowe, R. S.; Fairfull, R. W. 1980. Performance of 
six long-term multitrait selected Leghorn 
strains and three control strains, and a strain 
cross evaluation of the selected strains. Pro- 
ceedings of the 1980 South Pacific Poultry 
Science Convention, New Zealand Branch of 
the World's Poultry Science Association, 
Auckland, N.Z. pp. 141-162. 

Gowe, R. S.; Fairfull, R. W. 1980. Some lessons 
from selection studies in poultry. Proceedings 
of the World Congress on sheep and beef cattle 
breeding, New Zealand Federation of Live- 
stock Breeding Groups, Palmerston North and 
Christchurch, N.Z. 20 pp. 

Grunder, A. A. 1980. Recent developments in the 
understanding of egg shell formation. Shaver 
Focus 9(2):l-3. 

Grunder, A. A.; Thompson, B. K.; Hollands, K. G.; 
Hamilton, R. M. G. 1980. Egg shell strength 
at oviposition and three hours later. Poult. Sci. 
59:1615 (abstract). 

Hackett, A. J.; Batra, T. 1980. Observations on 
reproduction in postpartum, totally confined 
dairy cattle. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:1063 
(abstract). 

Hackett, A. J.; Langford, G. A.; Robertson, H. A. 
1980. Fertility and prolificacy of confined ewes 
treated with prostaglandin F 2(X and bred by 
artificial insemination. J. Anim. Sci. 51(Suppl. 
1):282 (abstract). 

Hamilton, R. M. G.; Grunder, A. A.; Thompson, B. 
K.; Hollands, K. G. 1980. Relationship 
between blood ionized calcium levels and egg 
shell strength of White Leghorn hens. Poult. 
Sci. 59:1617 (abstract). 

Hamilton, R. M. G.; Thompson, B. K. 1980. 
Variation in feed intake and egg shell strength 
during a 14-day period. Poult. Sci. 59:1617 
(abstract). 

Hamilton, R. M. G.; Voisey, P. W. 1980. Egg shell 
strength: A nightmare in experimental me- 
chanics from a poultry scientist's viewpoint. 
Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on engi- 
neering and applied mechanics, Ottawa, Ont. 
pp. 155-159. 

Heaney, D. P. 1980. Performance of artificially 
reared lambs fed milk replacer containing 
casein. J. Anim. Sci. 5 1 (Suppl. 1):145 
(abstract). 



ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTRE 



199 



Heaney, D. P. 1980. Feeding programs for confined 
sheep. Livestock Summary, Southwestern On- 
tario Farmers' Week, Ridgetown College of 
Agricultural Technology, Ridgetown, Ont. pp. 
Ll-4. 

Heaney, D. P. 1980. General update of ARI sheep 
research. Proceedings Seminar, Ontario Sheep 
Association, Ottawa, Ont. 5 pp. 

Heaney, D. P.; Ainsworth, L.; Batra, T. R.; Fiser, 
P. S.; Hackett, A. J.; Langford, G. A.; Lee, A. 
J. 1980. Research for an intensive total con- 
finement sheep production system/ Recherches 
pour la production intensive du mouton en 
stabulation. Agriculture Canada, Animal Re- 
search Institute Technical Bulletin No. 2. 56/ 
58 pp. 

Hidiroglou, M. 1980. La dystrophic musculaire 
nutritionnelle des jeunes ruminants/Nutri- 
tional muscular dystrophy of young ruminants. 
Agric. Can. Publ. 1706. 

Hidiroglou, M.; Proulx, J. G. 1980. Les animaux 
hivernes à l'ensilage d'herbe plus exposés aux 
déficiences en vitamin D. Bull. Agric. 
62(l):36-37. 

Hidiroglou, M.; Proulx, J. G. 1980. Vitamin D 
nutrition of the bovine. Can. Agric. 25(4):29- 
31. 

Hollands, K. G.; Grunder, A. A.; Gavora, J. S.; 
Chambers, J. R.; Cave, N. A. G. 1980. Genetic 
variation in the incidence of degenerative 
myopathy in meat-type chickens. Poult. Sci. 
59:1621 (abstract). 

Jenkins, K. J. 1980. Improved milk replacers 
coming. Agri-Book Mag. 6(9):36. 

Jenkins, K. J.; Emmons, D. B. 1980. High-fat 
replacers fatten vealers. Country Guide 
99(1):42. 

Jenkins, K. J.; Lessard, J. R.; Emmons, D. B. 1980. 
Improving the curd-forming potential of calf 
milk replacers. Canadex 401 .55. 

Kramer, J. K. G. 1980. Comparative studies on the 
cardiac lipids of rats fed different vegetable 
oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 57:173 A (abstract 
410). 

Kramer, J. K. G.; Farnworth, E. R. 1980. The 
effect of dietary fatty acids on the incidence of 
cardiac lesions and changes in the cardiac 
phospholipids in male rats. Proceedings of the 
Golden Jubilee International Congress on 
essential fatty acids and prostaglandins, Min- 
neapolis, Minn, (abstract No. 86). 1 p. 

Kramer, J. K. G.; Farnworth, E. R.; Corner, A. H.; 
Thompson, B. K. 1980. Evidence that myocar- 
dial lesions in male albino rats fed high fat 
diets is related to certain dietary fatty acids. 
Proceedings of the Internationale Society fur 



Fettwissenschaft/American Oil Chemists' So- 
ciety world congress, New York, N.Y. (ab- 
stract No. 41 7A). 1 p. 

Langford, G. A. 1980. Some factors influencing 
sperm preservation and fertility in artificial 
insemination. Proceedings of the Annual Joint 
Meeting on Canadian fertility, Canadian An- 
drology Society, Val David, Que. 12 pp. 

Langford, G. A. 1980. Development and use of 
artificial insemination and frozen semen. 
Sperm Banking Symposium, Proceedings of 
the Annual Joint Meeting on Canadian fertil- 
ity, Canadian Andrology Society, Val David, 
Que. 23 pp. 

Langford, G. A. 1980. Artificial insemination in 
sheep. Proceedings Seminar, Ontario Sheep 
Association, Ottawa, Ont. 7 pp. 

Langford, G. A.; Fiser, P. S. 1980. Influence of 
storage temperature and duration of storage on 
the fertilizing capacity of extended ram semen. 
J. Anim. Sci. 51(Suppl. 1):295 (abstract). 

Langford, G. A.; Fiser, P. S.; Heaney, D. P.; 
Ainsworth, L. 1980. Ultrasonic diagnoses of 
pregnancy in confined sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 
51(Suppl. 1):295 (abstract). 

Langford, G. A.; Hackett, A. J. 1980. Dose related 
effects of PMSG in breeding confined sheep by 
artificial insemination. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 
60:562-563 (abstract). 

Langford, G. A.; Marcus, G. J.; Hackett, A. J.; 
Ainsworth, L. 1980. Embryonic mortality in 
ewes given estradiol and bred with frozen 
semen. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:1062 (abstract). 

Lee, A. J.; McAllister, A. J.; Batra, T. R. 
Chesnais, J. P.; Darisse, J. P. F.; Harris, D. L. 
Roy, G. L.; Vesely, J. A.; Winter, K. A. 1980 
First lactation performance in pureline and 
crossline dairy cattle. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 
60:561 (abstract). 

Lee, A. J.; McAllister, A. J.; Batra, T. R.; 
Chesnais, J. P.; Darisse, J. P. F.; Roy, G. L.; 
Vesely, J. A.; Winter, K. A. 1980. Breed group 
differences for growth in pureline foundation 
phase of the National Dairy Cattle Breeding 
Project. J. Anim. Sci. 51 (Suppl. 1 ): 1 22 
(abstract). 

Marcus, G. J.; Hackett, A. J.; Robertson, H. A. 
1980. Estrous cycles and fertility in sheep 
under different lighting regimes. Can. J. Anim. 
Sci. 60:562 (abstract). 

McAllister, A. J. 1980. What you should know 
about U.S. and Canadian bull proofs. Hoard's 
Dairyman 125(4):264-265. 

McAllister, A. J. 1980. Geneticists from U.S. and 
Canada discuss sire proofs — Canadian view- 
point. Hoard's Dairyman 125(5):333. 



200 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



McAllister, A. J.; Batra, T. R.; Chesnais, J. P; 
Darisse, J. P. F.; Lee, A. J.; Roy, G. L.; Vesely, 
J. A.; Winter, K. A. 1980. The Canadian dairy 
cattle selection and crossbreeding project. 
Proceedings of the Nordic Symposium on 
crossbreeding dairy cattle, Edinburgh, Scot- 
land. 12 pp. 

Moo- Young, M.; Buchanan-Smith, J. G.; Holmes, 
E. L. 1980. Conversion of crop residues into 
protein-carbohydrate ruminant feed rations: 
Design and economic optimalization of an 
energy-conserving integrated hydrolysis-fer- 
mentation process for farm-based operations. 
Final report. University of Waterloo, Water- 
loo, Ont. Agriculture Canada/Animal Re- 
search Centre research contract No. DSS 
04SU.01 845-8-2543. 29 pp. 

Nagai, J. 1980. Lifetime lactational performance of 
F 2 mouse populations of different origin. J. 
Anim.Sci. 51(Suppl. 1): 124- 125 (abstract). 

Nagai, J. 1980. Goals and achievements in control- 
ling lactation of mice. Proceedings of the 7th 
(1979) Symposium of the International Coun- 
cil for Laboratory Animal Science, Utrecht. 
Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, West Ger- 
many, pp. 337-340. 

Nagai, J.; Chesnais, J. P.; McAllister, A. J. 1980. 
Comparison of expected performance under 
repeated hybrid male cross and criss cross 
mating systems. J. Anim. Sci. 5 1 (Suppl. 
1 ):1 25 (abstract). 

Ojamma, K. M.; Elliot, J. I.; Hartsock, T. G. 1980. 
Effects of gestation feeding level on glycogen 
reserves and blood parameters in the newborn 
piglet. J. Anim. Sci. 49(Suppl. 1):133 
(abstract). 

Proulx, J. G.; Hidiroglou, M.; Jordan, W. A. 1980. 
White muscle disease can be prevented. Cattle- 
men 43(1 1):26. 

Roy, G. L.; McAllister, A. J.; Batra, T. R.; 
Chesnais, J. P.; Darisse, J. P. F.; Lee, A. J.; 
Vesely, J. A.; Winter, K. A. 1980. Calving ease 
and reproduction in pureline and crossline 
dairy cattle. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:560-561 
(abstract). 

Sarkar, N. K. 1980. Amino acids for pigs. Hog 
Market Place Quart. 1980(4):76-80. 

Sarkar, N. K.; Elliot, J. I.; Friend, D. W. 1980. 
Other protein supplement could reduce feed 
inputs. Hog Market Place Quart. 1980(4):70, 

72. 

Sauer, F. D.; Mahadevan, S.; Erfle, J. D. 1980. 
Urea should be mixed with corn silage. 
Hoard's Dairyman 125(12):880-881. 

Sibbald, I. R. 1980. Feed consumption by poultry. 
Feed Management 3 1 ( 1 ):3 1 . 



Sibbald, I. R. 1980. The most important nutrient. 
Feed Management 31(4):40. 

Sibbald, I. R. 1980. The value of fat in poultry 
diets. Feed Management 31(7):43. 

Sibbald, I. R. 1980. Selection of a bioassay for 
available energy. Proceedings of the South 
Pacific Poultry Science Convention, New Zea- 
land Branch of the World's Poultry Science 
Association, Auckland, N.Z. pp. 10-19. 

Sibbald, I. R. 1980. Metabolizable energy in 
poultry nutrition. Proceedings Meeting, Soci- 
ety Feed Technology, London, England. 5 pp. 

Sibbald, I. R. 1980. Selection of a bioassay for 
available energy. Proceedings of the Sympo- 
sium on recent developments in coccidiostats 
energy evaluation, Sydney, Australia, pp. 1-13. 

Spencer, J. L.; Gavora, J. S. 1980. Rationale and 
methods for controlling lymphoid leukosis. 
Proceedings of the New Hampshire Poultry 
Health Conference, Durham, N.H. 16 pp. 

Spencer, J. L.; Gavora, J. S. 1980. Influence of 
genotype of chickens and immune status of 
dams on response to vaccination with turkey 
herpesvirus. Biggs, P. M., ed. Resistance and 
immunity to Marek's disease. Commission of 
the European Economic Community, Luxem- 
bourg, pp. 519-537. 

Spencer, J. L; Gavora, J. S.; Chambers, J. R. 1980. 
Lymphoid leukosis: How much does it cost 
you? Proceedings of the 9th Poultry Health 
Conference, Toronto, Ont. (abstract No. 18). 1 
P- 

Spencer, J. L.; Gavora, J. S.; Gowe, R. S. 1980. 
Recent findings in lymphoid leukosis and 
Marek's disease research. Can. Vet. J. 21:154 
(abstract). 

Spencer, J. L.; Gavora, J. S.; Gowe, R. S. 1980. 
Lymphoid leukosis virus: Natural transmission 
and non-neoplastic effects. Viruses in naturally 
occurring cancers. Cold Spring Harbor Con- 
ference. Cell Proliferation 7:553-564. 

Spencer, J. L.; Gavora, J. S.; Pettit, J. R. 1980. 
Studies on an early mortality syndrome caused 
by Marek's disease virus. Proceedings of the 
117th Annual Meeting, American Veterinary 
Medicine Association, Washington, D.C. (ab- 
stract). 1 p. 

Trenholm, H. L. 1980. Food safety, a product of 
cooperation. Agrologist 9(2): 17-19. 

Trenholm, H. L.; Farnworth, E. R. 1980. Continu- 
ous effort prevents growth of moulds/ Efforts 
continus pour enrayer le développement des 
moisissures. Can. Consumer 1 0(4): 12-13. 



ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTRE 



201 



Tsang, C. P. W.; Grunder, A. A.; Hollands, K. G. 
1980. Free estrogens and estrogen sulphates in 
laying hen plasma. Poult. Sci. 59:1667 
(abstract). 



Veira, D. M.; Ivan, M. 1980. Effect of protein level 
on rumen metabolism in sheep. Proceedings of 
the 72nd Annual Meeting, American Society 
Animal Science, Ithaca, N.Y. pp. 405-406. 



Winter, K. A.; McAllister, A. J.; Batra, T. R.; 
Chesnais, J. P.; Darisse, J. P. F.; Emsley, J. A. 
B.; Lee, A. J.; Roy, G. L.; Vesely, J. A. 1980. 
Heifer growth in pureline and crossline dairy 
cattle. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:560 (abstract). 



Postgraduate Theses 

In partial fulfillment of degrees granted by the 
Department of Biology, Carleton University, all or 
a significant portion of the research was carried out 
at the Animal Research Centre. 

Carnegie, J. A., Ph.D. Thesis. 1980. Studies on the 
early ovine conceptus. A combined ultrastruc- 
tural and histochemical investigation of the 
day 12 to 16 blastocyst and the immunofluo- 
rescent localization of ovine chorionic soma- 
tomammotropin in the day 14 to 55 
trophoblast. 

Gill, D. V., Ph.D. Thesis. 1980. The biosynthesis of 
estrogens and androgens by the developing 
chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo. 



202 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Research Centre 
London, Ontario 

PROFESSIONAL STAFF 
Administration 



H. V. Morley, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

J. A. Coleman 

J. Giesbrecht,' B.A., B.L.S. 

D. E. H. Drew,' B.Sc. (Biol.), M.L.S. 



Director 

Administrative Officer 

Library Area Coordinator (Ont.) 

Librarian 



Mode of Action of Selected and Potential Insect Control Agents 



W. Chefurka, B.Sc., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
E. J. Bond, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
T. Dumas, D.C.E., M.Sc. 
R. M. Krupka, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. 
T. T. Lee, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

T. Nagai, M.E., M.Sc, D.Sc 

E. B. Roslycky, B.S., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

A. N. Starratt, B.Sc, Ph.D., F.C.I.C. 

R. W. Steele, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

A. Vardanis, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Section Head; Biochemistry 

Fumigation — toxicology 

Analytical chemistry 

Biochemistry 

Plant biochemistry and tissue 

culture 

Neurophysiology 
Microbiology 
Chemistry — attractants and 

repellents 
Neurochemistry 
Biochemistry 



Mode of Action of Selected and Potential Plant-Pathogen Control Agents 



E. W. B. Ward, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

G. Lazarovits, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
D. M. Miller, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

A. Stoessl, B.Sc, Ph.D., F.C.I.C. 

G. D. Thorn, B.Sc, M.A., Ph.D., F.C.I.C. 



Section Head; Plant pathology — 

phytoalexins 
Plant pathology — fungicides 
Biophysical chemistry — fungicide 

selectivity 
Organic chemistry — phytoalexins 

and toxins 
Organic chemistry — fungicides 



RESEARCH CENTRE, LONDON, ONT. 



203 



G. A. White, B.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Biochemistry — fungicides 



Soil Pesticides 



C. R. Harris, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. 

B. T. Bowman, B.S.A., M.Sc., Ph.D. 
R. A. Chapman, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

D. G. R. McLeod, B.S.A., M.S., Ph.D. 
J. R. W. Miles, B.Sc. 

J. R. Robinson, B.S.A., M.S. A., Ph.D. 

J. H. Tolman, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
A. D. Tomlin, B.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

C. M. Tu, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Section Head; Insect toxicology 
Soil physical chemistry 
Analytical organic chemistry 
Physiology 
Analytical chemistry 
F.C.I.C. Chemistry— radioisotopes and mass 
spectrometry 
Applied entomology 
Pesticide ecology 
Microbiology 



VISITING SCIENTISTS 



P. Ahmad, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D., 1979-1980 

R. I. Buzzel, B.S., Ph.D., 1980-1980 

S. S. Gnanamanickam, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D, 

K. P. Lim, Ph.D., 1980-1980 

A. S. Murty, M.Sc, Ph.D., 1980- 

P. Stôessel, Licentiate, Ph.D., 1978-1980 



1980- 



Membrane biochemistry 

Soybean breeding 

Plant pathology — disease physiology 

Pesticide ecology 

Pesticide residues 

Plant pathology — phytoalexins 



Graduate students 



A. B. Broadbent, B.Sc, M.Sc, 1977-1980 
M. A. J. Finkelman, B.Sc, M.E.Sc, 1979- 
L. Ho, B.S., M.S., 1980- 



Pesticide ecology 
Biochemistry 
Plant physiology 



'Seconded from Libraries Division, Finance and Administration Branch. 



204 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT HS0 



INTRODUCTION 



This report summarizes highlights of research carried out during 1980 at the London 
Research Centre in support of Departmental objectives in environmental quality and crop 
protection. The Centre was established in 1951 to investigate the problems created by the 
introduction of synthetic organic pesticides. Present research programs reflect the current 
health and environmental concerns regarding the agricultural use of pesticides by 
concentrating research efforts in integrated pest management (IPM) and environmental 
toxicology. 

The IPM objective comprises four research activities. The pest management activity is 
aimed at developing IPM procedures, including biological control, for agriculturally and 
economically important insect pests. Research on stored products is directed toward the 
investigation of environmental and insect resistance problems and the development of more 
efficient fumigation procedures leading to a minimum of pesticide residues. The third activity 
concerns research on alternative pest control strategies. Studies on insects are aimed at 
identifying specific areas for attack so that pest control in the future will not rely upon the use 
of broad-spectrum toxicants only. Research on natural plant defense mechanisms in disease- 
resistant and susceptible agriculturally important crops has the objective of using natural 
defense mechanisms by chemical manipulation or in the breeding of resistant varieties. The last 
activity under the IPM objective concerns research on systemic fungicides. Studies are carried 
on the efficacy of systemic fungicides and on the plant pathological, biochemical, biophysical, 
and structural parameters of fungicide activity and resistance. 

Research on environmental toxicology has three areas of activity. The first deals with the 
effect of pesticides on nontarget soil invertebrates and agriculturally important soil 
microorganisms. The second is concerned with the determination of the behavior, persistence, 
and environmental fate of pesticides and their movement through the environment. The third is 
concerned with establishing the mode of action of growth regulators and toxicants by carrying 
out studies on insects and plants related to vital processes of growth and development. 

This report records only the highlights of our accomplishments for 1980; more detailed 
information can be obtained from the publication titles listed at the end of this report. Copies 
of this report, reprints of publications, and further information are available on request from 
the Research Centre, Agriculture Canada, University Sub Post Office, London, Ont. N6A 
5B7. 

H. V. Morley 
Director 



INTEGRATED PEST field at that time; release of parasitized onion 

MANAGEMENT maggot pupae proved more effective than field 

release of adult parasites. A comparison of 

Pest management three onion growing sites (Holland, Keswick, 

and Thedford marshes) with the Centre's field 
Biological control of the onion maggot, station regarding parasite-predator numbers 
Modification of laboratory mass-rearing tech- of onion maggots showed that parasite and 
niques permitted production and storage of predator numbers were generally highest 
more than 100 000 pupae of Aphaereta where insecticide spraying was least and 
pallipes, a braconid parasite of onion maggot hedgerows (as a cover) were available. An 
larvae. Laboratory and field-cage experiments aestivation pattern in onion maggots was 
showed A. pallipes to be an effective parasite. statistically identified, which suggests that 
Initial release of approximately 50 000 para- some onion maggot pupae from each genera- 
sites at each of two locations on the Thedford tion may arrest development for up to 1 yr. 
Marsh showed that the parasite survived and Consequently, there is always a small popula- 
dispersed in the field and successfully parasi- tion of onion maggots emerging as a 'back- 
tized at least some of the onion maggots in the ground' throughout the growing season. 

RESEARCH CENTRE, LONDON, ONT. 205 



Massive invasion by numerous predators 
and parasites resulted in collection of less 
than 50% of the projected goal of 2 000 000 
onion maggot pupae from mass bed culture at 
the Centre's field station. A new site, 20 km 
from the station, has been established to 
evaluate productivity in 1981. 

A bioassay procedure for assessing the 
toxicity of insecticides to the parasites was 
devised and some base-line data were 
accumulated. 

Monitoring studies. In 1980 pairs of flight 
interception traps were set up at four loca- 
tions on the Thedford Marsh, and populations 
of the onion maggot fly were monitored from 
April to November. Collected information 
was summarized and passed by Ontario 
Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF) 
information bulletins to local growers, who 
then successfully modified spray programs 
according to population pressure. 

Monitoring for the two strains of corn borer 
in Quebec allowed an accurate forecast of 
severe corn borer damage in field corn. 
Information on the timing of insecticide 
applications was rapidly given to farmers, and 
severe losses were averted. 

Evaluation of a pheromone for monitoring 
populations of the common armyworm was 
extremely helpful in forecasting damage by 
this cutworm around North Bay, proving to 
be more useful than the degree-day method 
proposed by other workers. 

It was demonstrated to extension personnel, 
canning companies, and fresh-market vegeta- 
ble producers that pheromone traps efficiently 
monitored populations of corn borers, army- 
worms, and cutworms, and that better control 
could be obtained at a lower cost. Thus, in a 
4-ha area, one fresh-market sweet-corn pro- 
ducer was able to effect a saving of more than 
50% over a 2-yr period by using pheromone 
traps to time carbaryl applications for the 
control of corn borers. 

Toxicity-resistance studies. Accumulation 
of base-line toxicity data for a number of 
organochlorine, organophosphorus, carba- 
mate, and pyrethroid insecticides on onion, 
cabbage, and seedcorn maggots and the dark- 
sided cutworm was completed. Selection of a 
carrot rust fly strain from the Holland Marsh, 
with carbofuran, over nine generations indi- 
cated no increase in tolerance. Tests on a 
Michigan strain of onion maggot indicated 
that parathion resistance had increased by 
approximately x!5 in 1980 (xlO in 1975; 



x5 in 1972). Fonofos resistance increased 
from x 5 in 1972 to x 10 in 1980. Results 
obtained with this field strain were in good 
agreement with our laboratory selection pro- 
gram, which indicated that although para- 
thion resistance develops quite rapidly, resist- 
ance to fonofos seems to develop more slowly. 
Studies on the resistant strain of the Colorado 
potato beetle (CPB) were completed. The 
Quebec CPB strain was resistant to all but 
two of the insecticides (permethrin, aldicarb) 
currently recommended. Tests conducted in 
cooperation with the pesticide industry indi- 
cated that the CPB in the Leamington and 
Alliston areas of Ontario is beginning to show 
the first indications of resistance to organo- 
phosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid insec- 
ticides. In cooperation with the University of 
Guelph, studies were continued on the devel- 
opment of multiple resistance to insecticides 
by the house fly. Base-line toxicity data were 
obtained on 32 insecticides; one house fly 
strain was resistant to all insecticides tested. 
At the request of the Food Production and 
Inspection Branch, Japanese beetles collected 
near Dunnville, Ont., were determined to be 
still susceptible to chlordane, thus allowing 
the Plant Quarantine Division to initiate an 
eradication program. 

Evaluation of pesticides. Studies continued 
on the evaluation of new insecticides for 
control of agricultural insect pests; seven 
experimental insecticides submitted by chemi- 
cal companies were evaluated in laboratory 
tests. Most were effective contact insecticides 
with broad-spectrum activity; none, however, 
showed promise as soil insecticides. 

Chitin inhibitors such as diflubenzuron and 
Bay SIR 8514 have been tested and registered 
for several applications as alternatives to 
classical insecticides. Microplot evaluation of 
these materials for control of root maggots 
that attack onions, rutabagas, and radishes 
was carried out with mixed results. Other 
microplot trials showed the synthetic pyre- 
throids to be inadequate alternatives to 
parathion for control of root maggots attack- 
ing radishes. Further microplots were estab- 
lished to provide soil and crop samples to 
determine persistence of insecticides, includ- 
ing fenvalerate, carbofuran, aldicarb, isofen- 
phos, isazophos, fenbutatin oxide, and the 
herbicide niclofen in mineral and muck soils. 
Information thus obtained is used for the 
support of initial or continued registration of 
these materials for commercial use. 



206 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Analytical studies. The long-term stability 
of carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran in 
freezer-stored chloroform extracts of acid- 
digested onions was demonstrated. A proce- 
dure was developed for the conversion of the 
phenolic degradation products of carbofuran 
and its metabolites to the corresponding 
TV-propyl carbamates without affecting the 
nonphenolic compounds. Final results on the 
persistence of CGA 12223 in mineral soil 
confirmed that it was a relatively nonpersist- 
ent compound like chlorpyrifos. Oxamyl and 
trichlorofon were found to be the most 
susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis of the 24 
compounds so far examined in the effect of 
pH on hydrolysis study. Methomyl and aldi- 
carb were only slightly hydrolyzed. Tech- 
niques were developed using high-pressure 
liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the anal- 
ysis of dimilan and SIR 8514 in soil at 0.1 
ppm and to at least 0.5 ppm in radishes, 
turnips, and onions. 

Stored products 

Increasing concern over the toxicological 
properties of many of the fumigants, together 
with emerging resistance problems, has lead 
to the need for research on integrated meth- 
ods of control aimed at delaying the onset of 
resistance and the use of controlled atmo- 
spheres. Mixtures of the two main fumigants 
used in Canada, methyl bromide and phos- 
phine, have been found in certain ratios to 
have increased toxicity over that expected 
from a summation of each material alone. 
This synergistic action is of considerable 
interest for its potential practical application 
in terms of reduced dosages and shorter 
exposure times. The combination of the 
fumigants that appeared to give best control 
was in the ratio of 100:3 for methyl bromide - 
phosphine. 

In an investigation of fumigants for the 
control of overwintering eggs of the European 
red mite on harvested apples, ethylene dibro- 
mide and carbon dioxide were found to give 
control at levels that caused no injury or off- 
flavor to the fruit. Other fumigants such as 
methyl bromide and hydrogen cyanide caused 
injury without controlling the mites. Carbon 
dioxide is a safe, effective agent for control- 
ling mite eggs and other pests on harvested 
apples. 

In the continuing studies on the mecha- 
nisms of resistance of the granary weevil to 
methyl bromide, the detoxification products 



formed have been identified as 5-methylgluta- 
thione, S-methylcysteine, and S-methylgluta- 
thione sulfoxide. The resistant insects had 
more glutathione than normal insects and 
they produced the metabolite S-methylgluta- 
thione sulfoxide not found in susceptible 
insects. Thus, in the metabolism of methyl 
bromide by the granary weevil, glutathione 
S-transferase-catalyzed conjugation with glu- 
tathione is a major detoxification pathway, 
and tolerance for this fumigant is related, at 
least in part, to the level of glutathione in the 
insect. These results hold out hope that the 
chemicals that deplete glutathione or inhibit 
glutathione S-transferase should synergize 
methyl bromide. 

Phosphine is widely used for fumigation of 
cereal exports, and during the past year 
sorption and desorption of phosphine from 
cereal products was studied. A method was 
developed for analyzing very low concentra- 
tions of phosphine at ambient temperatures to 
upgrade procedures for detecting and measur- 
ing this fumigant in the working environment, 
especially for ships in transit. The simplified 
method developed can be used to measure 
concentrations of 10-100 times lower than 
those detected by present-day procedures. 



Alternate pest control strategies 

Plant diseases. A collaborative project with 
Harrow Research Station yielded some inter- 
esting results and the promise of further 
developments. The zoospore-soybean hypo- 
cotyl inoculation procedure that was devel- 
oped here previously was adapted for studies 
of the genetics of resistance in soybean lines 
and crosses. The method provides advantages 
over methods currently used by soybean 
breeders throughout the world in that wound- 
ing is not required and a range of symptom 
intensity can be documented as opposed to the 
extremes of 'dead' or 'alive' provided by other, 
cruder procedures. Comparisons of soybean 
lines containing the Rps,, Rps 2 , or Rps 3 genes 
for resistance or the corresponding susceptible 
alleles indicated that the genes mediated 
significant differences in such symptom char- 
acteristics as lesion size, extent of necrosis, 
and glyceollin production. There was a dif- 
ferential in the effect of temperature, in that 
increased lesion size occurred with susceptible 
alleles but not with resistant alleles. Further- 
more, the study has demonstrated for the first 



RESEARCH CENTRE. LONDON, ONT. 



207 



time that races of the pathogen differ signifi- 
cantly in their aggressiveness against individ- 
ual resistance genes. The results also showed 
that the background genotype can modify the 
response of a particular gene. There are 
indications that other factors, such as light 
and temperature, may also differentiate 
between Rps genes. The work, in fact, has 
many potential ramifications that should lead 
to a better understanding of the mechanism of 
gene action in resistance and susceptibility 
and eventually to the development of im- 
proved methods of control. 

In experimental studies with the University 
of Western Ontario, 2 H-NMR (nuclear mag- 
netic resonance) spectroscopy was used to 
demonstrate that the incorporation of three 
molecules of 4,4-dideuteriomevalonic acid 
into capsidiol proceeds with a loss of three 
deuteriums and migration of one. This largely 
confirms the predicted, favored biosynthetic 
route to this phytoalexin and eliminates others 
from further consideration; it is also the first 
instance in which such a hydride shift has 
been demonstrated for a c/s-decalin system 
and only the second time for any eremophil- 
ane. Also in collaboration with the University 
of Western Ontario, the l3 C-NMR methodol- 
ogy was used to show that in potatoes, 
dihydrolubimin is a precursor of isolubimin 
and not the product of its metabolism, as 
claimed in the literature. In kinetic studies, it 
was shown for the first time that the long- 
known presumed phytotoxin, alternaric acid, 
from Alternaria solani, is formed in the 
trophophase and therefore is not a typical 
secondary metabolite. 

Insect pests. Research in this area is 
directed toward gaining an understanding of 
basic life processes in the insect so that 
methods of selective, specific control can be 
developed that do not rely upon pesticides 
that are broad-spectrum poisons. A method 
was developed for the rapid and effective 
enrichment of cell and mitochondrial mem- 
branes with several types of phospholipids. 
This enrichment had a marked effect on 
membrane fluidity, which in turn had a 
striking effect on the ability of certain model 
pesticides to induce the transport of potassium 
ions across the enriched membrane. In gen- 
eral, membranes of low fluidity were refrac- 
tory to the effect of DDT, but this effect was 
overcome by the synergistic action of pipero- 
nyl butoxide. The development of this model 



system may provide clues as to the mecha- 
nisms of resistance, selectivity, and synergism. 
Studies were continued that were aimed at 
assessing the status of the proctolin system as 
a potential site around which new pest control 
programs might be developed. Because the 
potent neuropeptide proctolin rapidly disap- 
pears from the hemolymph of the American 
cockroach, Periplaneta americana, in vivo, 
initial studies were directed to the mode of 
inactivation. By using enzymes from cock- 
roach gut, experiments with synthetic [ l4 C- 
Tyr 2 ]-proctolin and unlabeled proctolin 
showed that the in vivo hydrolytic pathway 
differed from the in vitro. H PLC methods 
were developed to permit the separation and 
analysis of the products formed. The d(-) 
-isomer of the neurotransmitter octopamine 
was shown to be the one present in the 
nervous system of insects. This finding con- 
tributes to other studies by removing the 
uncertainty in a radioenzymatic assay of 
octopamine, which gives values for the d(-) 
-isomer that are 40 higher than for the l( -I- )- 
isomer. 

Systemic fungicides. Of importance was 
the finding that molecular selection for mu- 
tated, carboxin-resistant succinate dehydro- 
genase complexes was influenced by replace- 
ment of the oxathiin by a thiophene 
heterocyclic ring and by the substitutive 
group on the amide nitrogen, thereby permit- 
ting different categories of carboxin-resistant 
mutant types of V. maydis (corn smut) and 
even mutants within a single category to be 
distinguished from one another. Thus, with all 
the structural combinations available, it 
appears quite possible, in terms of inhibition, 
to overcome any type of mutation in a fungal 
succinate dehydrogenase complex that arises 
through selection by carboxin or by other 
commercially used carboxamides. 

A detailed study of the anatomy and 
pressure-flow characteristics of the roots of 
Zea mays was completed to provide clues as 
to the routes and the mechanism of uptake of 
water and solutes. Such information is impor- 
tant in the study of the uptake and transloca- 
tion within the plant, not only of normal 
nutrients but also of agriculturally important 
compounds such as herbicides and systemic 
fungicides and insecticides. A mechanism has 
been proposed that predicts, with considerable 
accuracy, the flow rates of water and the 
concentration profile of solutes across the root 
as a function of the hydrostatic pressure. 



208 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT I^SO 



Further studies have been made of the 
ability of the systemic fungicide Ridomil® 
applied to soybean seedlings to cause a 
response similar to natural resistance when 
the seedlings are inoculated with Phytophth- 
ora megasperma var. sojae. This can be 
brought about with applications of as little as 
1 ppm to the roots. The phytoalexin glyceollin 
is produced in these reactions. To determine 
the relative contribution of the phytoalexin 
and the fungicide to inhibition at the site of 
inoculation, it was necessary to determine the 
concentration of Ridomil® in the infected 
tissue. A bioassay in which thin-layer chroma- 
tography is used was therefore developed that 
permits the detection of as little as 25 ng of 
the fungicide in the tissue. 



ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY 

Effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms 

Work continued on the effects of pesticides 
on populations of microorganisms and activ- 
ities of enzymes in soils. In clay loam soil a 
decrease in microbial numbers was observed 
with some fungicide and fumigant treatments; 
recovery was rapid, however, and stimulatory 
effects were evident in many cases. None of 
the pesticides inhibited urease and dehydro- 
genase activities. Phosphatase activity was not 
inhibited except in the case of some fumi- 
gants. A temporary decrease in dehydro- 
genase activity was also observed in many 
cases. Enzymic activities in organic soils 
decreased temporarily after the addition of 
some pesticides. Activities of most of the soil 
enzymes were negatively correlated with the 
rate of pesticide application during the early 
stages of the experiment. 

A collaborative study with the personnel of 
Delhi, Vineland, OMAF, and the chemical 
industry on undefined stunting of tobacco was 
completed. Information on the control of field 
stunting of tobacco was included in the 1980 
OMAF publication 298. Work continued on 
the development of thiram-resistant strains of 
Rhizobium japonicum. These new strains 
were found to be weak in nitrogen-fixation 
activity, although growth and adaptation of 
thiram-containing media were improved sub- 
stantially by the rhizobial nuclear conjugation 
technique. Treatment of alfalfa seeds with 
five broad-spectrum fungicides was examined 
regarding effect on rhizobial activity and 
germination. Results showed that captan, 
maneb, and thiram exhibited greater toxicity 



to Rhizobium meliloti and alfalfa plants than 
do benomyl and zineb. At practical concen- 
tration levels, effects were minimal and 
recovery of the inhibitory effect was rapid. At 
lower concentrations, marked growth stimula- 
tion was observed with some fungicides. 
Studies were completed on the role of soil 
microorganisms in the degradation of the 
insecticides phorate and its metabolites (sul- 
fone and sulfoxide) and carbofuran and its 
metabolites (2-hydroxycarbofuran and 
3-ketocarbofuran) in sterile and fresh mineral 
and organic soils. A drastic reduction of soil 
fungi with repeated applications of Vorlex 
and linuron resulted in eventual linuron 
accumulation in muck soil, which was shown 
to be deleterious to the growth of Grand 
Rapids lettuce under laboratory conditions. 
Experiments on carbofuran persistence in 
natural and sterile mineral and organic soils 
showed that carbofuran persisted for 8 wk in 
natural loam and for 16 wk in natural muck. 
The 3-hydroxycarbofuran, the major metab- 
olite found in plants, has not been detected to 
any extent in soils. The reason for this became 
apparent with the discovery that the 3-hy- 
droxycarbofuran had disappeared in soil 
within 1 wk. Repeated experiments with 
incubation of 3-hydroxycarbofuran in natural 
soils showed that it disappeared within 2-3 
days with a concomitant reduction of 3-keto- 
carbofuran. The 3-ketocarbofuran disap- 
peared in 3 days from natural loam but 
persisted for more than 7 days in muck. 

Environmental studies 

A cooperative research project was com- 
pleted on the behavior of fensulfothion, its 
sulfide, and sulfone in soil-water systems. The 
least soluble sulfide adsorbed the most and 
desorbed the least on the four adsorbents 
studied. Although the sulfone was less than 
1/25 as soluble as fensulfothion, correspond- 
ing differences in adsorption by the mineral 
soils were not found. In another study, 
solubility values for 1 1 insecticides were 
related to LD 50 values for crickets in moist 
and dry soils. Because of the large differences 
in inherent toxicity to the crickets (direct 
contact), there was not a good correlation 
between solubility and toxicity. However, 
when the LD 50 values in the soil were cor- 
rected for their inherent differences in toxicity 
(LD 50 moist soil : LD 50 contact), an excellent 
correlation between solubility and corrected 
toxicity emerged. There was also a very good 



RESEARCH CENTRE, LONDON, ONT. 



209 



correlation between solubiltiy and the ratio of 
the LD 50 values in moist and dry soils. This 
finding provided some insight into the rela- 
tionship that exists between the solubility of 
an insecticide and the amount that its toxicity 
changes between wet and dry soils. The larger 
the solubility, the less the toxicity changes 
between wet and dry soil and, in general, the 
less effective it is as a soil insecticide. These 
relationships should be most useful in select- 
ing potential soil insecticides. 

It was shown that the commonly used 
Freundlich adsorption equation had a basic 
flaw in its presentation, which produced some 
anomalous K values. Because regulatory 
agencies are beginning to use these K values 
as a reference to judge relative adsorption of 
pesticidal compounds, it is important to point 
out these anomalies and suggest remedial 
measures. A manuscript was prepared on the 
subject, pointing out the source of the prob- 
lem and showing typical examples of anoma- 
lous results. The K value, in fact, was not 
actually constant but changed its value de- 
pending on the system of units selected. A 
modified Freundlich equation was suggested 
that plots mole fraction as the independent 
variable rather than concentration. An alter- 
native means of comparing the relative ad- 
sorption of pesticides was also suggested so 
that the units of presentation are consistent 
and a quantitative value can be placed on 
each adsorption system (analogous to the K 
value). 

Ongoing development of our gas chroma- 
tography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) 
assay for residues of carbofuran and its two 
principal metabolites resulted in the identifi- 
cation of significant sources of carbamate loss 
during sample preparation. These losses were 
studied and quantitated: carbofuran suffers a 
10-15% loss through the acid reflux that is 
universally used to hydrolyze plant con- 
jugates. Hydroxycarbofuran is relatively sta- 
ble in the hot acid but may undergo a 65-70% 
loss, depending on the method of extraction 
following hydrolysis; ketocarbofuran is not 
much affected by these same factors. 

High concentrations of carbofuran were 
found in the Holland Marsh drainage ditch 



water in the spring of 1980. In view of the 
relatively short life of this insecticide, the 
possible cause of the unexpected persistence 
was investigated. Incubation experiments 
were carried out using carbofuran-fortified 
water at 200°C and 5°C. Analyses at the 
experimental temperatures indicated a half- 
life of about 1 wk and 20 wk, respectively. 

Pesticide toxicity and mode of action 

A basic requirement of the effective use of 
pheromones in IPM is an understanding of 
pheromone reception systems in insects. Elec- 
trophysiological studies on the European corn 
borer antennal response to pheromones con- 
tinued. Bioelectrical activities in the. unit 
sensory dendrite of a sensory hair have often 
been described, but studies on integrated 
activities are lacking. Using multiple and 
surface electrodes, some properties of the 
excitable tissue in the antenna were exam- 
ined. It was discovered that the olfactory 
excitation spread through the antenna unidi- 
rectionally, suggesting that the whole antenna 
functions as a single sensory cell dendrite. 

Many natural phenolic compounds and the 
insecticide carbofuran and its metabolities 
affect enzymic oxidation of the plant hormone 
indoleacetic acid (IAA) and the growth of 
plant tissues in vitro. However, whether these 
compounds actually influence the metabolism 
of IAA in vivo is not known. For the first time, 
a dual effect of phenolic compounds and 
metabolites of carbofuran has been demon- 
strated on the formation of bound IAA and on 
the oxidative degradation of free IAA in plant 
cells. These results, together with those 
obtained from the study of structure-activity 
relationships for regulation of IAA oxidation 
by natural and synthetic phenolic compounds, 
will be useful for further studies of chemical 
regulation of plant growth. 

Work continued on determining the mode 
of action of the broad-spectrum herbicide, 
glyphosate. Plant-tissue culture techniques 
established that glyphosate inhibits chloro- 
phyll synthesis, accelerates chlorophyll degra- 
dation in the light, increases the level of IAA- 
oxidase, interferes with IAA metabolism, and 
interacts with another plant hormone, cyto- 
kine, on phenolic metabolism. 



210 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT l«iS0 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Bond, E. J. 1980. Sorption of tritiated phosphine by 
various stages of Tri bol iu m casîaneum 
(Herbst). J. Stored Prod. Res. 1 6:27-3 1 . 

Bowman, B. T. 1979. Method of repeated additions 
for generating pesticide adsorption-desorption 
isotherm data. Can. J. Soil Sci. 59:435-437. 

Bowman, B. T.; Sans, W. W. 1980. The stability of 
parathion and DDT in dilute iron solutions. J. 
Environ. Sci. Health B 15(3):233-246. 

Broadbent, A. B.; Tomlin, A. D. 1979. Species list 
of acari recovered from soil of a Guelph 
cornfield and a London pasture. Proc. Entomol. 
Soc. Ont. 110:101-103. 

Chapman, R. A.; Harris, C. R. 1980. Persistence of 
chlorpyrifos in a mineral and organic soil. J. 
Environ. Sci. Health 15:39-46. 

Chapman, R. A.; Harris, C. R. 1980. Insecticidal 
activity and persistence of terbufos, terbufos 
sulfoxide and terbufos sulfone in soil. J. Econ. 
Entomol. 73:536-543. 

Chefurka, W.; Zahradka, P.; Bajura, S. T. 1980. 
The effect of DDT on K + transport in mouse 
liver mitochondria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 
601:349-357. 

Devés, R.; Krupka, R. M. 1980. Testing transport 
systems for competition between pairs of re- 
versible inhibitors. Inhibition of erythrocyte 
glucose transport by cytochalasin B and 
steroids. J. Biol. Chem. 225(24):1 1870-1 1874. 

Dumas, T. 1980. Determination of formaldehyde, 
acetaldehyde and associated components in 
solution and in vapours by gas chromatogra- 
phy. J. Chromatogr. 200:206-210. 

Dumas, T. 1980. Phosphine sorption and desorption 
by stored wheat and corn. J. Agric. Food 
Chem. 27:337-339. 

Finkelman, M. A.; Zajic, J. E.; Vardanis, A. 1980. 
New method of producing protoplast of Au- 
reobasidium pullulans. Appl. Environ. Micro- 
biol. 923-925. 

Harris, C. R.; Chapman, R. A. 1980. Insecticidal 
activity and persistence of phorate, phorate 
sulfoxide, and phorate sulfone in soils. Can. 
Entomol. 1 1 2(7):64 1 -653. 

Harris, C. R.; Turnbull, S. A. 1980. Toxicity of 
some insecticides to insecticide-susceptible 
strains of onion, cabbage and seedcorn mag- 
gots (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) and darksided 
cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Can. En- 
tomol. 112:1029-1032. 



Hirst, M.; Heme, R. G.; Robinson, J. R. 1980. 
Morphine in human biological fluids by elec- 
tron-capture gas chromatography. Subst. Alco- 
hol Actions/Misuse 1:361-367. 

Hoyano, Y.; Stôessl, A.; Stothers, J. B. 1980. 
Biosynthesis of the antifungal sesquiterpene 
capsidiol. Confirmation of a hydride shift by 
: H magnetic resonance. Can. J. Chem. 
58:1894-1896. 

Krupka, R. M.; Devés, R. 1980. The reaction of the 
glucose carrier in erythrocytes by halodini- 
trobenzenes. J. Biol. Chem. 225(5):205 1-2055. 

Krupka, R. M.; Devés, R. 1980. Evidence for 
allosteric inhibition sites in the glucose carrier 
of erythrocytes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 
598:127-133. 

Krupka, R. M.; Devés, R. 1980. Asymmetric 
binding of steroids to internal and external 
sites in the glucose carrier of erythrocytes. 
Biochim. Biophys. Acta 598:134-144. 

Krupka, R. M.; Devés, R. 1980. The electrostatic 
contribution to binding in the choline transport 
system of erythrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 
255:8546-8549. 

Krupka, R. M.; Devés, R. 1980. The choline 
transport system of erythrocytes, distribution 
of the free carrier in the membrane. Biochim. 
Biophys. Acta 600:228-232. 

Lazarovits, G.; Unwin, C. H.; Ward, E. W. B. 
1979. Rapid assay for systemic fungicides 
against Phytophthora rot of soybeans. Plant 
Dis. 64:163-165. 

Lee, T. T. 1980. Effects of phenolic substances on 
metabolism of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid 
in maize stems. Physiol. Plant. 50: 1 07- 1 1 2. 

Lee, T. T. 1980. Transfer RNA-peroxidase interac- 
tion: Inhibition of indole-3-acetic acid oxida- 
tion. Plant Physiol. 66:1012-1014. 

Lee, T. T.; Starratt, A. N.; Jevnikar, J. J.; Stôessl, 
A. 1980. New phenolic inhibitors of the perox- 
idase-catalyzed oxidation of indole-3-acetic 
acid. Phytochemistry 19:2277-2280. 

Lim, K. P.; Yule, W. N.; Harris, C. R. 1980. The 
toxicity of ten insecticides to third stage grubs 
of Phyllophaga anxia (LeConte) (Coleoptera: 
Scarabaeidae). Phytoprotection 61:55-60. 

Miller, D. M. 1980. Studies of root function in Zea 
mays. I. Apparatus and methods. Can. J. Bot. 
58:351-360. 

Robinson, J. R.; Chapman, R. A. 1980. A compari- 
son of analyses by selected ion and electron 
capture detection of heptafluorobutyryl deriv- 
atives separated by gas chromatography and 
ultra violet detection of carbamates separated 



RESEARCH CENTRE, LONDON, ONT. 



211 



by high-performance liquid. J. Chromatogr. 
193:213-224. 

Roslycky, E. B. 1980. Fungicidal activity of vorlex 
and accumulation of linuron in a vorlex-linuron 
treated soil. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:651-656. 

Sharom, M. S.; Miles, J. R. W.; Harris, C. R.; 
McEwen, F. L. 1980. Behaviour of 12 insecti- 
cides in soil and aqueous suspensions of soil 
and sediment. Water Res. 14:1095-1 100. 

Sharom, M. S.; Miles, J. R. W.; Harris, C. R.; 
McEwen, F. L. 1980. Persistence of 12 insecti- 
cides in water. Water Res. 14:1089-1093. 

Starratt, A. N.; Stevens, M. E. 1980. Ion-pair high- 
performance liquid chromatography of the 
insect neuropeptide proctolin and some ana- 
logs. J. Chromatogr. 194:421-423. 

Steele, J. E.; Tolman, J. H. 1980. Regulation of 
water transport in the cockroach rectum by the 
corpora cardiaca-corpora allata system. The 
requirement for Na + . J. Comp. Physiol. 
138:357-365. 

Stôessl, A.; Fisch, M. H.; Arditti, J. 1980. Monoli- 
nolein as a selective fungus inhibitor from 
Cymbidium orchidaceae. Mycopathologia 
70(3):131-134. 

Stôessl, A.; Stothers, J. B. 1980. 2-Epi- and 15- 
dihydro-2-epilubimin: new stress compounds 
from the potato. Can. J. Chem. 58:2069-2072. 

Tolman, J. H.; Steele, J. E. 1980. The control of 
glycogen metabolism in the cockroach hindgut: 
The effect of the corpora cardiacacorpora 
allata system. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 
66B:59-65. 

Tolman, J. H.; Steele, J. E. 1980. The effect of the 
corpora cardiacacorpora allata system on ox- 
ygen consumption in the cockroach rectum: 
The role of Na + and K + . J. Comp. Physiol. 
138:347-355. 

Tu, C. M. 1980. Influence of pesticides and some of 
the oxidized analogues on microbial popula- 
tions, nitrification and respiration activities in 
soil. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 24:13-19. 

Tu, C. M. 1980. Influence of five pyrethroid 
insecticides on microbial populations and activ- 
ities in soil. Mycrob. Ecol. 5:321-327. 

Tu, C. M. 1980. Effect of fungicides on growth of 
Rhizobium japonicum in vitro. Bull. Environ. 
Contam. Toxicol. 25:364-368. 

Vardanis, A. 1980. A unique cyclic nucleotide- 
dependent protein kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 
255:7238-7243. 

Ward, E. W. B.; Lazarovits, G.; Stoessel, P.; Barrie. 
S. D.; Unwin, C. H. 1980. Glyceollin produc- 
tion associated with control of Phytophthora 

rot of soybeans by the systemic fungicides. 



metalaxyl (Ridomil). Phytopathology 70:738- 
740. 

White, G. A.; Elliott, W. B. 1980. Inhibition of 
electron transport and oxidative phosphoryla- 
tion in plant mitochondria by gladiolic acid 
and structurally-related aromatic o/7/jo-dialde- 
hydes. Can. J. Biochem. 58:9-22. 

White, G. A.; Thorn, G. D. 1980. Thiophene 
carboxamide fungicides: Structure-activity 
relationships with the succinate dehydrogenase 
complex from wild-type and carboxin-resistant 
mutant strains of Ustilago maydis. Pestic. 
Biochem. Physiol. 14:26-40. 

Miscellaneous 

Harris, C. R. 1980. An assessment of pesticide 
research projects funded by the Ministry of the 
Environment through the Ontario Pesticides 
Advisory Committee 1979-1980. Ontario Pes- 
ticides Advisory Committee. 50 pp. 

Lazarovits, G.; Stôessel, P.; Ward, E. W. B. 1979. 
Soybean - Phytophthora megasperma var. 
sojae interactions. I. Influence of hypocotyl 
inoculation site on reaction type and glyceollin 
production. Proc. Can. Phytopathol. Soc. 46. 

Lazarovits, G.; Stoessel, P.; Ward, E. W. B. 1980. 
Specificity and glyceollin production in the 
hypocotyl reaction of soybeans to Phytophth- 
ora megasperma var. sojae. Wood, R. K. S., 
ed. Active Defence Mechanisms in Plants. 
NATO Advanced Study Institute. 

Miles, J. R. W. 1977. Anthropogenic influences on 
sediment quality at a source. Pesticides and 
PCBs. Proceedings workshop on the fluvial 
transport of sediment — associated nutrients 
and contaminants (20-22 Oct. 1976), 
Kitchener, Ont. 

Ramsay, R. R.; Ackrell, B. A. C; Singer, T. O.; 
White, G. A.; Thorn, G. D. 1980. The carboxin 
binding site in Complex II. 1980 Gordon 
Conference, New Hampshire. 

Roslycky, E. B. 1978. Microbial response to glypho- 
sate in soil. Research Report Expert Commit- 
tee Weeds, Eastern Section, 334. 

Roslycky, E. B. 1978. Effect of selected herbicides 
on nitrification, cellulose decomposition and N, 
fixing bacteria. Research Report Expert Com- 
mittee Weeds, Eastern Section, 335. 

Roslycky, E. B. 1978. Nitrification and cellulose 
decomposition in the presence of terbacil. 
Research Report Expert Committee Weeds. 
Eastern Section, 336. 

Roslycky, E. B. 1978. Response to terbacil of 
actinomycetes, bacteria, and fungi in soil and 
in cultures. Research Report Expert Commit- 
tee Weeds, Eastern Section, 337. 



212 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT WS0 



Starratt, A. N. 1979. Proctolin, an insect neuropep- 
tide. Trends Neurosci. 2:15-17. 

Starratt, A. N. 1980. Book review: Herbivores. 
Their interaction with secondary plant metab- 
olites. Rosenthal, G. R.; Hanzen, D. H., eds. 
Academic Press, N.Y. 1969. 718 pp. Pestic. 
Biochem. Physiol. 13:202-203. 

Starratt, A. N.; Steele, R. W. 1980. Proctolin: 
Bioassay, isolation and structure. Miller, T. A., 
ed. Neurohormone techniques in insects. 
Springer- Verlag, N.Y. 

Stôessl, A. 1980. Phytoalexins: A biogenetic per- 
spective. Phytopathol. Z. 99:251-272. 

Tomlin, A. D. 1980. Book review: Soil organisms as 
components of ecosystems. Lohm, U.; Persson, 



T*., eds. Proceedings IV International Soil 
Zoological Colloquium, Uppsala (1976). Can. 
Field-Nat. 95:122. 

Tomlin, A. D. 1980. Earthworm biology. Earth- 
worm culture: The myth and the reality. 
Applied Agriculture Program, Continuing 
Education Division, University of Guelph (25 
Oct. 1980). 6 pp. 

Tomlin, A. D.; Stephenson, G. 1980. The effects of 
pesticides on earthworms. Ontario Gold Super- 
intendents Association Newsletter (June). 

Ward, E. W. B. 1980. Phytoalexins, potentials in 
disease control. Special Reports to Expert 
Committee on Grain Diseases, 3rd Annual 
Meeting, Winnipeg, Man. 



RESEARCH CENTRE, LONDON, ONT. 



213 



Research Station 
Delhi, Ontario 

PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



C. F. Marks, B.Sc, M.S.A., Ph.D. 



Director 



Tobacco 



H. H. Cheng, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
W. A. Court, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
J. M. Elliot, B.S.A., M.S.A. 
S. K. Gayed, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
R. S. Pandeya, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
N. Rosa, B.Sc, M.Sc, PhD. 

E. K. Walker, B.S.A., M.S. 

F. H. White, B.Sc, M.Sc. 

B. F. Zilkey, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Entomology 

Chemistry 

Soil science 

Plant pathology 

Genetics and plant breeding 

Plant physiology 

Plant science 

Genetics and plant breeding 

Plant physiology 



EXTENSION SERVICES' 



M. C. Watson, B.S.A. 
N. W. Sheidow, B.Sc. 



Tobacco 
Tobacco 



RESEARCH STATION. DELHI. ONT. 



215 



DELHI ENGINEERING RESEARCH GROUP 



Vacant Engineer 



'Provided by Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. 



216 RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



INTRODUCTION 



The Delhi Research Station is the primary center for research on flue-cured tobacco in 
Canada. Multidisciplinary research projects on the development of new varieties and crop 
production and crop protection practices are conducted. Emphasis is placed on improving the 
physical and chemical quality of Canadian flue-cured tobacco from the standpoints of usability 
by manufacturers, both domestic and foreign, and consumer acceptability and health. An 
engineering program funded by the Canadian Tobacco Manufacturers' Council and the 
Ontario Flue-Cured Tobacco Growers' Marketing Board also conducts research at the Station 
on the reduction of energy use in curing and on the mechanization of harvesting and handling 
of tobacco. 

The disease blue mold (Peronospora tabacina Adam.), which caused major losses in 1979, 
was prevented in 1980 by the use of the fungicide metalaxyl, and no losses were recorded. 

More extensive summaries of research activities are published in the annual Tobacco 
Research Highlights, which is prepared for extension workers and growers. Copies of the 
Tobacco Research Highlights and scientific publications are available from the Delhi Research 
Station, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, P.O. Box 186, Delhi, Ont. N4B 2W9. 

C. F. Marks 
Director 



TOBACCO PRODUCTION 



Gray tobacco 



Seedling culture 

Adequate size of tobacco seedlings in Todd 
cells was attained by frequent addition of 
soluble fertilizers containing 50% or more of 
nitrogen in the nitrate form. A total of 22.5 g 
of actual nitrogen per 100 flats (20 000 
plants) was required at each of 15 applica- 
tions. Fertilization commenced 1 wk after 
germination in early April and the seedlings 
received three applications in April and three 
per week in May. At least 40 L of water per 
100 flats was required to achieve good 
coverage. 

Nutrition survey 

On a 32-farm survey, soil P was positively 
related to Zn and negatively related to pH 
and levels of Ca and Mg in the soil. Soil K 
was positively related to base exchange, total 
colloids, and ethylenediaminetetraacetate- 
extractable Mn and Fe in the soil. The 
contents of Fe and Cu in the bottom leaves 
and N, CI, and total alkaloids in the upper 
leaves correlated positively, and reducing 
sugars in the bottom and undertip leaves 
correlated negatively with soil K. 



Samples of gray K grades from auction 
exchanges and farms indicated two distinct 
types of K tobacco, one related to minor 
element fertility and the other to maturity. 
The first type, which had a peppery appear- 
ance, had higher concentrations of Mn, Zn, 
Fe, and Cd and lower concentrations of Ca 
and Mg than the corresponding lemon or 
orange grades. The maturity-related K to- 
bacco, which had a gray, spongy appearance, 
had normal levels of minor elements but lower 
total alkaloids and higher reducing sugars. 

Sucker control 

A short growing season and a long day 
length encourage rapid development of axil- 
lary buds. This rapid development of axillary 
buds is referred to as sucker pressure. The 
long-chain fatty alcohols provide excellent 
control of axillary bud growth when the plants 
are treated prior to or immediately after 
removal of the inflorescence; however, the 
high sucker pressure overcomes this control in 
4-5 wk. The application of a systemic growth 
inhibitor to prevent the development of axil- 
lary buds when the top leaves are growing 
rapidly, which is usually the case under 
Canadian conditions, also will reduce leaf 
expansion and consequently crop yield. 



RESEARCH STATION, DELHI, ONT. 



217 



Ripening agents 

Ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) 
at rates of 0, 3.2, and 6.4 L/ha was applied to 
the upper eight or nine leaves of field plants, 
varying in age and fertilizer regimen, 3 days 
prior to harvest of these leaves. Ethephon 
decreased grade index and yield, regardless of 
plant age or fertilizer regimen, reduced the 
percentage of undesirable green grades, and 
increased the percentage of undesirable K 
(gray) grades. The percentage of K grades, 
however, was insignificant with the 3.2-L rate. 
Though ethephon tended to darken the base 
color of leaves and to produce a higher 
percentage of desirable F (dark) grades than 
untreated tobacco, the shift to K grades more 
than offset the shift to F grades. 



GENETICS AND PLANT BREEDING 

New varieties for the Maritimes 

Two breeding lines developed from Delhi 
34 crossed with Virginia 1 15 and Speight G7 
have been developed for use under the en- 
vironmental conditions in Prince Edward 
Island. Line 77C15 (Islangold) is highly 
resistant to black root rot disease and in the 3 
yr of testing has produced a high yield of 
orange-colored leaf, good in texture and 
aroma. The leaf tends to be lower in alkaloids 
and reducing sugars than commercial varie- 
ties. The line has grown well on farms with a 
black root rot problem but may be damaged 
somewhat by extreme winds although it has 
no leaf drop. A low-profile variety, 77C11 
(Windel), appears to be well adapted to areas 
subject to high winds. The leaves are slightly 
narrower than existing commercial varieties, 
but they have a heavy midrib and fairly thick 
lamina, characteristics that provide them 
resistance to wind shattering. Though al- 
kaloids are normal, reducing sugars are 
slightly low. Yield, leaf quality, and black 
root rot tolerance are about average without 
leaf drop. 

Interspecific hybridization 

Successful incorporation of genetic factors 
from Nicotiana rustica L. into N. tabacum L. 
has resulted in the development and release of 
the following flue-cured tobacco cultivars. (a) 
Nordel: developed from the cross [Delhi 34 
l(NRT x Delhi 34) Delhi 34!] x Virginia 



115 (=3BCF 7 ). The variety has several im- 
provements long desired in a Canadian flue- 
cured variety, i.e. early maturity, uniform and 
superior grade quality, higher nicotine, and 
lower tar-to-nicotine ratio. High total leaf 
alkaloids and lower tar-to-nicotine ratios are 
the two most salient features of this cultivar 
that influence domestic and export tobacco 
trade, (b) Delgold: developed from the cross 
[Hicks Broadleaf x !(Babor x Virginia 
115) x Virginia 115 I] x Virginia 115 
(=3BCF g ). The most notable characteristics of 
the cultivar are high yield potential (300-400 
kg/ha higher than the common variety Vir- 
ginia 115), higher leaf total alkaloids (3.38% 
for Delgold versus 2.28% for Virginia 115) v 
and lower tar-to-nicotine ratio. Simultaneous 
gains in yield (10-12%) and leaf total al- 
kaloids (15-18%) over the most prominent 
cultivar, Virginia 115, are due to increased 
vigor (genetic diversity) and transfer of 
nicotine genes from N. rustica to the N. 
tabacum genome. 



CHEMISTRY 

Method for the determination of plant 
pigments of flue-cured tobacco 

A procedure using high-performance re- 
versed-phase liquid chromatography was de- 
veloped for the analysis of the plastid pig- 
ments of flue-cured tobacco. The method has 
been used for the separation of chlorophyll a, 
chlorophyll b, pheophytin a, pheophytin b, 
neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, and carotine. 

Effect of N fertilization on nonvolatile 
organic, fatty, and amino acids of tobacco 

A comparison was made of four rates of N 
fertilization (0, 22.4, 44.5, and 67.2 kg/ha) on 
the levels of individual nonvolatile organic, 
fatty, and amino acids of flue-cured tobacco. 
Increases in N increased the concentration of 
the nonvolatile organic acids and amino acids, 
except oxalic acid and methionine, and de- 
creased individual fatty acids, except myristic 
and linolenic acids. The nonvolatile organic 
acids decreased with ascending stalk position 
but the reverse was true for the amino acids. 
The influence of stalk position on the fatty 
acids was not pronounced. 



218 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Extraction of water soluble acidity 

Tobacco quality is normally expressed in 
terms of measurable chemical, agronomic, 
and physical parameters. Studies were initi- 
ated to improve the speed and accuracy of 
extraction of the soluble acidity. The 16-h 
extraction interval for soluble acidity was 
reduced to 30 min at 50°C with results similar 
to those of the original procedure. A study of 
grade samples indicated that water-soluble 
acidity of Canadian tobacco was similar to 
that for U.S. tobacco. In any particular grade 
category the soluble acidity decreased with a 
decrease in grade quality. Green grades 
normally exhibited higher values for soluble 
acidity than their nongreen associated grades. 



TOBACCO PROTECTION 

Plant pathology 

Blue mold. The potential for the overwin- 
tering of blue mold inoculum in Ontario in the 
form of oospores in decomposing plant debris 
and in soil was investigated. Mature oospores 
were found in infected bottom leaves that 
were in contact with the soil but not in the 
upper leaves where the lesions had become 
dry and brittle. Oospores were abundant in 
the samples in which they were found, but the 
structures were found in only a small number 
of the samples examined. Though oospore-like 
structures were found in decomposed plant 
tissue and in soil, bioassays failed to show any 
infection. In other parts of the world, oospores 
of P. tabacina have been found to be dormant 
in the soil for periods up to 5 yr; therefore, the 
negative results from our tests do not demon- 
strate, absolutely, that oospores cannot act as 
a primary source of inoculum for the disease 
in Ontario. 

Air quality and curing of diseased tobacco. 
Tobacco infected with Rhizopus arrhizus 
(pole rot) showed an increase in production of 
C0 2 and C 2 H 4 during curing. C 2 H 4 increased 
the rate of yellowing of tobacco during the 
initial stage of curing, the effect being most 
noticeable on diseased tissue, which occurs in 
pockets throughout the kiln. An interaction 
between high C0 2 and C 2 H 4 concentrations, 



disease incidence, and humidity in the kiln 
accentuated the spread of the damage. Dis- 
ease incidence and damage can be reduced by 
proper ventilation and air management during 
the first 3 or 4 days of the curing cycle. 

Entomology 

Aphids. The species of ladybeetles, preda- 
tors of aphids, and the abundance of each 
species were monitored in tobacco fields. Nine 
species of ladybeetles were found in the fields. 
Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni was 
most abundant; Coleomegilla maculata lengi, 
Hippodamia tridecimpunctata tibialis, and 
H. convergens were moderately abundant; H. 
glacialis glacialis, H. parenthesis, C. trifa- 
ciata perplexa, Anatis ocellata, and Anatis 
quindecimpunctata were found less 
commonly. 

Cutworms. Three pyrethroids and three 
organophosphorus insecticides were applied to 
winter rye or tobacco seedlings in the field, 
and the residues on the foliage were bioas- 
sayed in the laboratory. The pyrethroids, 
namely cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and per- 
methrin, were more effective and persistent 
and killed the larvae of Euxoa messoria 
(Harris) more rapidly than the organophos- 
phorus insecticides, namely sulfopros, 
chlorpyrifos, and trichlorfon. The higher rate 
of cypermethrin and fenvalerate gave a longer 
period of protection than the lower rate of the 
same materials and both materials were more 
persistent than permethrin. 

Weed control 

Herbicide residues. Residues of diphe- 
namid (7V,7V-dimethyl-2,2-diphenyl aceta- 
mide) ranged from 1.71 mg/kg in the sand 
leaves to 0.16 mg/kg in the tip leaves of flue- 
cured tobacco treated in 1978 and 1979 at the 
recommended rate of 6.75 kg/ha on a 25-cm 
band post-transplant. Only trace residues of 
the nonphytotoxic metabolite 2,2-diphenyl 
acetamide were detected. Mean residues of 
diphenamid and N-methyl-2,2-diphenyl acet- 
amide in cured leaves collected from the three 
auction exchanges in Ontario in 1976 and 
1977 ranged from 0.01-0.02 and 0.14-0.27 
mg/kg, respectively. The data support the 
mechanism of stepwise demethylation of 
diphenamid in flue-cured tobacco. 



RESEARCH STATION, DELHI, ONT. 



219 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Cheng, H. H. 1980. Darksided cutworm (Lepidop- 
tera: Noctuidae): Field evaluation of pyre- 
throid insecticides for protection of tobacco in 
Ontario. Tob. Sci. 24:61-63. 

Cheng, H. H. 1980. Toxicity and persistence of 
pyrethroid insecticides as foliar sprays against 
darksided cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) 
on tobacco in Ontario. Can. Entomol. 1 12:451- 
456. 

Frank, R.; Braun, H. E.; Stonefield, K. I.; Elliot, J. 
M.; Zilkey, B. F. 1980. Insecticide residues 
and metal contents in flue-cured tobacco and 
tobacco soil of southern Ontario, 1976-1978. 
Tob. Sci. 24:136-140. 

Rosa, N. 1980. Sucker control chemicals commonly 
used in Ontario, 1967-1976. Tob. Sci. 23:9-11. 

Roy, R. C; Tanner, J. W.; Hatley, O. E.; Elliot, J. 
M. 1980. Agronomic aspects of peanut {Ara- 
chis hypogaea L.) production in Ontario. Can. 
J. Plant Sci. 60:679-686. 

Townshend, J. L.; Dirks, V. A.; Marks, C. F. 1980. 
Temperature, moisture and compaction and 
their effects on the diffusion of ethylene dibro- 
mide in three Ontario soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 
60:177-184. 

Zilkey, B. F. 1980. Effect of seedbed growing 
medium and number of transplant pullings on 
certain agronomic, chemical and physical leaf 
measurements of flue-cured tobacco in On- 
tario. Tob. Sci. 24:21-22. 

Miscellaneous 

Cheng, H. H. 1980. Apply insecticide properly for 
best control. Tillsonburg News, Tob. Ed. (7 
Mar.). 

Court, W. A. 1980. Phenolic constituents influence 
tobacco quality. Tillsonburg News, Tob. Ed. (7 
Mar.). 

Elliot, J. M. 1980. A survey of flue-cured tobacco 
grown in Ontario in 1979. Levels of some 
chemical constituents and lamina weight. The 
Lighter 50(2): 10- 12. 

Elliot, J. M. 1980. Chlorine in flue-cured tobacco. 
Can. Tob. Grow. 28(3):30-31. 

Elliot, J. M. 1980. Heavy metals in flue-cured 
tobacco. Simcoe Reformer, Tob. Ed. (21 Feb.). 

Elliot, J. M. 1980. Effect of soil pH on tobacco. 
Tillsonburg News, Tob. Ed. (7 Mar.). 

Elliot, J. M. 1980. Tobacco production in Prince 
Edward Island. The Lighter 50(4):5-9. 



Gayed, S. K. 1980. The pattern of blue mold 
incidence and spread in the United States and 
Canada and losses incurred, 1979. The Lighter 
50(3):14-16. 

Gayed, S. K. 1980. How to avoid blue mold in 
1980. Can. Tob. Grow. 28(3):22-24. 

Gayed, S. K. 1980. Blue mold of tobacco. Ontario 
Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Agdex 181/ 
632. 

Pandeya, R. S.; White, F. H. 1980. New varieties to 
meet market demand. Can. Tob. Grow. 
28(l):53-54. 

Pandeya, R. S.; White, F. H. 1980. Nordel— a new 
improved flue-cured tobacco cultivar. The 
Lighter 50(2): 19-22. 

Pandeya, R. S.; White, F. H. 1980. An improved 
superior breeding line N2-E proposed for 
licensing as a new flue-cured tobacco variety. 
Tillsonburg News, Tob. Ed. (7 Mar.). 

Rosa, N. 1980. True leaf maturity often different 
than what is initially observed. Simcoe Re- 
former, Tob. Ed. (21 Feb.). 

Rosa, N. 1980. Germination of tobacco seed. Can. 
Tob. Grow. 28(2):72-73. 

Rosa, N. 1980. Sucker growth in tobacco and apical 
dominance. Tillsonburg News, Tob. Ed. (7 
Mar.). 

Walker, E. K. 1980. Growth media and forking 
treatments in tobacco greenhouses. Can. Tob. 
Grow. 28(3):18-20. 

Walker, E. K. 1980. Culture of flue-cured tobacco 
seedlings in Todd cells. The Lighter 50(4): 12- 

22. 

Walker, E. K. 1980. Guidelines for culture of 
tobacco seedlings in Todd cells. Tillsonburg 
News, Tob. Ed. (7 Mar.). 

Walker, E. K. 1980. Curing with automatic con- 
trols. Can. Tob. Grow. 28:38-40. 

Walker, E. K.; Marks, C. F. 1980. Engineering 
studies on flue-cured tobacco, 1979. Report 
No. 3, Delhi Engineering Research Group and 
Delhi Research Station. 

Walker, E. K.; Watson, M. C. 1980. Tobacco 
irrigation with gun sprinklers. Ontario Minis- 
try of Agriculture and Food. Agdex 1 8 1 /565. 

White, F. H.; Pandeya, R. S. 1980. Relative 
performance of new flue-cured tobacco varie- 
ties tested, 1977-1979. The Lighter 50(2): 13- 
18. 



220 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT I^SO 



White, F. H.; Pandeya, R. S. 1980. Canadian • mittee Weeds, Eastern Canadian Section 104 

licensed flue-cured tobacco varieties superior to (abstract). 

new improved varieties. Tillsonburg News, Zilkey, B. F.; Bandeen, J. D. 1980. Herbicide cITcct 

Tob. Ed. (7 Mar.). on yield and quality in flue-cured tobacco in 

Zilkey, B. F. 1980. Evaluation of certain seedling J' 79 - Research Report Expert Committee 

hardening-off techniques on flue-cured tobacco Weeds Eastern Canadian Section 105 

production. The Lighter 50( 1 ):22-24. (abstract). 

Zilkey, B.F. 1980. The effect of herbicides on flue- Zi,ke y< B ^ Binns, M. 1980. Effect of leaf 

cured tobacco in Ontario in 1978. The Lighter "Pjnf and genotype on agronomic, physical 

50MV2V25 a chemical measurements of flue-cured to- 
bacco and tobacco smoke. 34th Tobacco 

Zilkey, B. F. 1980. Annual weed control in flue- Chemists Research Conference (abstract), p. 

cured tobacco. Research Report, Expert Com- 6. 



RESEARCH STATION, DELHI, ONT. 221 



Research Station 
Harrow, Ontario 

PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



W. I. Findlay, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

D. H. Lee 

E. Champagne, 1 M. A., M.L.S. 



Acting Director 
Administrative Officer 
Librarian 



Crop Science 



R. I. Buzzell, 2 B.S., Ph.D. 

B. R. Buttery, B.Sc., Ph.D. 

V. A. Dirks, B.S.A., M.Sc., Ph.D. 

A. H. Teich, B.A., M.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

T. W. Welacky, B.Sc, B.Sc. (Agr.) 



Head of Section; Soybean breeding 

Soybean physiology 

Statistics 

Winter wheat breeding 

Burley tobacco 



Entomology 



W. H. Foott, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 
W. M. Elliott, B.Sc, Ph.D., D.I.C. 
R. P. Jaques, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 
R. J. McClanahan, B.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

B. C. Smith, B.A. 



Head of Section; Field crop insects 
Vegetable and fruit insects 
Insect pathology 
Greenhouse and field vegetable 
insects 
Field crop insects 



Horticultural and Soil Science 



R. E. C. Layne, B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 

E. F. Bolton, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 

A. Liptay, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

A. P. Papadopoulos, M.Sc (Agr.), M.Sc. (Hort.) 

H. A. Quamme, 3 B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

C. S. Tan, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Acting Section Head; Tree fruit 

breeding 
Soil management 
Vegetable management 
Greenhouse management 
Tree fruit breeding 
Soil moisture 



RESEARCH STATION, HARROW, ONT. 



223 



Plant Pathology 



W. R. Jarvis, 4 B.Sc, Ph.D., D.I.C. 
T. R. Anderson, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
W. G. Bonn, B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 

B. N. Dhanvantari, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
L. F. Gates, B.A., Ph.D. 
J. C. Tu, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Vegetable diseases 
Soybean diseases 
Bacterial diseases of fruit and 
vegetables 

Bacterial diseases of vegetables 
Cereal and corn diseases 
White bean diseases 



Weed Science and Chemistry 



P. B. Marriage, B.Sc., Ph.D. 
J. D. Gaynor, B.Sc, M.Sc., Ph.D. 
A. S. Hamill, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
D. R. Phillips, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
S. E. Weaver, B.A., Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Weed physiology 
Environmental chemistry 
Weed science 
Weed physiology 
Weed ecology 



Departures 



J. W. Aylesworth, B.S.A., M.S. 
Retired 26 December 1980 



Ph.D. 



H. T. M. Colwell, B.Agr., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Transferred; Regional Development and 

International Affairs Branch, Ottawa, Ont., 1 

December 1980 
T. R. Francis, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Resigned 30 May 1980 
J. M. Fulton, B.Sc, M.S.A., Ph.D. 

Retired 5 December 1980 
N. E. B. Gibson-MacDonald, B.A., M.A., M.L.S. 

Transferred; Research Station, Vineland Station, 

Ont., 1 September 1980 
S. Lesage, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

Transferred; Canada Center for Inland Waters, 

Burlington, Ont., 27 June 1980 
V. W. Nuttall, B.S.A., M.S.A. 

Retired 25 November 1980 



Officer in Charge, Soil 

Substation, Woodslee, Ont.; White 

bean breeding 
Economics 



Corn breeding 



Director 



Librarian 



Pesticide chemistry 



Vegetable breeding 



VISITING SCIENTISTS 



M. Aslam, Ph.D. 
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research 
Council 



Plant physiology 



224 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



I. Ben Ze'ev, Ph.D. Insect pathology 

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research 
Council 



EXTENSION SERVICES 5 



J. C. Fisher, B.S.A. Greenhouse and vegetable crops 

F. Kappel, B.Sc, M.Sc. Fruit and vegetable crops 



'Seconded from Libraries Division, Finance and Administration Branch. 

: On a transfer of work, the Research Centre, London, Ont., from April 1980 to September 1980. 

3 On a transfer of work, the East Mailing Research Station, England, from August 1979 to July 1980. 

4 On a transfer of work, the Glasshouse Crops Research Institute, England, from August 1979 to August 1980. 

'Provided by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. 



RESEARCH STATION, HARROW, ONT. 225 



INTRODUCTION 



The Research Station at Harrow is located in a region with a favorable climate and a long 
growing season. Fruits, vegetables, and field crops are included in our research programs. The 
climate in the area is characterized during the growing season by an amount or distribution of 
rainfall that is often inadequate to meet the needs of all crops in all seasons. During 1980 the 
season was generally cool and wet. Although some crops were adversely affected and some 
plant diseases were more prevalent than usual, many crops responded favorably with record or 
near-record yields. Our research is primarily devoted to solving production problems such as 
the development of new crop varieties with superior agronomic characteristics; improved insect, 
disease, and weed control techniques; and improved soil and crop management practices. 

This report provides brief summaries of results obtained in 1980. Further information can 
be obtained by writing to: Research Station, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Harrow, 
Ont. NOR 1G0. 

W. I. Findlay 
Acting Director 



FIELD CROPS 

Burley tobacco 

Weather fleck. Weather fleck caused by 
ozone was prevalent on tobacco at the Harrow 
Research Station. Significant differences in 
ozone damage occurred among 14 tobacco 
cultivars. Burley 1, Harwin, and Ky21 x 10 
were the most tolerant cultivars of those 
currently planted. 

Corn 

Atrazine degradation. Atrazine treatment 
of cornfields resulted in the formation of the 
2-hydroxy metabolite in a clay loam soil. The 
time and method of atrazine application 
(preplant incorporated, preemergence, poste- 
mergence) and the presence of oil-surfactant 
additives in the herbicide formulation had no 
long-term effect on atrazine persistence. 
Postemergence application and the presence 
of additives resulted in a slightly greater 
initial rate of atrazine degradation. Both 
atrazine, in less than phytotoxic amounts, and 
hydroxyatrazine persisted into the following 
growing season and these residues were 
absorbed, metabolized, and conjugated by 
oats seeded in the spring. 

Breeding. Numerous requests were filled 
for seed of the Harrow inbred CH663-8. This 
inbred gave testcrosses that were the best 
yielding for their maturity with a low amount 
of root lodging, out of 20 inbreds evaluated in 
the U.S. north central regional uniform test. 



Depth of plowing and soil physical condi- 
tion. Soil physical measurements, which 
included air and total pore space and bulk 
density, indicated that seasonal effects were 
much more pronounced on soil tilth than 
plowing at different depths within the 30-cm 
layer. During seasons when spring rainfall 
was at or below normal, plowing to 30 cm 
deep increased the pore space within the 20- 
30 cm soil depth more than plowing to 10 cm 
deep. During seasons with above normal 
spring rainfall, pore space was not increased 
within any of the three soil depths by plowing 
at 10, 20, or 30 cm. Results showed that deep 
plowing was not an effective way of improving 
soil tilth for plant growth on clay soils of 
southwestern Ontario. 

Diseases. In an early planting, a cultivar 
whose ears developed more rapidly in the 3 wk 
after mid-silk had more eventual stalk rot 
than a cultivar whose ears developed at a 
more even rate. This probably reflects differ- 
ences in hormone balance and consequent 
nutrient distribution between ear and stalk in 
the plant. Stalk rot in late plantings has been 
more dependent on cultural conditions. 

No head smut was seen in 146 fields 
surveyed in early August in Essex County. 

Insects. Two single-cross grain corn hybrids 
with resistance to the first generation of a 
bivoltine strain of the European corn borer 
were compared with a hybrid that is suscepti- 
ble to both generations to observe possible 
differences in the biology of the borer and in 
levels of borer damage, and to determine if 



226 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



there could be any advantage in growing 
hybrids that are resistant to the first genera- 
tion in an area where the second generation is 
more important. It was found that there were 
only small differences between hybrids in the 
numbers of first-generation eggs laid and in 
egg mortality. However, the numbers of first- 
generation larvae that reached the pupal stage 
and the lengths of borer cavities were higher 
in the susceptible hybrid than in the two 
resistant hybrids combined. There was no 
evidence that the two hybrids with the least 
amount of damage were more susceptible to 
attack by the second generation. 

Tests with a corn borer pheromone showed 
that only very small numbers of moths that 
were marked with a fluorescent powder and 
released in the vicinity of pheromone traps 
were recaptured. 

Soil applications of carbofuran 10G applied 
in the spring at a rate of 1.2 kg/ha to control 
damage of corn rootworm larvae affected 
populations of nontarget stages of rootworms 
and other species. There was a threefold 
increase in number of rootworm eggs per 
kilogram of soil from treated plots compared 
with check plots in the fall and spring 
following treatment. Numbers of arthropods, 
rootworm adults, and coccinellid adults on 
yellow sticky traps in treated plots exceeded 
those in the check plots in July and August by 
25%, 19-80%, and 18%, respectively. 

Tillage and herbicide persistence. The 
effectiveness of disc or S-tine cultivation to 
incorporate herbicides in Brookston clay soil 
was investigated using chemical and fluores- 
cent techniques. Incorporation of the her- 
bicides by S-tine cultivator resulted in 45% 
volatile loss of low-vapor pressure type her- 
bicides because of shallow incorporation, 
whereas only 22% of the herbicides were lost 
when incorporated by disc. Two incorpora- 
tions at right angles with the S-tine cultivator 
reduced volatile losses, but losses were still 
higher than from disc. S-Tine cultivation 
deposited 79% of the herbicide nonuniformly 
in the top 4 cm of soil, whereas 85% of the 
herbicide was uniformly incorporated in the 
top 6 cm with the disc. Fluorescent dye 
verified that vertical distribution was better 
with disc incorporation and also showed that 
it gave more uniform horizontal distribution. 
Herbicide persistence was unaffected by the 
type of incorporation implement, but because 
persistence is dependent upon soil moisture 
content, the lower initial residues from S-tine 



incorporation could persist longer because of 
the lower soil moisture content at the surface. 

Weed control. An experiment combining 
cultivation and reduced levels of chemical 
gave successful weed control. 

Five additional chemical treatments for 
corn are being recommended by the Expert 
Committee on Weeds, based in part on the 
research results obtained from corn herbicide 
trials at Woodslee. 

Weed ecology and physiology. Five pig- 
weed species (Amaranthus) differed in their 
susceptibility to postemergence herbicides in 
field trials. Prostrate pigweed was the most 
susceptible species to the herbicides tested. 
Linuron, atrazine, and INT-28 gave good 
control of all five species. The growth and 
development of atrazine-resistant and atra- 
zine-susceptible populations of two pigweed 
species were examined in greenhouse experi- 
ments. Susceptible populations showed 
marked decreases in leaf number, leaf weight, 
and stem weight after treatment with atrazine 
at 0.5 kg/ha, whereas resistant populations 
tolerated 2 kg/ha. Susceptible populations 
were considerably more variable in their 
growth characters than resistant populations, 
possibly reflecting a narrow genotypic base for 
the latter population. 

In lamb's-quarters populations resistant 
and susceptible to atrazine, differences in 
growth characteristics were correlated with 
differences in geographical location and cli- 
mate; the northern populations exhibited a 
greater rate of development, earlier matura- 
tion, lower biomass at maturity, and greater 
reproductive effort compared with the more 
southerly populations. These growth differ- 
ences were maintained when plants were 
grown at their reciprocal location. Although 
susceptible populations from various geo- 
graphical locations differed in their growth 
features, they had the same relative decrease 
in growth when treated with atrazine. Her- 
bicide-treated individuals of susceptible popu- 
lations displayed increased variability in 
growth character measurements. 

Soybeans 

Bentazon soil residue analysis. A sensitive 
method for bentazon determination in soil by 
gas chromatography was developed based on 
reaction of bentazon under alkaline conditions 



RESEARCH STATION, HARROW, ONT. 



227 



with pentafluorobenzyl bromide or m-trifluo- 
romethylbenzyl chloride prior to direct analy- 
sis by gas chromatography. The pentafluo- 
robenzyl derivative was 14 times more 
sensitive than the methyl derivative, whereas 
sensitivity of the m-trifluoromethylbenzyl 
derivatives was intermediate. Chromatograms 
of soil extracts were relatively free of interfer- 
ence peaks, and 1 g/ha of bentazon could be 
detected without extract cleanup. 

Genetics. A recessive gene, e 4 , was identi- 
fied as being involved in early maturing 
soybeans that can flower and set pods under a 
20-h day length. 

The reaction of etiolated soybean hypocot- 
yls to inoculation with zoospores of Phy- 
tophthora megasperma var. sojae was shown 
to vary with race-specific genotype, genetic 
background of the host, and the aggres- 
siveness of the race. 

Physiology of annual weeds. Studies on the 
intraspecific competition of velvetleaf indicate 
that a late emerging plant offers increased 
competition, is a more aggressive plant, and 
yields more seed than one emerging earlier in 
the year. Seed production of both early and 
late emerging velvetleaf plants was noticeably 
reduced where population density was nine 
plants per square metre or more. 

Later emerging jimsonweed plants, like 
velvetleaf, appeared to be more aggressive 
and to yield more seed than an earlier 
established plant. Unlike velvetleaf, however, 
seed production per unit area continued to 
increase with density. 

Phytophthora root rot. Based on a survey 
of Essex County soybean fields, root rot killed 
0.43 and 0.66% of plants in fields and head- 
lands, respectively. All survey fields were 
planted with cultivars with tolerance for 
phytophthora root rot as recommended for 
this area. Yield loss from this disease was low 
in 1980. In certain fields not included in the 
survey, 25-50% plant loss occurred in low, 
poorly drained areas. It is recommended that 
cultivars with race-specific resistance to the 
disease organism be planted in these problem 
areas. Under conditions favorable to root rot, 
resistant cultivars have higher yields than 
tolerant cultivars. Race-resistant cultivars 
currently available are not resistant to all 
known races of the pathogen; therefore a 
rotation of cultivars will be necessary to limit 
development of new races. Race 13 of the 
pathogen was isolated from infected soybeans 



in 1980 for the first time in Ontario. Race 9 
was isolated most often from diseased plants. 

Summary of drainage spacing effects for 
soybeans. Drainage research showed that 
drains at 6-m spacing increased average 
soybean yield by 0.24 t/ha over the conven- 
tional 15-m spacing. The 15-m spacing, the 
one in most general use in southwestern 
Ontario, produced intermediate soybean 
yields between those obtained on the closest 
and farthest spacings. This experiment, car- 
ried out on clay soil in Lambton County also 
compared effect of depth and method of 
installation of soybean yield. On this basis the 
laser-controlled plow, which made the trench 
and installed the drain in a single operation," 
was as good a method of installation as the 
conventional wheel trencher. The shallower 
depth of drain installation at 70 cm was as 
good as deep installation at 96 cm for yield 
and was more satisfactory, because it required 
less energy to install. 

Weed control. Where wheat growth was 
excellent and yields were high, there was no 
growth of relay planted soybeans. Broad- 
leaved weed control was accomplished in this 
crop production sequence, but volunteer 
wheat was a problem to harvesting matured 
soybeans. 

Based in part on research conducted at 
Woodslee, four new herbicide treatments are 
being recommended for weed control in 
soybeans by the Expert Committee on Weeds. 

White beans 

Anthracnose. From the sixth backcross 
progeny of Fleetwood, Kentwood, and Sea- 
farer, homozygous lines resistant to the delta 
race of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum 
(Sacc. & Magn.) Briosi & Cav. were selected 
and forwarded to Idaho for seed increase. All 
homozygous lines were also screened for 
resistance to the alpha, beta, and gamma 
races of C. lindemuthianum and to races 1 
and 15 of the bean common mosaic (BCM) 
virus. Similar resistant genes have also been 
incorporated into Sanilac and Steuben. 

Bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris 
pv. phaseoli). In laboratory assays of seed 
harvested from blighted plots, using differen- 
tial media, only about 0.1% of symptomless 
seeds were contaminated with blight bacteria 
as compared with 1.2% infection among 
discolored seeds; among infected pods. 29' 7 
had infected seeds. When such seeds were 



228 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



planted in the field in 32 rows, blight was 
initially found in only one row, on 5% of the 
plants. It spread to eight other rows rather 
late in the season. 

The fuscans and nonfuscans strains of 
blight bacteria were monitored for blight 
lesions as well as for leaf surface populations 
of white bean plants inoculated in the field, 
using equal proportions of the two. Although 
a majority of blight lesions contained nonfus- 
cans, fuscans appeared to increase in leaf 
surface populations by mid-July. The relative 
role of the two strains is not understood. 

In greenhouse evaluation of breeding mate- 
rial for resistance to blight, 40 out of 265 
selections were found to possess moderate to 
higher degrees of tolerance. In field evalua- 
tions, 36 out of 65 selections in preliminary 
tests and 28 out of 43 selections in advanced 
tests were found to be tolerant, some combin- 
ing the attributes of determinate growth habit 
and early maturity of the commercial 
cultivars. 

Root rot. In greenhouse tests a mycopara- 
sitic fungus, Gliocladium virens, reduced 
Rhizoctonia root rot in white beans. Root rot 
severity decreased with increasing concentra- 
tion of the mycoparasite in the soil. 

Viruses. Bean yellow mosaic virus 
(BYMV) was identified as a serious and 
widespread disease in southwestern Ontario, 
particularly in the Chatham area. It overwin- 
ters in volunteer clover, vetch, and alfalfa 
plants; of samples of these plants with mosaic 
symptoms collected in early May 1980, 25 of 
71 clover, 10 of 64 alfalfa, and 5 of 61 vetch 
plants harbored BYMV. Aphids transmit it to 
the bean. Cultivars of beans resistant to 
BYMV were identified, and the genetics of 
their resistance is being studied. 

White mold. In 1980 white mold infection 
was first found on 5 August, 10 days after the 
apothecia were first noted in the field. Initial 
infection was sporadic and the incidence was 
low (1.7%). In most cases, apothecia could be 
found within 45 cm of an infected plant. The 
initial infections were invariably at or near 
the first branch about 15 cm above the 
ground. The disease spread rapidly and 
exponentially in susceptible varieties by plant- 
to-plant contact until >75% of plants were 
affected 3 wk later. The disease spread more 
rapidly within than across the row. The cv. Ex 
Rico-23 was tolerant. 



Winter wheat 

Breeding. Winter wheat strains have been 
developed that yield well, especially in south- 
western Ontario; that are resistant to lodging, 
to powdery mildew, and to leaf rust; and that 
have acceptable quality. The most promising 
line yielded 18% better than Fredrick in 
southwestern Ontario and yielded more than 
Fredrick in all six test sites representing the 
Ontario winter wheat belt. 

Diseases. Selections resistant to wheat 
spindle streak mosaic and having high yield 
and agronomic acceptability have been devel- 
oped and entered in the Ontario screening 
test. Fusarium root rot was reduced where 
wheat straw of the preceding wheat crop was 
removed rather than plowed in. 

Selections are being made from crosses of 
commercial cultivars with the wheat spindle 
streak-resistant cultivar Halytchanka. A 
number of lines perform well when spindle 
streak mosaic is severe. Two lines in the 
Ontario screening tests performed in a man- 
ner similar to Yorkstar but not as well as 
other entries. Spindle streak was not a factor 
in these trials. A screening test with spindle 
streak mosaic inoculation will be needed to 
test these lines fully. 



HORTICULTURAL CROPS 
Field vegetables 
Crucifer crops 

Selectivity of insecticides. A field plot 
study demonstrated that microbial insecti- 
cides were selective for leaf-eating pests of 
cabbage. Higher numbers of predacious ar- 
thropods (syrphid larvae, coccinellids, and 
pentatomids) and higher numbers of cabbage- 
worms parasitized by Apanteles glomeratus 
were found in plots treated with the bacte- 
rium Bacillus thuringiensis or with viruses of 
the cabbageworm and the cabbage looper 
than in plots treated with chemical insecti- 
cides (permethrin or methomyl). 

Weed control. Trifluralin (0.75 kg/ha) 
incorporated before planting followed by 
chloramben (2.0 kg/ha) incorporated at layby 
provided promising weed control and resulted 
in the production of injury-free cabbage, 
cauliflower, broccoli, or brussels sprouts. This 
treatment, evolved on the sandy soil en the 



RESEARCH STATION, HARROW, ONT. 



229 



Ridge Farm, has the potential to replace 
niclofen, which was removed from the market. 

Cucumbers 

Breeding. Bonus is a new cultivar released 
from the Harrow pickling cucumber breeding 
program in March 1980. It is a F, hybrid of a 
gynoecious (all-female flowering habit) seed 
parent and a monoecious pollen parent. Bonus 
has resistance to scab, angular leaf spot, and 
cucumber mosaic virus. It is white-spined, 
strongly gynoecious, and very productive and 
has good shape, a good L:D ratio (2.9:1), and 
lighter color than commercial cultivars. Bonus 
is the first of a number of cucumber cultivars 
being developed at Harrow for the Ontario 
pickling cucumber industry. 

Powdery mildew. Of a number of new 
fungicides assayed to take the place of 
benomyl, for which tolerance is widespread, 
only triforine was effective and not withdrawn 
from consideration by the manufacturer. 

Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlecht. ex Fr.) 
Poll, has hitherto been the only powdery 
mildew seen on cucurbits in Essex county, but 
in 1980, Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. was 
found on melons alongside an infestation of 
Lamium amplexicaule. Cucumis dispaceus 
was found to be resistant to S. fuliginea. 

Scab. Though crop rotation affords the best 
control of cucumber scab, it was well-control- 
led by chlorothalonil, and a mixture of 
chlorothalonil and triforine gave yields 1 1.4% 
better than either by itself. 

Peppers 

Insect control. The green peach aphid was 
adequately controlled, and European corn 
borer infestations were kept below 2% with all 
sprays tested; however, up to 7.8% of fruits 
were damaged by pepper maggot in treated 
plots. Carbofuran and acephate were the most 
effective against all three pests. 

Green peach aphid flights. Flights of the 
green peach aphid have been monitored for 7 
yr, using suction traps at Harrow and yellow 
sticky traps in unsprayed pepper plots at 
Jordan, Ont. For 6 yr the correlation coeffi- 
cients between sites were significant (P< 
0.02). In the 7th yr no intercorrelation of sites 
occurred, and the usual unimodal curve of 
numbers of aphids flying did not occur. 
Unusually large flights early in the 7th yr at 
both sites could be attributed, in part, to 
warm weather in April and in the previous 



November, but differences between the subse- 
quent numbers trapped at Harrow and Jordan 
could not be explained. These results show 
that although there has been success at both 
sites in recent years in forecasting levels of the 
cucumber mosaic virus, which is transmitted 
to peppers by the green peach aphid, it is 
possible that completely different results can 
be obtained at the two sites in other years. 

Potatoes 

Flexible spray schedules. In spite of mod- 
erately low insect populations on early pota- 
toes, three sprays were required to prevent 
damage from potato beetles, flea beetles, 
leafhoppers, and aphids. Excellent control of 
aphids by methamidophos and decamethrin 
provided 10% higher yields than plots treated 
with carbofuran, fenvalerate, and acephate, 
which allowed aphid numbers to build up. 

Sweet corn 

Microbial control of the corn borer. Dam- 
age by larvae of the corn borer was less and 
numbers of larvae were fewer in plots treated 
with the microsporidium Nosema pyraustae 
than in plots treated with fenvalerate, a 
pyrethroid insecticide, indicating the potential 
of the pathogen for control of this pest insect. 
In addition, 80% of corn borer larvae found in 
plots treated with the microsporidium were 
infected by the pathogen and would eventu- 
ally die or the female adults would be 
infertile, compared with an incidence of 10- 
20% in other plots. Semiweekly examinations 
of adult corn borers captured in a light trap 
indicated a natural infection rate of 17%; this 
incidence may be sufficient to contribute to 
suppression of the population of the pest by 
reducing fecundity. 

Varietal resistance to first generation Eu- 
ropean corn borer. Three years of tests have 
demonstrated marked resistance in five hybrid 
cultivars of early sweet corn in terms of larvae 
per 100 ears at harvest time. Laboratory tests 
with diets made from corn leaf powder and 
direct leaf-feeding measurements did not 
support a hypothesis of antibiosis. The ear 
infestation ranked very closely with stalk 
infestation and ranged from 3.57 to 28.41 
larvae per 100 ears in 17 cultivars in 1980. 
Cultivars ranked consistently from year to 
year. 



230 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Tomatoes 

Anihracnose and early blight. Mixtures of 
captafol with mancozeb and maneb with 
copper sulfate gave good control of these 
diseases, as did DPX 7331 [DuPont (Canada) 
Ltd.]. A copper hydroxide formulation de- 
pressed yield. 

A forecast of early blight is made regularly 
for the provincial agriphone message for 
growers. 

Charcoal protection from herbicides. To- 
matoes (cv. New Yorker) were gel-seeded into 
sandy loam soil and covered with 75 mL of 
anticrustant per site containing 0.5 g of 
activated charcoal. This treatment protected 
the tomato seedlings from metrazine applied 
at rates up to 0.50 kg/ha or from metribuzin 
at 0.375 kg/ha plus chloramben at 1.5 kg/ha, 
applied in solution or in granular formula- 
tions, as shown by visual observations and 
yields. 

Effect of damage to tomato transplants. 
An automated bare-root transplanter is being 
developed in conjunction with the Engineering 
and Statistical Research Institute. In antici- 
pation of mechanical damage to the trans- 
plants, the effects of simulated damage on 
plant establishment and yield were evaluated. 
Yields were not seriously affected by leaf 
removal, slitting, or squashing, but were 
significantly reduced if all the roots of the 
transplants were removed. Thus, the results 
from these field experiments suggest that 
tomato transplants can withstand substantial 
physical abuse without reductions in yields at 
harvest. 

Ethephon treatment of Georgia-grown 
transplants. Ethephon (300 ppm) sprayed on 
tomato transplants 5-10 days before harvest 
of the transplants is used to abort the initial 
flower cluster or clusters in order that the 
plant may become established vegetatively in 
the field before it has to bear fruit. Ethephon 
was observed to also have the effect of 
thickening the transplant stem and causing 
more root growth than found on the controls. 
There were differences in this response 
between cultivars, e.g. the ethephon effect was 
much more pronounced on the Heinz 2653 
line than on the Campbell 37. The thicker 
stems and heavier root growth suggest that 
ethephon treatment of transplants may result 
in plants that establish themselves more 
readily than do untreated transplants, thus 
partly explaining the increase in early yields 



of" thick-stemmed ethephon-treated trans- 
plants reported in 1979. 

Foot and root rot. Though not a problem 
disease in field crops in Ontario, Fusarium 
oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici Jarvis & 
Shoemaker infected all cultivars tested. A 
granular formulation of dazomet applied as a 
pretransplant fumigant enhanced the inci- 
dence of disease in inoculated plants of cv. 
Veemore, but because of improved growth 
and adventitious root production, overall yield 
was significantly improved in fumigated soil. 

Potato aphid populations and flights. The 
number of embryos present in adult potato 
aphids was tested as a forecaster of population 
trends on field tomatoes for 4 yr. In the 
laboratory the embryo count was correlated 
with subsequent births (P = 0.001), except in 
young adult wingless aphids. On tomatoes the 
embryo count was only satisfactory for fore- 
casting population trends in 1 of the 4 yr. This 
occurred because adults in the field were 
mainly wingless and because the habits of 
winged aphids found on the tomatoes differed 
from year to year; some years they departed 
without breeding and other years they arrived 
from outside to breed. Flying populations 
measured with suction traps were extremely 
variable from year to year, and in some years, 
periods of 2 wk without catches occurred in 
summer. The long-term annual flight pattern 
was a unimodal curve with a peak in August. 
Counts of winged aphids arriving on tomato 
plants were significantly correlated with 
catches in a suction trap. The first winged 
adult was trapped on 21 June ± 5 days and 
the last on 21 October ± 5 days in 12 yr of 
suction trapping. 

Water relation and yields. A model that 
utilizes sunshine and maximum and minimum 
air temperatures for scheduling irrigation of 
tomatoes was developed from meteorological 
data and measurements of évapotranspiration 
from irrigated tomatoes. Measurements of 
leaf water potential and stomatal conductance 
indicated that water status in tomato plants in 
nonirrigated plots was similar to that of plants 
in irrigated plots, suggesting that the exten- 
sive root system (when fully developed) and 
high adsorption capacity of the tomato roots 
may offset effects of periods of drought. 

Yield by one cultivar of tomato (H2653) 
was not affected in 1980 by irrigation treat- 
ments, whereas a second cultivar (C28) was 



RESEARCH STATION, HARROW, ONT. 



231 



adversely affected. Because of the high rain- 
fall in 1980, this response suggests that 
cultivars of tomatoes differ in tolerance for 
excessive moisture in soil. Yields from tomato 
plants planted at high density (43 054 plants 
per hectare) surpassed yields from medium- 
density planting (21 527 plants per hectare) 
by 34% and from low-density planting 
(10 765 plants per hectare) by 101%. Plant- 
ing in double-row beds at high density re- 
sulted in higher yields than did single-row 
planting. 

Weed competition. The critical period of 
weed competition in transplanted tomatoes is 
influenced by row spacing. Tomatoes (cv. 
Springset) planted in rows 1 m apart had to 
be maintained weed-free for only 24 days, as 
compared with 30-36 days for tomatoes 
planted in rows 2 m apart. At both spacings, a 
single weeding at day 24 or day 36, respec- 
tively, resulted in yields comparable to those 
from plots maintained weed-free throughout 
the season. Yields of tomatoes at the narrower 
row spacing were 50% greater per unit area 
than yields at the wider spacing at compara- 
ble levels of weed control. 

Yellow nut sedge physiology and control. 
The herbicide glyphosate is translocated to 
and consequently alters the viability of yellow 
nut sedge tubers when it is foliarly applied 
until the latter part of August. With later 
applications, the herbicide is not translocated 
to as many of the tubers, presumably because 
the tuber is more mature and the transporta- 
tion system is not as functional. In those 
tubers wherein a lethal dosage level is not 
attained, severe shoot malformation occurs on 
sprouting. Under similar circumstances for 
application, the herbicide bentazon has no 
adverse activity on the viability or growth of 
tubers from treated plants. 

Shoot and tuber production by yellow nut 
sedge is highly dependent on the time of field 
emergence. An advantage of 1 mo in emer- 
gence during the first part of the growing 
season may result in an increase of 1000 
tubers and 100 shoots produced from the 
original plant over that from the later emerg- 
ing plant. 

Studies to determine if the factor causing 
tuber formation is able to travel from a 
mother to a daughter plant and vice versa 
indicated that the translocation is unidirec- 
tional, mother to daughter. Mother plants 
exposed to a short photoperiod cause tuber 



initiation in daughter plants growing under a 
long photoperiod. 

Biotypes of yellow nut sedge show a varied 
response to photoperiod required for tuber 
formation, a varied tuber production poten- 
tial, as well as a range in the coldhardiness 
(overwintering capability) of the tubers. 



Greenhouse vegetables 
Cucumber 

Powdery mildew. As for field cucumbers, 
only triforine seems a viable alternative to 
benomyl as a control for powdery mildew, 
Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlecht. ex Fr.) 
Poll. 

Several potential biological control agents 
were identified as parasitizing or antagonizing 
S. fuliginea, in addition to the parasite 
Ampelomyces quisqualis previously reported. 
A Tilletiopsis sp. seems particularly 
promising. 

Tomato 

Foot and root rot. In cooperative work with 
Dr. E. A. Kerr, Ontario Ministry of Agricul- 
ture and Food, Simcoe, five lines were identi- 
fied as resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. 
radicis-lycopersici Jarvis & Shoemaker, from 
2500 selections representing 68 lines. 

It proved feasible to wedge-graft the highly 
susceptible cv. MR 13 onto the resistant but 
pomologically poor cv. IRB, without detri- 
ment to yield and with complete escape from 
the disease. 

The straw mulch used by the majority of 
Essex County growers was shown to be a 
major site for the multiplication of F. oxyspo- 
rum f. sp. radicislycopersici in sterilized 
groundbed soils. Tomato roots left in the soil 
appear to be a less important site. 

The biological control of foot and root rot 
was considerably enhanced by growing lettuce 
after sterilizing the soil when an infested 
tomato crop had been removed, and refraining 
from sterilizing again before replanting toma- 
toes. Catch crops of cress, mustard, or spinach 
had no such effect. 

Whitefly control. The synthetic pyrethroid 
insecticides have proven very toxic to green- 
house whitefly adults. The most toxic was 
fenpropanate (WL41706, Shell Chemical 
Co.), followed by permethrin, decamethrin, 
and cypermethrin. The registered use of 



232 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



permethrin at 100 ppm was also very effective 
against vegetable leafminer adults. 



Tree fruits 



Apple 



Fire blight. The fire blight pathogen [Er- 
winia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al.] was 
recovered from 100% of the inoculated leaf 
scars of both Red Delicious and Idared 
cultivars in November but from only 90% of 
the leaf scars of Idared in the following April. 
Fewer buds had E. amylovora than had the 
leaf scars. It was not detected in either leaf 
scars or buds of Red Delicious in April. 
Differences in recovery may be related to the 
relative fire blight susceptibility of cultivars. 

Apricot 

Breeding. Two fresh-market cultivars 
named Hargrand and Harlayne, respectively, 
tested as HW410 and HW407, and ripening 
in the mid to late season, were introduced in 
1980. Although they were intended for the 
Ontario fresh market, both cultivars have 
shown potential for commercial processing as 
puree for baby food and for home preser- 
vation as jam or as canned halves in syrup. In 
controlled freezing tests, Harlayne has sur- 
passed and Hargrand has equaled the cold- 
hardiness of Goldcot, the hardy standard, and 
therefore should be adapted to regions where 
Goldcot is successfully grown. Both cultivars 
have good field resistance to brown rot, 
Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) Honey; peren- 
nial canker, Leucostoma spp.; and bacterial 
spot, Xanthomonas pruni (E.F. Sm.) Dowson. 
The fruits of both cultivars resist skin crack- 
ing in most seasons and do not drop readily 
even when ripe. They have very firm flesh 
with good texture and flavor, and the flesh 
does not adhere to the pit. The fruits of 
Hargrand are exceptionally large and moder- 
ately attractive, and those of Harlayne are of 
medium size but brighter and more attractive. 

Nectarine 

Breeding. Five new selections were made. 
The earliest selection ripened 1 wk before 
Harko and the latest ripened 10 days after 
Harko. Four new crosses were made to 
improve coldhardiness, fruit size, flesh firm- 
ness, and quality, from which 752 hybrid 
seeds were obtained. 



Peach 

Breeding. Three cold-hardy, double-flow- 
ered, ornamental cultivars were introduced 
and named Harrow Frostipink, Harrow Can- 
difloss, and Harrow Ribirose. Their flower 
colors are, respectively, light pink, medium 
pink, and deepest pink to red. Each blossom 
has three to four whorls of five petals each, 
instead of a single whorl of five petals, which 
is typical of peaches. Each introduction is late 
blooming, about 1 wk later than most peach 
fruit cultivars. In controlled freezing tests, 
each introduction was more cold hardy than 
Redhaven peach. Each introduction also has a 
good level of field resistance to brown rot (M. 
fructicola), bacterial spot (X. pruni), and 
powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca pannosa 
(Wallr. exFr.)Lév.]. 

Twenty-nine peach crosses were made to 
improve coldhardiness, disease resistance, 
productivity, fruit type, and quality. In addi- 
tion, 28 freestone and two canning clingstone 
selections were made from previous crosses 
using a multiple selection index consisting of 
15 characters. The earliest selection ripened 
on 21 July and the latest on 8 September. 
Each selection will be critically tested for 
coldhardiness in 1981 before being considered 
for regional trials. 

Crown gall. Biological control of crown gall 
{Agrobacterium radiobacter pv. tumefaciens) 
with Dygall {A. radiobacter strain #84) was 
monitored in a Harrow peach nursery, all on 
the rootstock Halford. When the nursery 
stock was dug out, gall incidence was 13% 
among 2379 check trees as compared with 5% 
among 3040 treated trees. It appears that 
biological control continues to be effective in 
Ontario. 

Orchard management. A combined statisti- 
cal analysis of the first five years of fruit- 
production data in an experiment of Harken - 
Siberian C peach using three levels of irri- 
gation (none, 25%, and 50% available soil 
moisture) and three tree densities (266, 358, 
and 536 trees per hectare) revealed that: 
increased tree density was the most important 
factor favoring increased yield; both total and 
marketable yields varied between seasons; 
tree density influenced yield more in some 
seasons than in others; irrigation did not alter 
overall yield; in some years, irrigation tended 
to increase total yield but not marketable 
yield; and altered tree density did not alter the 
effect of irrigation on yield. It was considered 



RESEARCH STATION, HARROW, ONT. 



233 



that a tree density of 536 trees per hectare 
was preferable to the traditional density of 
266 trees per hectare because yields could be 
increased by up to 74.6%, even without 
irrigation. The main advantages of irrigation 
were the beneficial effect on tree growth and 
an improved yield in the first three years of 
production. There was little benefit from 
irrigation thereafter. 

The influence of irrigation and tree density 
on stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, 
and available moisture in the soil profile were 
investigated during the 1978, 1979, and 1980 
growing seasons. The results indicated that 
water status in nonirrigated trees was similar 
to that of irrigated trees. Measurements of 
available moisture in the soil profile suggested 
that the extensive root systems of peach trees 
were able to withdraw water from subsoil to 
avoid moisture stress and resultant loss in 
yield when trees were 6 yr and older. 

Pear 

Breeding and cultivar testing. Two pear 
selections, HW602 and HW603, have pro- 
duced high-quality fruit, remain resistant to 
fire blight, and are being considered for 
release. Three fire blight selections, namely 
HW606, HW607, and HW608, which have 
fresh fruit and processing quality similar to 
Bartlett, the main pear cultivar grown in 
Ontario, have been placed in advance trials. A 
new cultivar from Purdue, Honeysweet, was 
determined to be fire blight resistant and has 
potential as a storage pear for the early winter 
market. 

Psylla resistance was observed in the pear 
collection and seedling orchard. Twelve culti- 
vars were observed to be resistant. Honey- 
sweet was the only resistant cultivar of Pyrus 
communis derivation that has commercial 
potential. Psylla resistance was dominant in 



progenies of a reputed P. fauriei clone crossed 
with P. communis clones. Several selections 
have been made. 

Hardiness tests were conducted on an array 
of cultivars. P. ussuriensis and P. ussuriensis 
x P. communis hybrids were considerably 
more cold resistant than commercial cultivars. 
One of these clones, Ure, has been used in the 
breeding program as a source of the coldhar- 
diness for new scion and rootstock cultivars. 

It was demonstrated that Bartlett had an 
unique type of flavor, which was associated 
with high levels of decadienoate esters. Ten 
cultivars and selections have been found with 
a high decadienoate ester level and a flavor 
similar to Bartlett. These have been placed in 
cultivar trials and have been used as a source 
of Bartlett-like flavor in the breeding pro- 
gram. 

Three rootstock clones, namely OHF 69, 
87, and 51, produced higher early yields than 
Bartlett seedling and Quince A in trials 
conducted with the scion cultivars Bartlett 
and HW602. Efforts are being made to 
propagate them for extended trial. 



MISCELLANEOUS 

Grape crown gall 

Crown gall {Agrobacterium radiobacter pv. 
tumefaciens) strains from 'vinifera' grape 
cultivars from southwestern Ontario vine- 
yards were determined to belong to biotype 3 
according to the currently accepted scheme. 
Several of them were sensitive to agrocin 84. 
Contrary to the published reports, evidence 
was obtained by testing the sap from infected 
vines that crown gall may not be systemic in 
'vinifera' grapes. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Anderson, T. R.; Patrick, Z. A. 1980. Soil 
vampyrellid amoebae that cause small perfora- 
tions in conidia of Cochliobolus sativus. Soil 
Biol. Biochem. 12:159-167. 

Black, T. A.; Tan, C. S.; Nnyamah, J. U. 1980. 
Transpiration rate of Douglas fir in thinned 
and unthinned stands. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:625- 
631. 



Bonn, W. G. 1980. Incidence and severity of 
bacterial speck of tomato in southwestern 
Ontario in 1979. Plant Dis. 64:586-587. 

Bonn, W. G.; Dirks, V. A. 1980. Response of apple 
scions on size-controlling rootstocks to inocula- 
tion by Erwinia amylovora. Plant Dis. 64:209- 
211. 

Bonn, W. G.; Morand, J. B. 1980. Fire blight of 
pear: control of shoot blight phase with strepto- 
mycin. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 2:39-41. 



234 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Colwell, H. T. M. 1979. Effects of changes in 
selected production variables on crop returns, 
costs and margins for machine harvest produc- 
tion of pickling cucumbers. Can. Agric. Eng. 
21:135-140. 

Dirks, V. A.; Anderson, T. R.; Bolton, E. F. 1980. 
Effect of fertilizer and drain location on inci- 
dence of phytophthora rot in soybean. Can. J. 
Plant Pathol. 2:179-183. 

Dirks, V. A.; Bolton, E. F. 1980. Regression 
analyses of grain yield of corn, level of leaf 
NPK and soil conditions in a long time rotation 
experiment on Brookston clay. Can. J. Soil Sci. 
60:599-611. 

Dirks, V. A.; Friesen, G. H. 1980. Tolerance of 
fresh market transplanted tomatoes to me- 
tribuzin applied at various dates after trans- 
planting. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:757-761. 

Elliott, W. M. 1980. Monitoring annual flight 
patterns of the potato aphid, Macrosiphum 
euphorbiae (Homoptera: Aphididae), in south- 
ern Ontario. Can. Entomol. 1 12:963-968. 

Elliott, W. M.; Kemp, W. G. 1980. Flight activity 
of the green peach aphid (Homoptera: Aphidi- 
dae) during the vegetable growing season at 
Harrow and Jordan, Ontario. Proc. Entomol. 
Soc.Ont. 110(1979):19-28. 

Foott, W. H.; Teich, A. H.; Elliott, W. M. 1980. 
Infestation of Macrosiphum avenae and Rho- 
palosiphum padi (Homoptera: Aphididae) on 
winter wheat in Essex County, Ontario. Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Ont. 1 10( 1 979):61 -63. 

Francis, T. R.; Hamill, A. S. 1980. Inheritance of 
maize seedling tolerance to alachlor. Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:1045-1047. 

Gaynor, J. D. 1979. Phosphorus loadings associated 
with housing in a rural watershed. J. Great 
Lakes Res. 5:124-130. 

Jarvis, W. R. 1980. Epidemiology. Coley-Smith, J. 
R.; Verhoeff, K.; Jarvis, W. R., eds. The 
biology of Botrytis. pp. 219-249. 

Jarvis, W. R. 1980. Taxonomy. Coley-Smith, J. R.; 
Verhoeff, K.; Jarvis, W. R., eds. The biology of 
Botrytis. pp. 1-18. 

Jarvis, W. R.; Thorpe, H. J. 1980. Effects of nitrate 
and ammonium nitrogen on severity of fusar- 
ium foot and root rot and on yield of green- 
house tomatoes. Plant Dis. 64:309-310. 

Jaworski, C. A.; Phatak, S. C; Liptay, A. 1980. 
Differential cultivar responses of tomato trans- 
plants to ethephon. HortScience 15:647-648 

Layne, R. E. C. 1979. 'Harogem' apricot. Hort- 
Science 14:758-759. 



Lesage, S. 1980. Effect of cupric ions on the 
analysis of ethylenebis (dithiocarbamate) resi- 
dues in tomato juice. Tech. Commun. J. Assoc. 
Off. Anal. Chem. 63:143-145. 

Lesage, S. 1980. Reduction of the formation of 
ethylenethiourea from ethylenebis (dithiocar- 
bamates) by cupric ions in aqueous media. J. 
Agric. Food Chem. 28:787-790. 

Levin, D. G.; Laing, J. E.; Jaques, R. P. 1979. 
Transmission of granulosis virus by Apanteles 
glomeratus to its host Pieris rapae. J. Inver- 
ted. Pathol. 34:317-318. 

Liptay, A.; Muehmer, J. K. 1980. Evaluation of 
baby carrot cultivars and their growth patterns 
in southwestern Ontario. Can. J. Plant Sci. 
60:911-915. 

Marriage, P. B.; Quamme, H. A. 1980. Effect of 
weed control in the winterhardiness of the bark 
and wood of young peach trees. HortScience 
15:290-291. 

Marriage, P. B.; Warwick, S. I. 1980. Differential 
growth and response to atrazine between and 
within susceptible and resistant biotypes of 
Chenopodium album L. Weed Res. 20:9-1 5. 

McKenney, D. J.; Shuttleworth, K. F.; Findlay, W. 
I. 1980. Nitrous oxide evolution rates from 
fertilized soil: Effects of applied nitrogen. Can. 
J. Soil Sci. 60:429-438. 

O'Sullivan, J.; Colwell, H. T. M. 1980. Effect of 
harvest date on yield and grade distribution 
relationships for pickling cucumbers harvested 
once-over. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 105:408- 
412. 

Smith, B. C. 1980. Population changes of the 
northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: 
Chrysomelidae) and corn yield losses in south- 
western Ontario. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ont. 
110(1979):85-91. 

Tan, C. S.; Fulton, J. M. 1980. Ratio between 
évapotranspiration of irrigated crops from 
floating lysimeters and class A pan evapora- 
tion. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60: 1 97-20 1 . 

Teich, A. H. 1980. Germinating immature winter 
wheat seed. Cereal Res. Commun. 8:495-499. 

Townshend, J. L.; Dirks, V. A.; Marks, C. D. 1980. 
Temperature, moisture and compaction and 
their effects on the diffusion of ethylene dibro- 
mide in three Ontario soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 
60:177-184. 

Tu, J. C. 1980. Gliocladium virens, a destructive 
mycoparasite of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Phy- 
topathology 70:670-674. 

Tu, J. C. 1980. Incidence of root rot and overwin- 
tering of alfalfa as influenced by rhizobia. 
Phytopathol.Z. 97:97-108. 



RESEARCH STATION, HARROW, ONT. 



235 



Tu, J. C. 1980. Occurrence and identification of a 
flexuous rod virus from a mosaic complex of 
white beans in southern Ontario. Phytopathol. 
Z. 99:163-174. 

Tu, J. C. 1980. The ontogeny of the sclerotia of 
Colletotrichum coccodes. Can. J. Bot. 58:631- 
636. 

Tu, J. C; Aylesworth, J. W. 1980. An effective 
method of screening white (pea) bean seedlings 
{Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for resistance to Colle- 
totrichum lindemuthianum. Phytopathol. Z. 
99:131-137. 

Tu, J. C; Holmes, T. M. 1980. Effect of alfalfa 
mosaic virus infection on nodulation, forage 
yield, forage protein, and overwintering of 
alfalfa. Phytopathol. Z. 97:1-9. 

Tu, J. C; McNaughton, M. E. 1980. Isolation and 
characterization of benomyl-resistant biotypes 
of the delta race of Colletotrichum linde- 
muthianum. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:585-589. 

Warwick, S. I.; Hamill, A. S.; Marriage, P. B. 
1980. Response of different growth forms of 
Poa annua L. (annual bluegrass) to herbicides 
applied before or after emergence. Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:947-952. 

Warwick, S. I.; Weaver, S. E. 1980. Atrazine 
resistance in Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot 
pigweed) and A. powellii (green pigweed) 
from southern Ontario. Can. J. Plant Sci. 
60:1485-1488. 

Weaver, S. E.; Cavers, P. B. 1980. Reproductive 
effort of two perennial weed species in different 
habitats. J. Appl. Ecol. 17:505-513. 

Weaver, S. E.; McWilliams, E. L. 1980. The 
biology of Canadian weeds. 44. Amaranthus 
retroflexus L., A. powellii S. Wats, and A. 
hybridus L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60: 1 2 1 5- 1 234. 

Weiser, C. J.; Quamme, H. A.; Proebsting, E. L.; 
Burke, M. J.; Yablonsky, G. 1979. Plant 
freezing injury and resistance. Barfield, B. J.; 
Gerber, J. F., eds. Modification of the aerial 
environment of crops — 1 979. 

Miscellaneous 

Anderson, T. R. 1980. Incidence of phytophthora 
root-rot of soybeans in Essex County, Ontario 
in 1979. Can. Plant Dis. Surv. 60(2,3):33-34. 

Aslam, M.; Buttery, B. R. 1980. Anaerobic in vivo 
reduction of nitrate by plant leaves lacking in 
extractable nitrate reductase activity. Midwest 
Section, American Society of Plant Physiology 
(abstract). 

Bolton, E. F.; Dirks, V. A. 1980. Deep tillage not 
the answer to soil compaction. Canadex 5 1 0. 



Bonn, W. G. 1980. Monitoring of epiphytic Erwinia 
amylovora and the incidence of fire blight of 
apple and pear in southwestern Ontario. 2nd 
International Society of Horticultural Science 
Meeting on fireblight, Kiel-Schilksee, West 
Germany (abstract). 

Buzzell, R. I.; Buttery, B. R.; Broich, S. L.; Palmer, 
R. G. 1980. The inheritance and evolution of 
flavonol glycosides in Glycine max (L.) Merr. 
Bot. Soc. Am. Misc. Ser. Publ. 158:18. 

Buzzell, R. I.; Buttery, B. R.; Shibles, R. M. 1980. 
Flavonol classes of cultivars in maturity groups 
00-IV. Soybean Genet. Newsl. 7:22-26. 

Buzzell, R. I.; Hamill, A. S. 1980. Increasing 
phytophthora-rot severity in field screening. 
Soybean Genet. Newsl. 7:30-31. 

Buzzell, R. I.; Voldeng, H. D. 1980. Inheritance of 
insensitivity to long daylength. Soybean Genet. 
Newsl. 7:26-29. 

Layne, R. E. C. 1980. 'Harogem' apricot. Fruit 
Var. J. 34:20. 

Layne, R. E. C. 1980. Physiological and genetic 
factors affecting winterhardiness of tree fruits 
in Ontario. Proceedings Agrometeorology 
workshop on climatic variability and cold 
damage to peaches and grapes in Ontario, pp. 
27-28. 

Layne, R. E. C. 1980. Prospects of new hardy peach 
rootstocks and cultivars for the 1980's. Com- 
pact Tree Fruit 13:117-122. 

Layne, R. E. C; Fulton, J. M.; Tan, C. S. 1980. 
Influence of irrigation and tree density of 
growth and yield of peach. HortScience 15:393 
(abstract). 

Layne, R. E. C; Tan, C. S. 1980. Effect of 
irrigation and tree density on yield, tree water 
status and available soil moisture in the soil 
profile of peach. Agron. Abstr. 72: 1 3. 

Liptay, A. 1979. Home vegetable growing. Agric. 
Can. Publ. 1059. 

Marriage, P. B. 1980. Response of Canada thistle 
to herbicides in relation to the growth stage of 
plants. Proceedings Canada thistle symposium, 
pp. 67-75. 

McClanahan, R. J. 1980. Why has integrated 
control practice in the greenhouse levelled off 
in Canada? Bull. West Palaearctic Reg. Sect. 
3:141-144. 

McClanahan, R. J. 1980. Biological control of 
Liriomyza sativae on greenhouse tomatoes. 
Bull. West Palaearctic Reg. Sect. 3:135-140. 

Nuttall, V. W. 1980. Melon production possible in 
Ontario. Grower 29(1 2): 13- 14. 



236 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Nuttall, V. W.; Bonn, W. G. 1980. Breeding white 
spine pickling cucumbers for disease resist- 
ance. 25th Annual Meeting Canadian Society 
of Horticultural Science, Edmonton, Alta. 
(abstract). 

Phillips, D. R. 1980. The control of yellow nut 
sedge in vegetables. Grower 30(3): 1 6-17. 

Quamme, H. A. 1979. Heritability and effec- 
tiveness of selection for fire blight resistance in 
young pear seedlings inoculated in the green- 
house. Proceedings Eucarpia fruit section 
symposium on tree fruit breeding, Angers, pp. 
73-81. 

Tan, C. S. 1980. Estimating crop évapotranspira- 
tion for irrigation scheduling. Can. Agric. 
25(4):26-29. 

Tan, C. S. 1980. Influence of irrigation and plant 
density of yield, plant water status and évapo- 
transpiration of processing tomatoes. Agron. 
Abstr. 72:16. 



Tu, "J. C. 1979. Anthracnose of white beans. 
Canadex 142.630. 

Tu, J. C. 1980. Benomyl-resistant biotypes isolated 
from the delta race of Colletotrichum linde- 
muthianum. Bean Improv. Coop. 23:17-18. 

Tu, J. C. 1980. Hyperparasitism of Gliocladium 
virens on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Bean Im- 
prov. Coop. 23:16-17. 

Warwick, S. I.; Marriage, P. B. 1980. Differential 
growth and response to atrazine in resistant 
and susceptible populations of Chenopodium 
album in relation to geographical location. 
Botany 80. Proceedings Botanical Society of 
America/Canadian Botanical Association 
(abstract). 

Weaver, S. E. 1980. Pigweeds. Agdex 642. 



RESEARCH STATION, HARROW, ONT. 



237 



Research Station 
Ottawa, Ontario 

PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



T. Rajhathy, Ing. Agr., M. Se, D. Agr. Sci., 

F.R.S.C. 
J. G. R. Loiselle, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 
B. W. Jablonski, B.L.A. 
R. Porteous 



Director 

Plant gene resources of Canada 
Landscape Architect 
Administrative Officer 



Cereal Crops 



V. D. Burrows, B.S.A., M.Sc., Ph.D. 
V. Clark, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 
S. O. Fejer, Ing. Agr., Dr. Sc. Tech. 
R. G. Fulcher, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
D. R. Sampson, B.Sc, A.M., Ph.D. 
W. L. Seaman, B.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Oat breeding 

Plant pathology 

Barley breeding 

Morphogenetics and grain quality 

Wheat breeding 

Wheat pathology 



Cytogenetics 



G. Fedak, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
K. C. Armstrong, B.S.A., Ph.D. 
I. L. Craig, B.S. 
B. E. Murray, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Cereal cytology 
Brome cytology 
Haploidy — Hordeum cytology 
Haploidy — flax cytology 



Entomology 



D. G. Harcourt, B.S.A., Ph.D. 

R. Boch, Dr. Rer. Nat. 

T. A. Gochnauer, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. 

J. C. Guppy, B.S.A., M.S. 

C. C. Loan, B.A., M.S., Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Population 
dynamics 

Physiology and behavior of bees 
Pathology of bees 
Population dynamics 
Population dynamics 



RESEARCH STATION, OTTAWA, ONT. 



239 



Forage Crops 



L. S. Donovan, B.S.A., M.S., Ph.D. 

P. K. Basu, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

L. Dessureaux, 1 B.A., B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 

M. A. Faris, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

W. R. McElroy, 2 B.Sc, M.Sc. 

H. D. Voldeng, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

F. S. Warren, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Corn breeding 

Plant diseases 

Alfalfa genetics 

Legume breeding 

Grass breeding 

Soybean breeding 

Agronomy 



Genetic Engineering 



W. A. Keller, B.S.A., Ph.D. 

B. L. A. Miki, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

S. J. Molnar, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Cell genetics 
Molecular biology 
Cell genetics 



Ornamentals 



E. V. Parups, M.S.A., Ph.D. 

A. T. Bolton, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

S. Nelson, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

J. A. Simmonds, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

F. J. Svejda, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Physiology and 
floriculture 
Pathology 
Nursery research 
Floriculture 
Plant breeding 



Experimental Farm, Kapuskasing, Ont. 



J. G. Proulx, D.V.M. 



Superintendent; Crop management 
and evaluation 



Experimental Farm, Thunder Bay, Ont. 



J. Wilson 



Superintendent; Crop management 
and evaluation 



Departures 



T. Burnett, B.S.A., Ph.D. 

Retired June 1980 
W. R. Childers, B.Sc. (Agr.), M.S. 

Retired December 1980 
W. E. Cordukes, B.Sc, M.Sc. 

Retired December 1980 
V. R. Wallen, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
Retired July 1980 



Ph.D. 



Entomology 

Head of Section; Grass breeding 

Turf grass 

Head of Section; Aerial 
photography — methodology 



240 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



VISITING SCIENTISTS 



C. Nakamura, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. Cereal tissue culture 

From 1979 to 1981 
A. L. Carpena, B.S.A., M.S., Ph.D. Plant gene resources 

From October to November 1980 

Graduate students 

G. Douglas, B.Sc. (Agr.) Somatic hybridization 

S. Gleddie, B.Sc. Somatic hybridization 



'Seconded to Research Branch Headquarters. 

2 On educational leave, Guclph University, Guelph, Ont., from September 1980 to August 1981 



RESEARCH STATION, OTTAWA, ONT. 241 



INTRODUCTION 



The Ottawa Research Station (ORS) is the major center for plant breeding in eastern and 
central Ontario as well as for western Quebec. It is the major center for ornamentals research 
in the Research Branch. The Canadian Plant Gene Resources is a national program, and a 
small unit is engaged with studies of behavior and pathology of honey bees. In addition, the 
Station is charged with numerous service functions and the management of the entire Central 
Experimental Farm. 

The breeding programs are supported by multidisciplinary research, including plant 
genetics and somatic cell genetics, cytogenetics, plant physiology and pathology, entomology, 
cytochemistry, and morphogenetics. Agronomy provides important information for improved 
crop management, and a quality laboratory services all the breeding programs. The scope of 
landscape architecture includes the beautification of the campus of the Central Experimental 
Farm, the planning of the annual chrysanthemum show, and landscape planning for 
Agriculture Canada buildings across the country. 

The Experimental Farm at Kapuskasing continues to conduct experiments on crop 
production and on beef-cattle management for northwestern Quebec and northeastern Ontario. 
The Experimental Farm at Thunder Bay is engaged in crop production for northwestern 
Ontario. 

One of the more outstanding accomplishments was the licensing and release of the soft, 
white, pastry-quality winter wheat cultivar, Gordon, and the early maturing timothy cultivar, 
Salvo. A number of short-season corn hybrids received support for licensing, and a split- 
temperature management study of greenhouse chrysanthemums was completed, resulting in 
energy savings. The crop disease loss program was terminated and a genetic engineering 
program was initiated. 

Several professionals retired during the year: Dr. Walter Childers, forage grass breeder 
and Chief of the Forage Section, after 42 yr; Dr. Vic Wallen, plant pathologist and Chief of the 
Crop Disease Loss Section, after 35 yr; Dr. Tom Burnett, economic entomologist, after 42 yr; 
and Mr. Bill Cordukes, turf research scientist, after 35 yr of service. 

This report summarizes some of the more important research results from the Station in 
1980. Further information can be obtained from the publications listed at the end of this 
report. Reprints of the research publications and copies of the report are available on request 
from the Ottawa Research Station, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ont. Kl A 
0C6. 

Tibor Rajhathy 
Director 



CEREAL CROPS Genetics. Kernel hardness and protein 

content have an important influence on mill- 
ing yield and baking quality. Ninety-nine F 4 
Wheat lines from the winter wheat cross Lennox 

(medium-hard kernels, high protein) x 
Breeding. A high-quality soft white winter Stadler (soft kernels, low protein) showed no 
wheat for Ontario, line 0-45-4, was licensed in genetic linkage between the two characteris- 
1980 under the name Gordon, and released tics (r = -16), in spite of a reported correla- 
through the SeCan Association. Gordon is tion of r = 40 among commercial cultivars. 
especially well adapted to central Ontario The latter presumably resulted from selecting 
(Test Area 2), where it outyielded the ORS either soft types with low protein or hard 
cultivar Fredrick, the most widely grown types with high protein, whereas the soft, 
cultivar in Ontario, by 7.6% over 4 yr. Gordon high-protein and hard, low-protein types 
has better winter survival than Fredrick but lacked commercial acceptance and were dis- 
lower hectolitre weight and weaker straw. carded. The Lennox-Stadler cross gave 21 

242 RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



lines that were soft-low, 33 that were hard- 
high, and 61 lines having the noncommercial 
combinations. 

Pathology. Province-wide surveys showed 
that winter survival of winter wheat was 
excellent throughout the growing area in 
Ontario. Lack of snow cover during much of 
the winter prevented damage from snow 
molds, and moderate winter temperatures 
resulted in little cold injury, despite the lack 
of insulating snow. 

Symptoms of barley yellow dwarf virus 
(BYDV) appeared in early summer, 1980, in 
winter wheat plots and fields in the Ottawa 
Valley. The early appearance of the disease 
indicated that the plants became infected the 
previous fall, when aphid populations were 
unusually high. Fortunately, aphid popula- 
tions were generally low in 1980, so that there 
was little further spread of the disease in 
wheat. These observations suggest that winter 
wheat most likely provides an overwintering 
reservoir of BYDV from which the disease 
could spread to spring-seeded cereal crops. 

In mid season unusually high levels of root 
rot and take-all occurred in central and 
eastern Ontario. Leaf rust and powdery 
mildew were locally important. 

Wet weather during harvest caused unprec- 
edented levels of sprouting in most areas of 
Ontario and also favored the development of 
Fusarium spp. on the spikes. In some areas 
Fusarium was accompanied by the production 
of mycotoxins, particularly vomitoxin. 

Barley 

Breeding. Two ORS cultivars, Massey and 
Vanier, continue to be the highest-yielding 
six-rowed feed barleys in Ontario and they are 
resistant to smut, mildew, and scald. Two new 
selections, OB294-1 and OB339-1, show real 
promise of reaching cultivar status in 1981 
and 1982, respectively. Both have outstanding 
yield performance combined with resistance 
to lodging. The two-rowed feed barley OB440 
performed well again and this strain combines 
high yield with good protein content. Greater 
emphasis is being placed on two-row barley 
breeding, and five new promising selections 
were promoted to advanced official tests. 

Consistent negative correlations were found 
between mildew resistance and yield under 
mildew-free conditions in barley. In a recipro- 
cal winter x spring barley hybridization 
program, no heterosis was found in the F 6 , but 



valuable selections were made; earlier selec- 
tions from similar programs reached the final 
stages of testing. Competition tests between 
three early and three late cultivars grown 
under two-row spacings showed some high 
interaction effects, with some mixture superi- 
ority from closer row spacing. 

Oats 

Breeding. The ORS oats breeding program 
is directed toward improving oats as both a 
feed and food grain. ORS cultivars Sentinel 
and Scott continued to outperform recom- 
mended cultivars in many areas of Eastern 
Canada. A new day-length insensitive culti- 
var, OA366, continues to perform well in 
official tests and it may be licensed in 1981- 
1982. It shows promise as a milling oat for the 
food industry and as a feed oat to be grown in 
pure stand or in mixtures with barley. Major 
advances have been made in the breeding of 
lodging resistant dwarf-type oats that com- 
bine high yield and good seed size. Several 
advanced semidwarf lines (PGR 9887 to 
9920) have been made available to oats 
breeders. The superior large-seeded hull-less 
oats referred to in the Research Branch 
Report 1979 continue to perform well in 
Ontario, and whole groats of some of these 
lines have been evaluated in the preparation 
of human food (rice substitute) by the Kempt- 
ville College of Agricultural Technology (P. 
Johnston). An awned hull-less strain has been 
bred, and the awn makes it easy to separate 
unthreshed kernels from naked kernels. A 
prototype dormant cultivar (OA499) has been 
produced and is being evaluated on a farm 
scale in eastern Ontario as part of a technol- 
ogy transfer project. 

Pathology. The oats crop in eastern On- 
tario and western Quebec suffered severe 
damage from crown rust (Puccinia coronata 
Cda. f. sp. avenae Eriks.) in 1980. Field 
tolerance and disease-loss tests employing 
maneb fungicide to control leaf diseases 
showed that losses from natural infection by 
crown rust amounted to 40% in seed yield and 
20% in kernel weight. The tolerance test 
compared 45 cultivars and further showed 
that inoculation with septoria (Septoria av- 
enae Frank f. sp. avenae) caused little addi- 
tional loss in yield, and mean kernel weight 
was increased over natural infection because 
of the supplemental irrigation provided to 
induce septoria development. Tolerance for 



RESEARCH STATION, OTTAWA, ONT. 



243 



the two diseases was identified in four culti- 
vars using both yields and kernel weights. A 
third field experiment showed that Laurent 
was tolerant of crown rust and that it pro- 
duced higher seed yield, kernel weight, and 
percent of protein than did Fidler and Hud- 
son, both of which have major genes for 
resistance. 

Barley and oats mixture tests continued to 
show in yield and kernel weight that leaf 
disease development was lower in most mix- 
tures (eight cultivar combinations) compared 
with solid stands of each component. 

Physiology and morphogenesis 

A new fluorescent marker was isolated, 
purified, and adapted for routine microscopic 
detection of major cereal lipid reserves. The 
marker is capable of differentiating neutral 
lipids from other significant lipid residues in 
situ, with a sensitivity approaching 10~ l5 g. 
Using this and a range of fluorescent markers 
for other important seed reserves, comprehen- 
sive analyses of wheat and oats grain mor- 
phology have been completed. Similar tech- 
nology has been developed for rapid detection 
of leaf-borne fungal pathogens, industrial 
grain fractions, and cereal fibers. 



CYTOGENETICS 

Wide crosses in cereals 

Barley-wheat hybrids were produced by 
crossing the wheat cultivars Koga and Chi- 
nese Spring onto barley cultivars Emir, 
Bonus, and Betzes. Chiasma frequencies in 
the hybrids ranged from 0.60 in the Emir x 
Chinese Spring combination to 3.60 in Bonus 
X Koga, indicating that the background 
genotype has a profound effect on chromo- 
some pairing in the hybrids. Chromosomal 
location of genes in Chinese Spring promoting 
crossability with Betzes barley was deter- 
mined by crossing the entire series of 21 
Chinese Spring - Hope substitution lines 
(where chromosomes of the noncrossable 
variety Hope were substituted for chromo- 
somes of Chinese Spring) onto Betzes barley. 
By this means, the major genes for crossabil- 
ity were located on Chinese Spring chromo- 
somes 5A, 5B, and 5D. Only those varieties of 
wheat carrying these three genes are crossable 
with barley. Chinese Spring wheat carrying 
the Ph mutant when crossed onto Betzes 
barley raised the chiasma frequency in the 
hybrids from 1.8 to 8.5, indicating that this 



will be an effective way in which to achieve 
recombination and hence gene transfer 
between chromosomes of wheat and barley. 

In an effort to produce addition lines of rye 
in barley, the wild rye species Secale vavilovii 
L. was crossed onto tetraploid Betzes to give a 
hybrid with 21 chromosomes, 14 from barley, 
and seven from rye. Selfing the hybrid or 
repeated backcrossing to barley should pro- 
duce progeny with the entire complement of 
14 barley chromosomes with additions of 
single rye chromosomes. 

Hordeum gene pool. During a 1980 expedi- 
tion, approximately 550 accessions of wild 
and cultivated barley were collected from the 
Canary Islands, Morocco, Portugal, and 
Spain. During this expedition the maximal 
variability in cultivated barley was observed 
in Morocco in the Anti Atlas Mountains at 
elevations of 3218 km and in river valleys of 
the Sub Sahara, where apparent land races 
are still being grown. The Hordeum gene pool 
at ORS now consists of 26 wild species in 
addition to approximately 650 accessions of 
cultivated barley. Studies on the 360 acces- 
sions of H. bulbosum L. collected in Turkey, 
Iran, and Greece showed that all are tetra- 
ploid with considerable variation in morphol- 
ogy, whereas the 50 accessions from Spain 
have the diploid chromosome number. Studies 
on previously undescribed wild species from 
Argentina and Chile indicate that they are all 
diploids. 

Chromosome banding 

A modified C-banding technique was devel- 
oped that produces bands on the B-genome 
and on chromosomes 4 and 7 of the A genome 
of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring, 
following a normal Feulgen preparation. 
C-Banding on the meiotic chromosomes of the 
trigeneric hybrids of barley x wheat x rye 
revealed that rye chromosomes paired less 
often with barley and wheat chromosomes 
(0.27 per cell) than with nonhomologous rye 
chromosomes (0.073). The majority of pairing 
configurations (1.91 per cell) probably in- 
volved wheat homologues. 

Brassica cytogenetics 

The maximum pairing in haploids of B. 
eampestris L. was 3 1 + 2" + l m , which 
suggests that the species is hexasomic for one 
and tetrasomic for two other chromosomes. 
Haploids of B. oleracea L. formed 4 1 + 1" + 



244 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



l m , which suggests that the species is hexaso- 
mic for one and tetrasomic for one 
chromosome. 

Bromus cytogenetics 

The karyotypes from species and interspe- 
cific hybrids of the section Pnigma suggests 
that the section can be divided into two 
groups differing in chromosome size. The 
group with the largest chromosomes (almost 
entirely New World species) consists of short- 
lived perennial to annual species that are 
highly self-fertile and are mainly diploids. 
The group with the smaller chromosomes 
(almost entirely Old World species) consists 
of long-lived perennials that are generally 
cross-fertile and are mainly polyploids. 

Flax. Results from haploid x diploid 
crosses in flax indicated potential for selecting 
genetic stocks by combining the twinning, 
meiotic pattern and the haploid-producing 
traits from Rocket 4 with the fiber trait of 
Natasja and the rust resistance of Dufferin 
among F 2 haploid-diploid twins from haploid 
(Rocket 4) x diploid (Natasja) and from 
haploid (Rocket 4) x diploid (DufTerin) 
crosses. In the haploid (Rocket 4) x diploid 
(Natasja) cross, the hybrid haploids had a 
distinctive meiotic pattern that resembled an 
anaphase II disjunction of the haploid chro- 
mosome complement, resulting in the develop- 
ment on nonviable spores and low seed set 
from intracrossed twins. This contrasted with 
the Rocket haploid-meiotic pattern in which 
equal anaphase disjunction of sister chro- 
matids resulted in viable spores and the 
potential to produce seeds in haploid X 
diploid crosses. Crosses with Dufferin as the 
pollen donor produced a response in the 
haploids and the F,s similar to that of 
Natasja. Segregation ratios in the F 2 indi- 
cated simple inheritance for the regulation of 
the meiotic pattern in haploids and complex 
inheritance for the twinning trait. Selection is 
in progress for rust-resistant fiber-type lines, 
with the twinning trait for utilization as 
genetic stocks in plant breeding. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Population dynamics and pest management 

Alfalfa weevil. Studies aimed at developing 
a province-wide management strategy for the 
alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyll.), were 



expanded to document survival between gen- 
erations. Ecological life tables showed that a 
new parasitoid of the adult stage, the wasp 
Microctonus colesi Drea, has spread into 
Ontario to impose further stability to popula- 
tion oscillations in the weevil. Pooled data for 
five locations showed that the spring brood of 
M. aethiopoides Loan attacked and sterilized 
a sufficient number of overwintered adults to 
reduce oviposition by 30%. Disease destroyed 
75% of the feeding larvae, but mortality of 
cocooned stages from the combined effects of 
disease and parasites was only 29%. Nearly 
one-third of the emerging adults contained 
larvae of M. colesi, and 27% of the remainder 
were attacked by the summer brood of M. 
aethiopoides during the 'feed up' period. 
Generation survival to the onset of hiberna- 
tion averaged 8%. This points to lower 
populations for 1981. 

A thermal summation model was developed 
for predicting seasonal development of alfalfa 
in the Quinte area. Analysis of weather and 
growth patterns for 6 yr showed that the first 
crop reaches the bud stage following the 
accumulation of 320 degree-days above 5°C 
(DD 5 ) from 1 April, and should be harvested 
between 360 and 510 DD 5 for maximum yield 
of protein. The following equation accounts 
for 98% of the variation in growth: height (in 
centimetres) = 0.2 15.x - 4.754, where x is the 
number of heat units >5°C. 

Alfalfa blotch leafminer. In an attempt to 
describe the factors and processes that govern 
population trends in the alfalfa blotch leaf- 
miner, Agromyza frontella (Rond.), statisti- 
cally reliable sampling procedures were devel- 
oped for two life-history stages. For prepupae, 
population estimates are based on counts of 
mature larvae that drop from the alfalfa 
canopy into 22 x 22-cm pans containing 
ethylene glycol. For puparia, estimates are 
based on the contents of quadrats of soil 16 x 
16 cm in area and 5 cm deep. Analysis of 
sampling variability showed that 40 pans and 
50 quadrats per field, respectively, give ade- 
quate precision for numerical estimates of 
intensive population studies. The pattern of 
counts for both stages is overdispersed but 
conforms to the negative binomial distri- 
bution. 

Life-table data from two plots at Ottawa 
showed that survival rates, egg to adult, 
varied from 0.5 to 4.8%, decreasing in each of 
the three generations. Critical mortalities 



RESEARCH STATION, OTTAWA, ONT. 



245 



occurred during the larval and prepupal 
stages. 

Honey bees 

Behavior and physiology. Honey bees in a 
swarm distinguish and prefer their own queen 
over a foreign one. They attack, but rarely 
kill, the foreign queen. However, continuous 
feeding of artificially scented syrup to worker 
bees over a few days gradually diminishes 
their ability to discriminate between queens. 
Moreover, when artificial Nassanoff phero- 
mone is released from a capillary dispenser 
near a foreign queen, she is preferred even to 
a familiar queen. 

Several volatile fatty acids, including hex- 
anoic, octanoic, and oct-2-enoic acids, occur 
in the mandibular glands of worker bees. 
These acids contribute to the antibiotic activ- 
ity of royal jelly. 

Disease. Honey bee larvae killed by Ameri- 
can foulbrood disease emit an odor composed 
of one or more volatile sulfides and volatile 
fatty acids, including the valeric acid series. 
Cultures of the causative agent, Bacillus 
larvae White, emit odors of similar composi- 
tion. The cultures produce hydrogen sulfide 
from cysteine and from sodium thiosulfate, 
but not from cystine, methionine, or glutathi- 
one. 

Larvae killed by Ascosphaera apis (Maas- 
sen ex Claussen) Olive and Spiltoir, the 
organism causing chalkbrood disease, are very 
rapidly disinfected by exposure to ethylene 
oxide vapor. Colonies were infected by a 
minimum of 10 8 -10 9 spores fed in a pollen- 
sucrose cake; evaporation of citral vapors in 
the hive suppressed such infection but did not 
control a preexisting infection. 



FORAGE CROPS 



Grasses 



Timothy. There continues to be a high 
priority on improved cultivars with a wide 
range of maturity, high forage and seed 
yields, and an increasing percentage of digest- 
ibility and protein content. Salvo, an ex- 
tremely early high-yielding cultivar, was 
licensed in 1980. There was 1450 kg of 
breeder and foundation seed available for 
seeding in the spring of 1980. Salvo is headed 
out by 8-10 June, which makes it extremely 
valuable in mixtures for alfalfa-timothy 



haylage management. In the Atlantic prov- 
inces, Salvo will be used for early hay. A new 
synthetic (O-C high digestibility) of Champ 
origin outyielded its parent by 30 kg/ha in a 
four-station Ontario provincial trial. Labelle 
23, a climax maturity broad-leaved strain, 
was the highest yielder of the Labelle strain in 
tests in Ontario and the Maritimes. A new 
high-digestibility five-clone synthetic was 
established in 1980. 

Orchardgrass. A new synthetic of Rideau 
orchardgrass with higher yield and greater 
winterhardiness outyielded the check cultivar 
Kay by approximately 100 kg/ha in a two- 
station Ontario provincial test. 

Alfalfa 

The main objectives in alfalfa breeding 
have centered on yield, Phytophthora root rot 
(Prr) resistance, and selection for better 
nitrogen fixation. 

Four synthetics were formed and tested for 
yield and Prr resistance. Synthetics 1 and 2 
equaled the check Angus in total dry-matter 
yield but were twice as resistant as Apollo to 
Prr. Seed of these two synthetics was in- 
creased, and they will be entered in regional 
trials for possible release as new cultivars. 

In another study, performance of some Prr- 
resistant and Prr-susceptible cultivars was 
determined under artificially inoculated field 
conditions. Yields of both resistant and sus- 
ceptible cultivars were reduced after inocula- 
tion; however, the resistant cultivars outy- 
ielded the susceptible ones. The resistant 
cultivars exhibited less winterkill due to fewer 
plants infected by Phytophthora megasperma 
Drechsler. A total of 400 clones from different 
genetic backgrounds were selected as possibly 
possessing Prr resistance, which might con- 
tribute to new cultivar development. 

Dry-matter production, plant height, pro- 
tein content, and in vitro digestibility (IVD) 
were measured in 1st- and 2nd-yr plantings of 
six cultivars grown under potato leafhopper 
infestation with or without methoxychlor 
treatment for control of the pest. All treated 
plots yielded more dry matter than did the 
untreated plots. Plant height and protein 
content were higher and IVD was lower in the 
treated plots. All cultivars were susceptible to 
leafhopper infestation; however, Angus was 
the least affected. Leafhopper injury was 
season specific and damage carry-over from 
one season to another occurred, but the extent 
was less than that from one cut to the next. 



246 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Corn 

Breeding. Eight new hybrids qualified for 
licensing in provincial trials: 0X599, OX643, 
and 0X646 in Manitoba and OX647, 0X651, 
0X652, OX661, OX673 in Ontario. Applica- 
tions from companies have been received for 
seed production and marketing rights for all 
of them. Those qualifying in Manitoba tests 
represent significant progress in developing 
still earlier maturing hybrids for short-season 
areas. 

A release list of 26 inbreds was established. 
Eighteen of these, Plant Gene Resources 
(PGR) Nos. 8390-8407, are for general 
breeding use. They range in maturity from 
2600 to 3500 corn heat units. The remaining 
eight, PGR Nos. 8863-8870, have shown 
some resistance to corn borer, and their use 
will likely be limited to breeding programs 
concerned with this character. 

Modifications to improve efficiency were 
made to equipment that was developed to 
measure root strength in corn. Further testing 
of six inbred lines showed that all differed 
significantly in the force required to pull them 
vertically out of the ground. 

Agronomy. Plant population or density is 
known to affect yield of corn silage. At 
Ottawa, maximum yields of dry matter were 
obtained, generally, with populations of about 
51 000 plants per hectare. Information on 
yield of digestible dry matter (DDM) was 
obtained over a 3-yr period by growing three 
representative corn hybrids at seven popula- 
tion densities. Green yield, moisture content, 
dry yields, and digestibility were measured to 
permit the calculation of DDM yield. The 
three hybrids, early, medium, and late matur- 
ing, responded similarly. The pattern of 
performance is consistent each year, though 
actual yield levels were variable. Dry-matter 
yield peaked at about 51 000 plants per 
hectare and then decreased between 58 000 
and 65 000 as ear development was inhibited, 
before rising again as plant numbers in- 
creased to 72 000, producing more vegetative 
material. Yield of digestible dry matter 
tended to follow the same pattern within a 
narrower range, so that there was only a small 
variation in populations above 44 000 plants 
per hectare. With these hybrids, populations 
higher than 44 000 were not effective in 
producing higher yields of digestible dry 
matter. The cost advantage of requiring less 
seed for such a plant density is an important 
consideration. 



Soybeans 

Breeding. The intermediate maturity line 
AU313 (OT80-1) has been evaluated for 4 yr 
in short-season areas throughout Canada. It 
matures 5 days before Portage, yields 10% 
more, and has higher seed oil and protein 
levels. Seed supplies have been increased for 
licensing and release in 1981. High-podded, 
pure line selections from the crossing program 
were evaluated for yield and for other agro- 
nomic characteristics. Six selections produced 
yields equal to standard cultivars of compara- 
ble maturity and carried the lowest pods 5 cm 
higher off the ground. The study was com- 
pleted of the photoperiodic response of 14 
cultivars and lines at day lengths from 12 to 
24 h. 

Flowering and pod formation of Maple 
Presto was delayed only 5-6 days even under 
a 24-h photoperiod. Other lines showed 
marked delay in flowering normally associ- 
ated with soybeans. Studies indicated that the 
flowering of certain lines may not be delayed 
by long photoperiods, but pod set and matur- 
ity may be affected. 

Agronomy. The herbicide metribuzin is 
widely used in soybean production in Ontario. 
Some evidence indicated that soybean culti- 
vars varied greatly in tolerance for me- 
tribuzin, with early maturing cultivars often 
suffering severe injury. In a 2-yr study, six 
cultivars and several breeding strains were 
sprayed preemergence with metribuzin at five 
rates in a split-plot arrangement. Approx- 
imately 4 wk after spraying, the cultivar 
Vansoy showed severe phytotoxicity ratings; 
Maple Presto and some strains had moderate 
ratings; and Maple Arrow, McCall, Evans, 
and Beechwood showed little evidence of 
damage even at rates up to 0.56 kg/ha. All 
entries other than Vansoy exhibited consider- 
able recovery in ratings made 4 wk later, and 
for these entries yield was not significantly 
reduced by any of the rates of metribuzin 
used. The study indicated the importance of 
determining the herbicide tolerance of strains 
early in the breeding program, particularly 
where early maturity is essential. 

Pathology 

Effects of cold exposure and of inoculation 
with Phytophthora megasperma Drechsler f. 
sp. medicaginis Kuan & Erwin on young 
alfalfa plants were studied under controlled 
conditions. Symptomatologically, the effects 



RESEARCH STATION, OTTAWA, ONT. 



247 



of these two factors could be readily distin- 
guished. Freezing alone killed plants but did 
not produce blackish lesions, which were 
typical of root rot caused by pathogen. 
Disease development was not specifically 
enhanced by cold exposure applied (-5°C for 
48 h). A definite relationship between freez- 
ing injury and Phytophthora root rot was not 
evident in terms of alfalfa yield (shoot num- 
ber or top weight). Superficial brown spots on 
roots or internal streaks could be ignored 
when assessing cold injury or root rot yield. 

Ten soybean cultivars and lines (Altona, 
AU313, BD 22115-13, Evans, K 357-1, 
Maple Arrow, Maple Presto, McCall, Por- 
tage, and PI 153-293) were tested to charac- 
terize resistance or susceptibility to bacterial 
blight {Pseudomonas glycinea Coerper) un- 
der field conditions. Of these, Evans was the 
most resistant and PI 153-293 the most 
susceptible, and the remaining cultivars were 
in the intermediate range (closer to Evans). 
The method of inoculation should be less 
drastic than the conventional use of airbrush; 
otherwise many promising strains for the 
short season areas may be classified as suscep- 
tible and may be neglected. It is highly 
probable that the pathogen survives in the 
field over the winter months and initiates 
infection in the following spring. 



GENETIC ENGINEERING 

Experimental haploidy 

Brassica spp. A number of factors influ- 
encing microspore embryogenesis in anther 
cultures of B. oleracea L. (broccoli) cv. Green 
Mountain were identified. Short-term high- 
temperature pretreatments (45°C, 1 h + 
40°C, 3 h) of the buds prior to anther culture 
increased embryo yield. Elevated levels of 
auxin in the anther culture medium also 
stimulated embryogenesis. Several hundred 
plants were regenerated directly through 
embryo culture or through shoot induction in 
hypocotyl expiants. Approximately 50% of the 
regenerates were haploids. 

The potential for haploid production in four 
winter B. napus L. cultivars (Herkules, Jet 
Neuf, Ligiora, Rapora) was evaluated. Max- 
imal embryo yields were obtained when 
anthers were initially cultured at 35°C for 2 
days, followed by incubation at 25°C. In 
Herkules, more than 1000 embryos were 
obtained per 1000 anthers. 



A tissue-culture method was developed for 
maintaining and propagating anther-derived 
lines of B. campestris L. in a vegetative 
condition. The procedure involved axial bud 
culture on hormone-free media in 8-h photop- 
eriods at 15°C. The technique was applied to 
B. napus and B. oleracea as a method of 
maintaining and cloning haploid lines. 

Interspecific hybridization 

Somatic hybridization. Chloroplast protein 
analysis of 14 Nicotiana rustica L. + TV. 
tabacum L. somatic hybrids was performed 
via isoelectric focusing. Plastid segregation 
occurred in all lines with 1 1 plants carrying 
TV. rustica chloroplasts and three carrying TV.. 
tabacum chloroplasts. Most somatic hybrid 
lines yielded viable seed when backcrossed 
with either of the parental species. Alkaloid 
analysis revealed that the hybrids were highly 
variable, having a range of alkaloid levels that 
was greater than that identified for the 
parental species. 

Plants were regenerated from stem and leaf 
expiants and from calluses of several TV. 
rustica + TV. tabacum somatic hybrid lines. 
In certain lines cytological stability was 
evident, but in others chromosome elimination 
occurred during regeneration. 

Sexual hybridization. Postpollination pla- 
cental culture resulted in the recovery of 
viable embryos and plantlets from the crosses 
TV. rustica x TV. tabacum, TV. rustica x TV. 
glutinosa L., and TV. rustica X TV. sylvestris 
L. Maximal plantlet yields were obtained by 
culturing placentas 3 days postpollination on 
a hormone-free medium containing 4% su- 
crose. Cytological evaluation revealed a stable 
amphiploid chromosome number in all regen- 
erates. Additional evidence for hybridization 
was obtained from morphological and iso- 
zyme analysis. 

In vitro morphogenesis 

Cereals. Factors influencing callus induc- 
tion and plant regeneration from immature 
embryos of three triticale cultivars (Rosner, 
Beagle, Welsh) were identified. Genotype, 
embryo age, and culture-medium composi- 
tion, including auxin type and concentration, 
influenced both callus growth and morpho- 
genesis. Cytological abnormalities, including 
aneuploidy as well as chromosome structural 
changes, were identified in approximately 
10% of the regenerates. 



248 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Plants were regenerated in callus cultures 
derived from immature inflorescences of 
triticale, Triticum crassum (Boiss.) Aitch. & 
Hensl., and from T. crassum x Hordeum 
vulgare L. cv. Bomi intergeneric hybrids. All 
T. crassum regenerates had 35 chromosomes 
rather than the expected number of 42. 
Several aneuploids were identified among the 
triticale regenerates, whereas the T. crassum 
X H. vulgare regenerates usually had the 
amphiploid chromosome number {In = 28). 
Colchicine treatment of amphiploid calluses 
prior to induction of morphogenesis resulted 
in the identification of some mixoploid regen- 
erates with the amphidiploid chromosome 
number. 

Eggplant. Leaf expiants of Solanum 
melongena L. (eggplant) cultured on medium 
with high auxin levels (10 mg/L 1-naphtha- 
leneacetic acid) underwent callus prolifera- 
tion, followed by the development of somatic 
embryos. Frequency of embryogenesis was 
influenced by auxin type and concentration, 
and by the nitrogen source in the medium. 
Transfer to hormone-free media resulted in 
plant regeneration in 25% of the embryos. 



ORNAMENTALS 

Floriculture 

Propagation, growth, and yield of roses 
grown from cuttings in rock-wool propagation 
blocks were investigated. The yield of blooms 
was considerably larger than that obtained by 
the conventional growing methods, but the 
quality was lower. The method may permit 
increase in yields of flowers, planning of 
production peaks to coincide with peak de- 
mand times, and more efficient usage of 
greenhouse space. 

Comparative growth and growth-parameter 
analysis of chrysanthemums grown at warm 
or low split night temperatures showed no 
detrimental effects of those parameters. 

Dwarf Pinocchio asters and Chrysanthe- 
mum pacificum L. were evaluated as potential 
pot plants. 

Impatiens hybridus L. cv. Starburst is one 
of the economically important New Guinea 
cultivars, but the environmental control of 
flowering in these plants is poorly understood. 
When grown at 25°C, a quantitative short- 
day response was demonstrated. Flowers in an 
8-h photoperiod were initiated 2 wk earlier 
than those in 1 8-h photoperiods. When grown 



at,15°C, the photoperiodic control was lost 
and a day-neutral response was demonstrated. 
An earlier and stronger flowering response 
was associated with this loss of photoperiodic 
control at a low temperature. 

Streptocarpus nobilis C.B. Clarke could be 
induced to flower in response to one inductive 
short day. Expiants from photoinduced leaves 
produced flower buds when cultured in nonin- 
ductive photoperiods. This indicates that 
floral-determining factors are stable for some 
time within the leaf. When expiants were 
cultured in inductive photoperiods, the flow- 
ering response was amplified. The in vitro 
induction of the floral stimulus was demon- 
strated when expiants taken from noninduced 
leaves produced flower buds in inductive 
photoperiods. The system is being used to 
investigate both the induction of the floral 
stimulus and the factors that affect its action. 



Pathology 

Experiments showed that when greenhouse 
rose cultivars Samantha and Promise Me 
were grown on their own roots in soil inocu- 
lated with Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) 
Fitzp. and Rhizoctonia solani Kiihn, reduc- 
tion in growth of 20% and reduction in flower 
yield of 20-30% resulted. None of the plants 
died or showed symptoms other than limited 
stunting. In a survey in Ontario these two 
fungi were isolated from roses grown on 
different rootstocks in five out of eight green- 
houses. 

It was established that P. aphanidermatum 
is highly pathogenic on carnations, but that 
there is resistance to it in several cultivars of 
chrysanthemums. 

A strain of R. solani, isolated from poinset- 
tia plants at Ottawa, did not produce visible 
symptoms when inoculated onto the roots of 
poinsettia. Cuttings taken from these plants 6 
wk after inoculation failed to root and were 
found to be infected with the fungus. The 
fungus was isolated from the inoculated 
mother plants 10 wk after inoculation, at 
which time they were still symptomless. 

A clone of Poa annua L. obtained from 
Manitoba proved to be immune to anthrac- 
nose caused by Colletotrichum graminicola 
(Ces.) Wils. in several tests under controlled 
conditions. A clone from Ontario also exhib- 
ited a high degree of resistance to the disease. 



RESEARCH STATION, OTTAWA, ONT. 



249 



Plant breeding 

Rosa. A new winter-hardy, repeatedly 
flowering rose with attractive double red 
flowers and excellent shrub, named John 
Franklin, was released for commercial pro- 
duction. Two seedlings of Rosa rugosa 
Thunb., obtained from seeds collected near 
Abashiri, Japan, showed resistance to the 
twospotted spider mite when compared with 
the floribunda cultivar Arthur Bell. 

The rose selections U04, an everblooming 
bedding rose, and LI 5 and L72, hardy climb- 
ers, were propagated and grown for trial 
plantings. Selection indexes were established 
from points assigned for winter survival, 
length of flowering, flower production, resist- 
ance to diseases, and general ornamental 
features. 

Seedlings of R. rugosa obtained from Bar 
Harbor, Maine, showed great genetic diver- 
sity; the inheritance of the flower color and 
fertility are being investigated. 

Weigela. The aim of the breeding program 
is the development of winter-hardy shrubs 
with purple foliage. Parent plants have been 
obtained from crosses of the winter-hardy 
cultivar Dropmore Pink with the purple 
foliage cultivar W. rosea purpurea. These 
parents produced seedlings with improved 
winterhardiness and intensely purple colored 
foliage. The observed segregation ratios sug- 
gested that purple foliage is controlled by one 
pair of genes. Three chimeras with variegated 
foliage were found. 

Selection of winter-hardy, floriferous, and 
disease-resistant Forsythia cultivars is contin- 
uing, and seven new selections have been 
obtained. The Philadelphus breeding pro- 
gram is being phased out, concluding the 
selection of winter-hardy, low-growing, pur- 
ple-center flowering plants. 

Turf 

A red fescue strain, Saltol, which is tolerant 
of road salt (NaCl), was selected. This strain 
will find application in roadside and similar 
locations exposed to salt applications in 
winter. 

Eighteen cultivars of Poa pratensis L. were 
grown in different day-length and tempera- 
ture environments, relating these conditions to 
stem shading and cultivar selection. Day 
length and temperatures affected the growth; 
cultivars that produced long stems had many 
nodes and a short upper leaf blade, whereas 
short-stemmed cultivars had few buds and a 



long upper leaf blade. These growth traits 
may find use in cultivar selection. 

Evaluation of a large number of cultivars 
for turf quality was continued. 

Arboretum and plant evaluation 

More than 100 cultivars of geranium, 
Pelargonium X hortorum L.H. Bailey, were 
raised from seed and evaluated. Cultivars Red 
Express and Encounter Salmon received the 
top ratings. Among the evaluated dahlia 
cultivars, Coltness hybrids, Verdi Mix, Mi- 
gnon Ideal Bedding Mix, Redskin, and Rigo- 
letto were the best. 

In the arboretum, a start was made on 
propagating all the Philadelphus, Deutzia, 
and Forsythia, with a view to renewing the 
existing collections and including several new 
cultivars. New selections of Ginkgo, Malus, 
and Populus were planted in the early winter. 



PLANT GENE RESOURCES 

Plant gene information 

Genetic-resources inventories of Canadian 
barley, tomato, and wheat were published in 
1980. These are computer-produced lists of 
cultivars and genetic stocks classified under 
various traits specific to each crop. Descrip- 
tions for over 3700 stocks of barley, tomato, 
alfalfa, wheat, and oats have been obtained to 
date, with close to 1350 of these in 1980. 
Another 2225 stocks of barley, oats, corn, 
sunflower, and tobacco were listed by plant 
breeders under the trait-inventory program 
initiated last year. 

Conservation 

Under Canada's participation in the pro- 
gram of the International Board for Plant 
Genetic Resources for the preservation of 
international collections of millet and oats, 
collections of pear millet, Pennisetum ameri- 
canum (L.) Leeke, from Somalia, Cameroon, 
and the Sudan were received for long-term 
conservation at the Plant Gene Resources 
Office. A duplicate of the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture's World Oats Collection was also 
obtained. Seed of almost 59 000 stocks of 
various plant species is preserved at present in 
the seed stores that include 54 m i at 4°C and 
20% relative humidity and 64 m 3 at -20°C 
with no humidity control. 



250 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Exchanges 

Activities of the Plant Gene Resources 
Office in connection with exchanges of genetic 
stocks and cultivars in 1980 involved 275 such 
exchanges with individuals in 39 countries, for 
a total of 9500 accessions. Over 4800 genetic 
stocks and cultivars were introduced from 16 
countries. 



EXPERIMENTAL FARM 
KAPUSKASING, ONT. 

Cereal management 

A small trial was started in the spring of 
1979 and repeated in 1980 to compare two 
sources of nitrogen, ammonium nitrate and 
urea, at four levels of concentration (25, 50, 
75, 100 kg/ha). Grain yields for both years 
were not significantly different as a result of 
the two sources of nitrogen. In 1980, a N level 
of 50 kg/ha was sufficient to obtain the best 
grain yield, whereas in 1979, a N level of 75- 
100 kg/ha was required. 

A study was initiated in the spring of 1979 
and repeated in 1980 to examine four rates of 
urea nitrogen (at 25, 50, 75, 100 kg/ha) on 
spring-sown Keystone barley. These rates 
were applied in four different methods: broad- 
cast over the soil immediately after seeding; 
broadcast over the soil immediately after 
seeding, and harrowed lightly; banded in with 
the seed at seeding; and banded to the side of 
the seed (5 cm laterally and 2.5 cm deep). In 
both years, the grain yields increased with N 
applications of up to 50 kg/ha. Increasing the 
nitrogen level from 25 to 50 kg/ha resulted in 
1015 kg/ha more grain in 1979 and 660 kg/ha 
more grain in 1980. 

In 1979, the grain yields from applications 
of N at 75 kg/ha and 100 kg/ha were 4277 
kg/ha and 4222 kg/ha, respectively. In 1980, 
the grain production with applications of N at 
75 and 100 kg/ha was 6392 kg/ha and 6776 
kg/ha, respectively. In both years, there was a 
significant grain-yield advantage when the 
urea was side banded, when compared with 
the other three methods. In 1979, side- 
banding urea resulted in a grain-yield in- 
crease of 338 kg/ha over the average of the 
three methods of application. In 1980, a 
similar application method resulted in a 
grain-yield increase of 494 kg/ha. The highest 
grain yields of the test in both years were 
obtained by the side-banding application 



method; with N applied at 75 kg/ha in 1979 
the yield was 4852 kg/ha and in 1980 the 
yield was 7160 kg/ha. Both plant height and 
lodging were increased when the nitrogen rate 
was increased from 25 kg/ha to 50 kg/ha. 
Applications of N at 75 and 100 kg/ha did 
not significantly increase lodging and plant 
height over those obtained from applications 
of N at 50 kg/ha. In both 1979 and 1980, 
barley maturity was hastened by a few days 
with the addition of N at 50 and 75 kg/ha. 
The method of applying urea did not affect 
any of the agronomic characteristics except 
the total grain production per hectare. 



EXPERIMENTAL FARM 
THUNDER BAY, ONT. 

Crop management 

Winter survival of red clover varieties in 
northern Ontario. Five cultivars of red clover 
(Lakeland, Ottawa, Florex, Redland, Prosper- 
1) were seeded on 7 May 1977 and were 
established well enough by the fall of 1977 to 
harvest one crop in that year. The stand went 
into winter in excellent condition, but severe 
icing conditions in January 1978 killed most 
legumes. The cultivars Florex, Prosper- 1, and 
Ottawa managed to survive, producing good 
yields that year. For 1977-1979, the total 
mean yields of the three cultivars was 7295 
kg/ha. After the winter of 1979-1980, only 
two of the cultivars revealed significant 
persistence and resistance to winter injury. In 
their 4th yr of cropping, only Florex and 
Prosper- 1 remained with stands of 75%. The 
combined yields of Florex and Prosper- 1 for 
the only cut taken in 1980 was 6013 kg/ha, 
mainly because of poor precipitation in May 
and June. Now in their 4th yr, the cultivars 
Florex and Prosper- 1 continue to show per- 
sistence to winter injury and to retain a better 
stand than Lakeland, Ottawa, and Redland. 

The effect of fall applications of nitrogen 
applied to bromegrass, orchardgrass, and 
timothy. Significant differences were noted in 
yields when N was applied at 15-day inter- 
vals, from 1 August to 30 September. The 
highest réponse to N when applied to brome- 
grass and orchardgrass occurred when it was 
applied on 15 August. The most favorable 
time for application of N to timothy was 30 
September. The dry-matter yields for timothy 



RESEARCH STATION, OTTAWA, ONT. 



251 



when applied on 15 August was 3943 kg/ha, 
compared with 5203 kg/ha when applied on 



30 September. The rate of N application 
for each test was 1 20 kg/ha. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Armstrong, K. C. 1980. The cytology of tetraploid 
Bromus inermis and the co-colchicine induced 
octoploid. Can. J. Bot. 58:582-587. 

Basu, P. K. 1980. Production of chlamydospores of 
Phytophthora megasperma and their possible 
role in primary infection and soil survival. Can. 
J. Plant Pathol. 2:70-75. 

Boch, R.; Shearer, D. A.; Shuel, R. W. 1979. 
Octanoic and other volatile acids in the man- 
dibular glands of the honeybee and in royal 
jelly. J. Apic. Res. 18:250-253. 

Bolton, A. T. 1980. Effects of temperature and pH 
of soilless media on root rot of poinsettia 
caused by Pythium aphanidermaium. Can. J. 
Plant Pathol. 2:83-85. 

Bolton, A. T. 1980. Control of Pythium aphanider- 
matum in poinsettia in a soilless culture by 
Trichoderma viride and a Streptomyces sp. 
Can. J. Plant Pathol. 2:93-95. 

Brach, E. J.; Fejer, S. O. 1980. Holographic 
interferometry to differentiate the morphology 
of various cereal crops. Phyton 38:37-47. 

Childers, W. R.; Dickson, W. D. 1980. Bytown Red 
Clover. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:1041-1042. 

Clark, R. V. 1980. Comparison of spot blotch 
severity in barley grain in pure stands and in 
mixtures with oats. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 2:37- 
38. 

Fedak, G. 1980. Production, morphology and meio- 
sis of reciprocal barley-wheat hybrids. Can. J. 
Genet. Cytol. 22:1 17-123. 

Fedak, G.; Armstrong, K. C. 1980. Production of 
trigeneric (barley x wheat) x rye hybrids. 
Theor. Appl. Genet. 56:221-224. 

Fedak, G.; Loiselle, R.; Fejer, S. O. 1980. Massey 
barley. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:277-278. 

Fejer, S. O.; Fedak, G. 1980. Growth and develop- 
ment of cultivars and hybrids of spring barley 
under controlled daylength and temperature. 
Z. Pflanzenzuecht. 85:140-147. 

Gochnauer, T. A.; Burke, P. W.; Benazet, J. 1979. 
Large-scale fumigation with ethylene oxide of 
honeybee combs contaminated with Bacillus 
larvae. J. Apic. Res. 18:302-308. 

Gochnauer, T. A.; Margetts, V. J. 1980. A rapid 
method for concentrating Nosema apis spores. 
J. Invertebr. Pathol. 36:278-280. 



Guppy, J. C. 1980. A comparison of development 
and fecundity in North American and Euro- 
pean populations of the cereal leaf beetle, 
Oulema melanopus (Coleoptera: Chrysomeli- 
dae). 1979 Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ont. 110:75- 
78. 

Harcourt, D. G.; Binns, M. R. 1980. Sampling 
techniques for the soil-borne stages of Agro- 
myza frontella (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Great 
Lakes Entomol. 13:159-164. 

Harcourt, D. G.; Ellis, C. R.; Guppy, J. C. 1980. 
Distribution of Microctonus aethiopoides, a 
parasitoid of the alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: 
Curculionidae) in Ontario. 1979 Proc. Ento- 
mol. Soc. Ont. 110:34-39. 

Hargin, K. D.; Morrison, W. R.; Fulcher, R. G. 
1980. Triglyceride deposits in the starchy 
endosperm of wheat. Cereal Chem. 57:320- 

325. 

Limonti, M.; Harcourt, D. G. 1979. Dispersion 
pattern of white-fringed beetles (Coleoptera: 
Curculionidae) in alfalfa. Ser. 5, Rev. Invest. 
Agric. 14:1-12. 

Loan, C. C. 1980. Oedemopsis scarbricula in 
British Columbia (Hymenoptera: Ichneumoni- 
dae, Tryphoninae). Nat. Can. 107:1 1-14. 

Loan, C. C. 1980. Leiophron maculipennis (Hyme- 
noptera: Braconidae, Euphorinae) a parasite of 
Diaphnocoris chlorionis (Heteroptera: Miri- 
dae) in eastern Ontario. Nat. Can. 107:49-50. 

Murray, B. E. 1980. Diploid F,s from haploid x 
diploid crosses in flax {Linum usitatissimum). 

Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 22:591-596. 

Murray, B. E. 1980. Analysis of meiotic metaphasc 
in haploids and F,s of haploid x diploid flax 
{Linum usitatissimum). Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 
22:597-605. 

Parups, E. V. 1980. Effect of morphactin on certain 
plant growth substances in bean roots. Physiol. 
Plant. 49:281-285. 

Parups, E. V. 1980. Gibberellins in photoperiodi- 
cally treated chrysanthemums cv. Improved 
Indianapolis White. Phyton 39:121-126. 

Simmonds, J. A. 1980. Increased seedling establish- 
ment of Impatiens wallerana in response to 
maximized germination rates. Can. J. Plant 
Sci. 60:259-264. 



252 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT I^SO 



Simmonds, J. A. 1980. Increased seedling establish- 
ment of Impatiens waller ana in response to 
low temperature or polyethylene glycol seed 
treatments. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:561-569. 

Svejda, F. 1980. John Franklin rose. Can. J. Plant 
Sci. 60:1053-1054. 

Svejda, F.; Bolton, A. T. 1980. Resistance of rose 
hybrids to three races of Diplocarpon rosae 
Wolf. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 2:23-25. 

Svejda, F.; Rondald, W. 1980. Forsythia Northern 
Gold. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:1057-1058. 

Miscellaneous 

Armstrong, K. C. 1980. Cytogenetics of the genus 
Bromus (Section Pnigma). Proceedings Grass 
Breeders Work Planning Conference, Utah 
State University, Utah. 

Basu, P. K. 1980. Existence of chlamydospores of 
Phytophthora megasperma as soil survival and 
primary infective propagules. American Phyto- 
pathological Society - Canadian Phytopatho- 
logical Society Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, 
MN. (abstract), p. 117. 

Boch, R. 1980. Canadian honey crops: Sunflower. 
Can. Beekeeping 8:94. 

Burrows, V. D. 1979. Large seeded hull-less oats. 
Oat Newsl. 30:64. 

Burrows, V. D. 1979. Hull-less oat with few surface 
hairs on groat. Oat Newsl. 30:65. 

Buzzell, R. I.; Voldeng, H. D. 1980. Inheritance of 
insensitivity to long daylength. Soybean Genet. 
Newsl. 7:26-29. 

Clark, R. V. 1979. Irrigation and the kernel weight 
of oats. Oat Newsl. 30:66. 

Clark, R. V.; Burrows, V. D. 1979. The influence of 
herbicide on Septoria development. Oat 
Newsl. 30:67. 

Clark, R. V.; Seaman, W. L. 1979. Leaf blotch 
symptoms in barley. Barley Newsl. 23:62. 

Craig, I. L.; Fedak, G. 1980. Wild barley 
{Hordeum L.) collected by Agriculture 
Canada in Turkey, Iran, and Greece. Barley 
Genet. Newsl. 10:11-13. 

Craig, I. L.; Fedak, G. 1980. Wild barley collected 
in Turkey, Iran, Greece, Argentina, and Chile. 
Presented to Joint Annual Meeting, Canadian 
Society of Microbiologists, Genetics Society of 
Canada. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 22:659 
(abstract). 

Douglas, G. C; Keller, W. A.; Setterfield, G. 1980. 
Production of somatic hybrid Nicotiana rus- 
tica + N. tabacum L. plants by protoplast 
fusion. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 22:660 (abstract). 



Fedak, G. 1979. Source of meiotic abnormalities in 
barley-wheat hybrids. Wheat Information 
Serv. 50:10-11. 

Fedak, G. 1980. Progress in the production of 
intergeneric hybrids involving Triticum. 
Wheat Newsl. 26:55. 

Fedak, G. 1980. Coordinators report — chromosome 
7. Barley Genet. Newsl. 10:72. 

Fedak, G.; Armstrong, K. C. 1980. Hybrids 
between {Hordeum vulgare x (T. aestivum) 
x Secale cereale). Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 
21:561 (abstract). 

Fedak, G.; Armstrong, K. C. 1980. Cytogenetics of 
trigeneric hybrids between {Hordeum vulgare 
X Triticum aestivum) x Secale cereale. Can. 
J. Genet. Cytol. 22:622 (abstract). 

Fedak, G.; Loiselle, R.; Fejer, S. O. 1979. Massey 
barley. Barley Newsl. 22:9. 

Fejer, S. O. 1980. Powdery mildew resistance and 
barley yield in Eastern Canada. Barley Newsl. 
23:66A-B. 

Fejer, S. O.; Jui, P. Y.; Fedak, G. 1980. Seven 
single seed descent generations, recurrent 
crossing and selection and bulk breeding meth- 
ods from a diallel cross of Hordeum vulgare. 
Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 21:561 (abstract). 

Fulcher, R. G. 1980. Oat morphology and micro- 
chemistry. Lockhart, H., ed. Oats: a mono- 
graph. Chapter II. Barrington, IL.: Quaker 
Oats Co.; pp. 17-67. 

Fulcher, R. G. 1980. The microchemistry of the 
wheat kernel. Symposium on the development 
of the wheat kernel. American Association of 
Cereal Chemists 65th Annual Meeting. Cereal 
Foods World 25:525. 

Fulcher, R. G.; O'Brien, T. P. 1980. Fluorescence 
microchemistry of cereal bran constituents: 
Methods for niacin, amines, lipids, and pro- 
teins. American Association of Cereal Chem- 
ists 65th Annual Meeting. Cereal Foods World 
25:519. 

Fulcher, R. G.; Wong, S. I. 1980. Inside cereals— a 
fluorescence microchemical view. Inglett, G.; 
Munck, L., eds. Cereals for food and bever- 
ages — Recent progress in chemistry and tech- 
nology. Chapter I. Academic Press, pp. 1-26. 

Fulcher, R. G.; Wood, P. J. 1980. Microchemical 
differentiation of cell wall constituents in 
cereals and cereal products. American Associ- 
ation of Cereal Chemists 65th Annual Meet- 
ing. Cereal Foods World 25:520. 

Gochnauer, T. A. 1 980. Varroa disease of the honey 
bee: a threat to Canadian beekeeping. Can. 
Beekeeping 8:120. 



RESEARCH STATION, OTTAWA, ONT. 



253 



Gochnauer, T. A. 1980. The impact of infectious 
diseases on the productivity of the honey bee 
colony. Pimentel, D., ed. Pest management. 
Handbook series in agriculture. Boca Raton, 
FL.: CRC Press. 

Harcourt, D. G. 1980. Insect pest management. 
Part I. Population analysis of pest situations. 
IDIA. 18 pp. 

Harcourt, D. G. 1980. Insect pest management. 
Part II. Research on major insect pests of 
alfalfa in Argentina. IDIA. 20 pp. 

Harcourt, D. G.; Aragon, J. 1980. Warning system 
for the alfalfa caterpillar. IDIA. 6 pp. 

Keller, W. A. 1980. Factors influencing microspore 
embryogenesis in Brassica spp. anther cul- 
tures. Davies, D. R.; Hopwood, D. A., eds. The 
plant genome. Norwich: The John Innes Char- 
ity. 243 pp. 

Keller, W. A. 1980. In vitro production of haploids 
in crop plant from microspores. Can. J. Genet. 
Cytol. 22:667 (abstract). 

Keller, W. A. 1980. Plant tissue culture research 
activity in Canada. Proceedings Canadian 
Agricultural Research Priorities Symposium, 
International Development Research Centre 
Manuscript Reports, IDRC-MR33. pp. 119- 
142. 

Keller, W. A. 1980. The role of anther pre- 
conditioning in the in vitro induction of micro- 
spore embryogenesis in Brassica spp. Canadian 
Society Plant Physiology, Annual Meeting. 
Calgary, Alta. (abstract). 

Loiselle, R. 1979. Progress in the Canadian plant 
genetic resources program. 1978 Barley Newsl. 
22:84-85. 

Loiselle, R. 1980. Plant Gene Resour. Can. Newsl. 
6:1-17. 

Loiselle, R. 1980. Plant Gene Resour. Can. Newsl. 
9:1-17. 

Loiselle, R. 1980. Canadian Barley Genetic Re- 
sources Inventory/Inventaire canadien des 
ressources génétiques de l'orge. Central Office 
for the Plant Gene Resources of Canada, 
Ottawa Research Station, Research Branch, 
Agriculture Canada. PGRC-80-1. 206 pp. 

Loiselle, R. 1980. Canadian Tomato Genetic Re- 
sources Inventory/Inventaire canadien des 
ressources génétiques de la tomate. Central 
Office for the Plant Gene Resources of 
Canada, Ottawa Research Station, Research 
Branch, Agriculture Canada. PGRC-80-3. 142 
pp. 

Murray, B. E. 1980. Analyses of meiotic mctaphase 
in haploid progeny from haploid (Rocket 4) X 
diploid (Natasja) crosses in flax. Can. J. 
Genet. Cytol. 22:672 (abstract). 



Parups, E. V. 1979. House plant with a potential 
(Siningia). Can. Florist 74(19):38-41. 

Parups, E. V. 1980. Pinocchio asters as pot plants 
for mass market outlets. Can. Florist 75(7):38- 
39. 

Parups, E. V. 1980. Observations at the Second 
International Symposium on post-harvest 
physiology of cut flowers. Can. Florist 
75(17):14-20. 

Parups, E. V. 1980. Pacific chrysanthemum — a new 
potential pot plant. Can. Florist 75(20):48-50. 

Parups, E. V. 1980. Perspectives of development of 
floricultural industry in Canada. Proceedings 
Floralies Symposium. Montreal, Que. 

Poon, N. H.; Altosaar, I.; Fulcher, R. G.; Wood, P. 
J. 1980. A histochemical study of rapeseed. 
American Association of Cereal Chemists 65th 
Annual Meeting. Cereal Foods World 25:519. 

Poon, N. H.; Fulcher, R. G.; Altosaar, I. 1980. 
Rapeseed microchemistry. Proceedings of a 
Symposium on the analytical chemistry of 
rapeseed and its products. 8 pp. 

Prentice, R. M.; Harcourt, D. G. 1980. Integrated 
pest management in agricultural pests in 
Canada. Tripartite discussions on research in 
agriculture. 30 pp. 

Seaman, W. L. 1980. Ergot of grains and grasses. 
Agric. Can. Publ. 1438. 

Setterfield, G.; Douglas, G. C; Keller, W. A. 1980. 
Somatic hybridization in Nicotiana. Canadian 
Federation Biological Science, Annual Meet- 
ing, St. John's (abstract). 

Simmonds, J. A. 1980. Seed treatments for im- 
proved seedling establishment of Impatiens. 
Can. Florist 75(9):32-34. 

Simmonds, J. A.; Beauchamp, M. 1980. Begonia 
sutherlandii — untapped potential in hanging 
baskets. Can. Florist 75(5):38-40. 

Svejda, F. 1980. David Thompson rose. Canadex 
28333. 

Svejda, F. 1980. John Franklin rose. Landscape 
Trades 2(2):32. 

Svejda, F. 1980. Breeding winterhardy and remon- 
tant roses. Proceedings Floralies Symposium. 
Montreal, Que. 

Svejda, F. 1980. Breeding winterhardy, remontant 
and disease resistant roses. Proc. Can. Soc. 
Hortic. Sci. 19:46-47. 

Svejda, F. 1980. Researchers examine hardiness 
level. Am. Rose Mag. 25(24):4-6. 

Voldeng, H. D. 1979. Soybeans in Canada — past, 
present and future. Fats and oils in Canada, 
annual review. 10 pp. 



254 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Voldeng, H. D. 1980. Short season soybeans in * Meeting. Cereal Foods World 25:510 

Canada. Agri-book 6:12-1 4. (abstract). 

Warren, F. S. 1980. Forage production of corn and 

sunflower mixtures. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:1377- Wood p j . Fulcher, R. G. 1980. Specificity in the 

1382. interaction of polysaccharides with direct dyes, 

Wood, P. J.; Fulcher, R. G. 1980. Applications of a chemical basis for the histochemical localisa- 
the interaction of direct dyes with polysaccha- tion of cereal /3-glucans. American Associa- 
rides, in particular cereal /3-glucans. American tion of Cereal Chemists 65th Annual Meeting. 
Association of Cereal Chemists 65th Annual Cereal Foods World 25:534 (abstract). 



RESEARCH STATION, OTTAWA, ONT. 255 



Research Station 
Vineland Station, Ontario 

PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



A. J. McGinnis, B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 
M. Chiba, B.Sc, D.Sc. 

D. R. Menzies, B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 

E. N. A. McMillan 

N. Gibson-MacDonald, 1 B.A., M.A., M.L.S. 



Director 

Residue chemistry 

Agricultural engineering 

Administrative Officer 

Librarian 



Entomology 



E. A. C. Hagley, B.Sc (Agr.), M.Sc, Ph.D. 

R. W. Fisher, B.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. 
D. H. C. Herne, B.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 
D. J. Pree, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
C. M. Simpson 

A. B. Stevenson, B.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. 
R. J. M. Trimble, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Section Head; Fruit pest 

management 
Pesticide application 
Acarology 
Toxicology 
Pesticide evaluation 
Vegetable pest management 
Bioclimatology 



Nematology 



P. W. Johnson, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
T. H. A. Olthof, Ing., B.Sc (Agr.), Ph.D. 
J. W. Potter, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 
J. L. Townshend, B.Sc, M.Sc, D.I.C. 



Section Head; Chemical control 
Host-parasite relations 
Nematode ecology 
Nematode ecology 



Plant Pathology 



H. F. Dias, Eng. Agr., Ph.D. 

W. R. Allen, B.A., Ph.D. 

T. R. Davidson, B.Sc, M.Sc. 

W. G. Kemp, B.A., M.A. 

J. Northover, B.Sc, Ph.D., D.I.C. 

A. A. Reyes, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 



Section Head; Fruit virology 
Fruit virology 
Fruit virology 
Vegetable virology 
Fruit mycology 
Vegetable mycology 



RESEARCH STATION, VINELAND STATION, ONT. 



257 



Experimental Farm, Smithfield, Ont. 



S. R. Miller, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

W. P. Mohr, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 
N. J. Parks, B.Sc. 



Superintendent; Plant physiology 
and biochemistry 
Food processing 
Vegetable management 



Departures 



R. W. Fisher, B.Sc. (Agr.), Ph.D. 

Retired September 1980 
T. R. Davidson, B.Sc, M.Sc. 

Retired December 1980 
H. F. Dias, Eng. Agr., Ph.D. 

Deceased July 1980 
A. J. McGinnis, B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 

Retired December 1980 



Pesticide application 

Fruit virology 

Section Head; Fruit virology 

Director 



VISITING SCIENTIST 



A. B. Broadbent 

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research 
Council 



Insect toxicology 



EXTENSION SERVICES 2 



J. T. Warner, B.Sc. 



Fruit and vegetable crops 



'Seconded from Libraries Division, Finance and Administration Branch 
•Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Trenton, Ont. 



258 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



INTRODUCTION 



Integrated pest management (IPM) programs for apple, peach, and carrot crops were 
again used extensively by Ontario growers. The spotted tentiform leafminer continued to be a 
serious problem in apple orchards. Although leafminers can be readily controlled with 
synthetic pyrethroids, these compounds decimate the predacious mite populations. Without 
predators in the orchards, miticides are required to avoid mite damage to the trees. There is 
evidence also that the European red mite is developing tolerance for the available miticide 
cyhexatin, which will further aggravate the mite problem. 

The seventh meeting of the International Council for the Study of Viruses and Virus 
Diseases of the Grapevine was successfully staged at Niagara Falls and managed by local staff. 
Unfortunately, Dr. H. F. Dias, who had done the early planning and organizing, died 5 wk 
before the conference. He was a world renowned grapevine virologist and had served this 
Station for 16 yr. 

Evidence has been accumulated that tobacco mosaic virus is spread on plants in 
greenhouses by splashing of contaminated soil particles during watering. This phenomenon 
explains the appearance of virus symptoms on test plants, where none should exist. 

Although none of the 21 peach rootstocks tested proved resistant to nematodes, two 
introductions from China appear to be likely sources of tolerance. 

Objective measurement with specific instruments on juices and purees prepared from 
several tomato lines generally agreed with the subjective ratings of the human senses. 

This report presents in capsule form some of the significant research results obtained in 
1980. For more information on these or other research projects, or for reprints of published 
papers, please write: Director, Research Station, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 
Vineland Station, Ont. LOR 2E0. 

A. J. McGinnis 
Director 



PESTICIDES 

Application 

Evaluation of spray coverage. The effect of 
spraying water on residues of phosmet in 
peach trees was evaluated by both bioassay 
and residue analysis. Phosmet at 1.12 kg/ha 
failed to provide adequate control of first 
instar oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapho- 
litha molesta (Busck), within 3-5 days after 
the water treatment; at higher rates (2.24 and 
4.20 kg/ha) control was achieved for longer 
periods after the water treatment. At the 1.12 
kg/ha rate, water application on the day of 
pesticide application significantly reduced the 
phosmet residues, but had little effect if 
applied when the phosmet residues were 
either 3 or 6 days old. 

The relationship between first instar mor- 
tality of OFM and visual coverage ratings was 
established for pesticide to fluorescent dye 
(P:D) ratios of 5, 8, and 1 1, with phosmet at 
4000 ppm. The deposit ratings were underes- 
timated at mortalities > 70% for the P:D 
ratio of 11, but not for ratios of 8 and 5. 



When the phosmet concentration was varied 
but the P:D ratio was kept constant, low 
mortalities due to sparse deposits could be 
avoided by increasing the phosmet concentra- 
tion. 

Phytotoxicity of captan-phosmet mixtures 
to peach foliage occurred under many com- 
binations of temperature and humidity. Dried 
deposits became phytotoxic when placed in a 
higher temperature, high-humidity envi- 
ronment. 



Fate of oxamyl. It has been the general 
view that oxamyl does not move in soil. To 
test this concept, bare peach seeds were 
coated with oxamyl and planted in sterilized 
soil in clay pots (5 cm diam). After 1 wk 
oxamyl was found in the soil surrounding the 
seed and also in the clay pots after pulveri- 
zation. Intact oxamyl constituted 96% and 
52% of the total residue (oxamyl + oxime) in 
the soil and pots, respectively. There was still 
no evidence of oxamyl degradation on the 
seed 3 wk after planting. 



RESEARCH STATION, VINELAND STATION, ONT. 



259 



Carbaryl spray deposits. A rapid colori- 
metric method was developed to measure 
deposits of the insecticide carbaryl on foliage 
of fruit trees. Analyses take less than 3 min 
per sample when 50 or more samples are 
processed together. A 5-cm 2 disc punched 
from a leaf constitutes the sample. Carbaryl is 
extracted and hydrolyzed by methanolic 
NaOH, then coupled with /7-nitrobenzenedia- 
zonium tetrafluoroborate, which produces a 
spectrum of colors ranging from red to blue. 
Within a range of 0.5-10 /u,g/cm 2 of leaf 
surface or 0.25-5.0 /u-g/mL of alkaline solu- 
tion, the absorbance obeys the Beer-Lambert 
law at 580 nm. This method meets the 
demand of field entomologists who need an 
unsophisticated method that can be used by 
the nonchemist. Such analyses can be used to 
judge whether another spray application is 
required after a heavy rainfall or to check the 
distribution of spray deposits on the target. In 
addition, semiquantitative determinations can 
be made anywhere simply by using a series of 
color standards. 



INSECTS AND MITES 

Integrated pest management 

Pest management in apple orchards. 
Azinphos-methyl failed to control the spotted 
tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancar- 
della (Fabricius) in some apple-growing areas 
of southern Ontario in 1980. Leafminer 
populations from these areas proved to be 
resistant to the insecticide and showed cross 
resistance to phosmet with partial cross 
resistance to diazinon. Irrespective of resist- 
ance to azinphos-methyl, all leafminer popu- 
lations were highly susceptible to the syn- 
thetic pyrethroids permethrin, fenvalerate, 
and cypermethrin, and to methomyl. Endosul- 
fan was less toxic than the latter insecticides, 
whereas phosalone was not toxic to either 
resistant or susceptible populations. Good 
leafminer control was obtained by applying 
either permethrin when eggs were first de- 
tected on the foliage or methomyl when 50% 
egg hatch had occurred. 

Pest management in peach orchards. A 
series of fact sheets, Pest management pro- 
gram for peach insects, was prepared and 
released for use by growers and extension 
workers. Effective control strategies for most 
insect pests of peach are outlined. Pest control 
was generally excellent in 1980; few peaches 



were damaged by OFM and plant bugs were 
not a serious problem. Results of the studies 
with several synthetic pyrethroid insecticides 
during the last several years indicate that they 
give excellent control of pest insects, but they 
adversely affect predacious mites. Hence 
outbreaks of European red mite (ERM), 
Panonychus ulmi (Koch), can be expected if 
pyrethroid compounds are used extensively. 

Pest management in carrot fields. A simple 
method for monitoring the carrot weevil early 
in the season before the carrot crop is suscep- 
tible to attack would enable growers to 
determine whether an insecticide is needed for 
its control. Hence a potential monitoring 
procedure was tested. In late May, before the 
new crop of carrots had emerged, 10-cm 
sections of mature carrot root were partly 
buried in soil in commercial carrot fields, at or 
near sites where carrot weevil injury had been 
reported the previous year. Overwintered 
adult weevils oviposited in the root sections. 
The carrot sections were examined every 3 or 
4 days, and oviposition punctures were readily 
identified with a hand lens. In heavy infesta- 
tions, all root sections contained up to five 
oviposition punctures per day. Based on the 
number of punctures, growers were advised to 
spray at five of the six sites monitored; 
excellent control of carrot weevil was obtained 
at all sites. 

Ecology 

Establishment of beneficial mites in apple 
orchards. The predacious phytoseiid mite, 
Amblyseius fallacis Garman, was released in 
apple orchards in 1979 to determine its 
capacity to control ERM. In 1979, either 10 
or 50 A. fallacis mites were released per apple 
tree (cv. Red Delicious) in early July when 
ERM averaged 0.04 active stages per leaf. A 
satisfactory predator-prey ratio of 1:5.5 was 
not reached until the end of August, at which 
time foliage injury was rated moderate to 
severe on most of the release trees. During the 
1980 season, A. fallacis was detected in 
release trees as early as 5 May and as late as 
24 September. The predators reached their 
maximum population level of 0.3 per leaf 
between 6 and 14 August, but again there 
were too few to control ERM. 

In 1980, either 25 or 50 A. fallacis mites 
were released per apple tree (cv. Mcintosh) 
on 15 July. The number of A. fallacis found 
at weekly intervals during the season was 
directly proportional to the number released. 



260 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



In this experiment, as in the one commenced 
in 1979, predator-prey ratios adequate for 
control did not occur until late in the season, 
and propargite sprays were necessary as early 
as 6 August to protect the trees. In both 
seasons, either difolatan or captan was ap- 
plied for scab control, and three applications 
of either phosmet or azinphos-methyl were 
needed to control codling moth and apple 
maggot. These pesticides caused minimal 
harm to the A. fallacis mites. In contrast, in 
both years the pyrethroid permethrin, applied 
prebloom to control spotted tentiform leaf- 
miner, caused high mortality in the predator 
population and contributed to the failure of 
the predator to provide adequate mite control. 

Chemical control 

Mites developing resistance to cyhexatin. 
In 1980, ERM was exceptionally troublesome 
in Ontario apple orchards, and numerous 
instances of control failure with cyhexatin, an 
important acaricide, were reported. Tests 
showed that a mite population from an apple 
orchard in the Ruthven region of southwest- 
ern Ontario had a low level of resistance 
(threefold) to cyhexatin when compared with 
a standard laboratory strain. General resist- 
ance to the organotin acaricides will consti- 
tute a serious problem for Ontario 
fruitgrowers. 

Evaluation of acaricides and insecticides 
for integrated pest management. The pyre- 
throids permethrin, cypermethrin, fenvaler- 
ate, and AC 222705 (Cyanamid Canada Inc.) 
were more toxic to the predator A. fallacis 
than to its prey, ERM. Populations of ERM 
were higher in plots treated with either 
permethrin or cypermethrin in both apple and 
peach orchards than in comparable plots 
treated with azinphos-methyl, phosmet, or 
phosalone. The herbicide paraquat used in 
IPM programs was moderately toxic to A. 
fallacis. 

Control of the spotted tentiform leaf miner. 
Methomyl, a systemically active material 
recommended for control of larvae of the 
spotted tentiform leafminer proved to be an 
effective ovicide. No hatch occurred when the 
spotted tentiform leafminer eggs were treated 
1, 3, or 5 days after deposition. Effective 
control was also obtained with any of six 
synthetic pyrethroid compounds when appli- 
cation coincided with first egg deposition for 
both first and second generations. All treat- 
ments, however, caused populations of the 



two-spotted mite, Tetr any chus telarius, and 
the ERM to rise. 



Control of the carrot weevil, in 1980, 
phosmet was registered for control of the 
carrot weevil on carrots, where previously no 
effective insecticide had been available for 
use. A trial at the Holland Marsh in 1978 
demonstrated the efficacy of two applications 
of phosmet with active ingredients at 1.1 kg/ 
ha. In 1980 efficacy of phosmet under com- 
mercial conditions was confirmed. When the 
insecticide was used on five farms infested 
with carrot weevil, the carrots were harvested 
with negligible damage. 



NEMATODES 



Ecology 

Winter survival of root-knot nematodes in 
southern Ontario. In a peach orchard, the 
southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne 
incognita, overwintered successfully in a 
moderate winter, but failed to survive a 
subsequent severe winter. This species failed 
to survive below the frost line in a moderate 
winter under alfalfa (a poor host), but some 
survived a severe winter under red clover (a 
good perennial host), and tomato (a good 
annual host). By comparison, during both 
winters the northern root-knot nematode, 
Meloidogyne hapla, survived well under 
alfalfa, red clover, and tomato at soil depths 
of 0-90 cm. 

Anhydrobiosis in Pratylenchus penetrans. 
Anhydrobiosis, the phenomenon of survival 
through the loss of body water in a dehydrat- 
ing environment, was observed in P. penetrans 
when either Vineland silt or Fox sandy loam 
was dried. The anhydrobiotes form tightly 
coiled spirals. The anhydrobiotes developed as 
the soil was air dried. The numbers increased 
logarithmically from 15/50 g of soil on day 
to 500/50 g on day 18; soil moisture declined 
exponentially from 10-12% to 2% during the 
same period. The number of anhydrobiotes 
remaining alive declined over this period. The 
passage of P. penetrans to the anhydrobiotic 
state was similar in the two soils. Anhydrobio- 
sis was more rapid, however, in fast-dried soils 
but fewer anhydrobiotes survived. 



RESEARCH STATION, VINELAND STATION, ONT. 



261 



Host-parasite relationships 

Reaction of peach rootstocks to root-lesion 
nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans. With 21 
peach rootstocks (including four commer- 
cially available cultivars) tested in the green- 
house, differences were demonstrated in rate 
of nematode increase, total number of nema- 
todes per plant at termination of the study, 
and number of nematodes in the soil and 
roots. With an initial inoculum of 2800 
nematodes per kilogram of soil, final soil 
populations ranged from 6400 to 18 300 per 
kilogram and total populations ranged from 
1 1 200 to 32 800 per year-old tree. Nematode 
infection reduced growth, total fresh and dry 
shoot weights, and fresh root weight. None of 
the currently available rootstocks appears to 
be resistant, but two Chinese introductions, 
Chui Lum Tao and Tzim Pee Tao, are 
promising sources of nematode tolerance. 

Paratylenchus project us on forage leg- 
umes. The pin nematode, Paratylenchus 
projectus, reduced forage yields of alfalfa, 
birdsfoot trefoil, red clover, and white clover 
by reducing seedling stands; with birdsfoot 
trefoil and red clover there was also a 
decrease in weight per surviving plant. 
Birdsfoot trefoil, however, was the only crop 
that showed an inverse relationship between 
forage yield and nematode inoculum density. 
Over a 2.5-yr period, nematode numbers 
decreased consistently under alfalfa, in- 
creased consistently under clover, and re- 
mained static or declined after the first year's 
increase under red clover and birdsfoot trefoil. 
In contrast to other nematode species in 
northern climates, the numbers of the pin 
nematode did not decline during the winter 
under favorable hosts. 

Control 

Control of dagger nematodes in grape soils 
with a systemic nematicide. The dagger 
nematode, Xiphinema americanum, is a vec- 
tor of tomato ringspot virus in vineyards. The 
systemic nematicide, oxamyl, which translo- 
cates basipetally from foliar application, was 
tested as a control chemical on virus-suscepti- 
ble grapes. After four foliar sprays of oxamyl 
with active ingredients at 1.12 kg/ha in 450 L 
water per season for two seasons, no dagger 
nematodes were found in soil samples from 
around individual vines after the second 
season; about 75 nematodes per litre of soil 
were present in the unsprayed checks. Trace 
infestations (five or less per litre) were found 



around some sprayed vines 2 yr after spraying 
ceased, whereas around adjacent unsprayed 
vines there were 50-100 nematodes per litre. 
One year later most of the sprayed vines were 
infested, although the numbers of nematodes 
were generally similar to those of the previous 
year. 



PLANT DISEASES 

Fruit crops 

Botrytis bunch rot of grapes. Benomyl- 
resistant Botrytis cinerea Persoon was identi- 
fied in five of nine vineyards examined in 
1979. In 1980, a combination of the two 
fungicides benomyl and captan was applied 
five times to three of the vineyards possessing 
low levels of resistance and it gave substantial 
protection. Of the infections that developed, 
however, most were benomyl-resistant, indi- 
cating rapid development of resistance and 
the failure of the benomyl-captan combina- 
tion to prevent it. 

Iprodione and vinclozolin were superior to 
captan, benomyl + captan, and chlorotha- 
lonil for the prevention of bunch rot. Results 
from a series of spray programs show that the 
critical period for protection of Gamay Beau- 
jolais and Chardonnay was between post- 
bloom and early bunch closure. Fungicides 
applied after July have little if any effect on 
severity of the disease at harvest in early 
October. 

Dissemination of tobacco mosaic virus 
from infested soil. Contamination of green- 
house-grown plants used for virus indexing of 
fruit trees with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 
was associated with infested potted soil. It 
was shown that virus dissemination occurred 
by splashing during watering. Aerial 
movement of the virus over distances of at 
least 160 cm was demonstrated. The virus was 
adsorbed to leaves from rolling water droplets. 
Soil to which virus particles were adsorbed 
also adhered to leaves and induced infection if 
the leaves were rubbed. TMV was reversibly 
adsorbed to soil at low concentrations of 
Ca + + and Mg + + relative to those of K + and 
Na + and was desorbed at high ionic concen- 
trations. It appears, therefore, that colloid- 
cation-virus binding is largely responsible for 
adsorption. Optimum virus recovery from soil 
occurred near pH 6, and binding to soil 
increased as the pH was either raised or 
lowered. Rapid inactivation of TMV in soil 



262 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



occurred under drying conditions and was 
associated with virus particle disruption. The 
virucidal effects of soil dewatering were more 
closely related to evaporation per se than to 
moisture levels. 

Vegetable crops 

Synergism between cucumber mosaic virus 
and soil fungi relative to sudden wilt of 
greenhouse cucumbers. Synergism between 
soil fungi, particularly Pythium spp., and 
cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in the sudden 
wilt disease of greenhouse cucumbers in 
Ontario was demonstrated. At both 10° and 
20°C cucumber plants simultaneously inocu- 
lated with Pythium and CMV suffered 
greater mortality than did those inoculated 
with either the fungus or virus alone. At 30°C 
no death occurred. Although CMV -Rhizoc- 
tonia and CMV-Fusarium combinations 
caused mortality in greenhouse cucumbers at 
10°C, it was much less extensive than that 
caused by the CMW-Pythium combination. 

Allium viruses in Ontario. Elongated flex- 
uous virus particles about 725 nm long and 
stiff rod-shaped particles about 30 nm in 
length with a noticeable central core were 
detected in leaf dips of diseased garlic and 
onions, respectively, from southern Ontario. 
Infected garlic seedlings were severely stunted 
with noticeable chlorotic striping of the 
leaves; affected onions were not stunted, but 
showed mild chlorotic leaf striping. The 
symptoms induced by the onion virus on a 
limited host range and its particle size indi- 
cate a similarity to TMV. The garlic virus 
remains unidentified, but it has been trans- 
mitted mechanically to onion and certain 
Chenopodium species. Neither virus has been 
reported before from these plants in Canada. 

Antagonists of the pea root rot pathogens. 
Ten species of microorganism antagonistic to 
pea root rot pathogens Fusarium solani 
(Mart.) App. & Wr. f. sp. pisi (F.R. Jones) 
Snyd. & Hansen, Rhizoctonia solani Kiihn, 
and Pythium ultimum Trow were cultivated 
on agar at 22°C. Three of them proved 
inhibitory to growth of all three pathogens. 
Four others were inhibitory to two pathogens, 
either F. solani and R. solani or R. solani and 
P. ultimum, but not the other combination. 
Three organisms proved antagonistic to the 
growth of only one pathogen, either F. solani, 
R. solani, or P. ultimum. 



Interaction between pea root rot pathogens. 
When the three pathogens were introduced 
singly into the soil before planting peas (cv. 
Little Marvel), P. ultimum was the most 
destructive to peas and R. solani was the least 
damaging. When F. solani and P. ultimum 
were introduced into the soil together, root rot 
more severe than that caused by either 
organism alone resulted. Likewise F. solani 
and R. solani in the soil together resulted in 
root rot more severe than that caused by 
either fungus alone. When three pathogens 
were present together in the soil, however, 
severity of root rot was no greater than that 
caused by the combination of F. solani and P. 
ultimum. 



CONTRACT RESEARCH 

Mechanization 

Electrostatic orchard sprayer. An electro- 
static orchard sprayer, modified and evalu- 
ated under contract, was shown to improve 
deposition in the top canopy of 3-m-high 
apple trees (cv. Mcintosh) by 85% over a 
conventional sprayer, with no improvement in 
the bottom canopy. The ratio of top-to-bottom 
canopy deposition was 0.97 with the electro- 
static unit and 0.51 when sprayed 
conventionally. 

Sprayboom height control — design crite- 
ria. Four boom suspension systems, compris- 
ing a range of designs currently used commer- 
cially, were evaluated both over a test track 
and over a variety of crops in southern 
Ontario. Dynamic stability was monitored 
using ultrasonic sensors with the spray tank 
both full and empty, and with three types of 
tires. 

Energy conservation 

Product drying. Sodium bentonite, in inti- 
mate mixtures with corn, oats, wheat, and 
peanuts, was assessed as a desiccant suitable 
for an on-farm low-energy drying system. 
Corn was dried from 25% to 16% moisture 
content (wet bulb) in 44 h with no apparent 
rise in temperature. After drying, the bento- 
nite was easily separated from the product 
with a fan mill. 

Zeolite heat storage for solar grain drying. 
A mathematical model of a zeolite bed was 
developed and refined to evaluate the bed's 
performance as a heat-storage medium to be 
used for grain drying. A cylindrical parabolic 



RESEARCH STATION, VINELAND STATION, ONT. 



263 



collector was simulated and used as a heat 
source for drying the bed. The system design 
was optimized on the basis of air mass flow 
rate and peak temperatures. 



EXPERIMENTAL FARM, 
SMITHFIELD, ONT. 

Vegetables 

Evaluation of tomatoes for concentrated 
strained product. Juice made from six culti- 
vars covered the entire range in consistency 
from very thick to very thin. Consistency and 
solids, two properties of the juice, were 
usually indicative of these properties in the 
puree. However, viscosity and insoluble solids 
are involved in a major way in determining 
the consistency of both juice and concentrate. 
There was some indication that the concentra- 
tion process affects cultivars differently. 

Instrumental evaluation of tomato pro- 
ducts. Instruments used to measure differ- 
ences in consistency of juice or puree included 
the Bostwick Consistometer, Ottawa texture 
measuring system with back extrusion cell, 
Brookfield viscometer, Effluxtube, and Can- 
non-Fenske viscometer. With minor varia- 
tions, depending on the instrument, these 
objective methods picked out variety and 
harvest differences that corresponded well 
with subjective ratings. 

The Ottawa texture measuring system with 
back extrusion cell and modular signal condi- 
tioning system effectively measured the grain- 
iness of tomato juice samples. The method has 
potential applications in both research and 
industrial quality control. 

Fruits 

Propagation of apple rootstocks by tissue 
culture. A series of rootstocks from Poland, 
Ottawa, Russia, Michigan, and Vineland have 
been collected and placed in a nursery to 
establish stool beds. To obtain sufficient 



material for field evaluation, propagation 
employing asceptic tissue culture techniques 
has been attempted. At present, meristem 
cultures of MAC 9, MAC 1 , M 26, 0-3, and P 
22 have been successfully sterilized and the 
cultures have undergone shoot multiplication. 
Techniques for sterilization, multiplication, 
rooting, and transfer to the greenhouse pot- 
ting soil have been developed for three 
rootstocks— MAC 9, M 26, and P 22. 

Mechanical pruning of Mcintosh apple 
trees. Mcintosh (VC-309) apple trees on MM 
106, M. robusta 5, and OH 3 rootstocks were 
planted in 1971 at a 5 x 3 m spacing. Trees 
were trained to a central leader system until 
1975 after which the only annual pruning 
carried out was with a sickle bar mower in 
early June to form a pyramid-shaped hedge- 
row. 

The accumulated production from the 
mechanically pruned trees was increased by 
16 to 40%, depending upon the rootstock 
vigor, and fruit color was reduced in the 
central portion of the rows relative to those 
pruned in the traditional manner. A system 
was tested whereby the well-colored fruit 
from the outer and upper part of the canopy 
was harvested for the fresh market and the 
fruit in the central portion of the row was 
shaken and marketed for juice. 

Growing apples for juice. A mature or- 
chard containing Mcintosh, Delicious, and 
Red Spy apple trees has been managed as a 
juice block for seven seasons. Because of the 
minimum spraying and pruning programs, 
total production has decreased with time. 
Problems have been encountered with spotted 
tentiform leafminers, mullein thrips, spring- 
feeding caterpillars, and apple maggots that 
required corrective action. Loss of major 
limbs due to the heavy cropping has reduced 
the fruiting area of these standard trees. A 
review of the production and management 
costs shows that the orchard would have 
returned a profit to the grower most seasons; 
1 980 was an exception. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 



Akitt, D. G.; Bown, A. W.; Potter, J. W. 1980. Role 
of ethylene in the response of tomato plants 
susceptible and resistant to Meloidogyne in- 
cognita. Phytopathology 70:94-97. 



Anderson, R. V.; Townshend, J. L. 1980. Variations 
of the first head annule in Canadian popula- 
tions of Pratylenchus penetrans (Nematoda: 
Pratylenchidae) from three host plants. Can. J. 
Zool. 58:1336-1340. 



264 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT I^SO 



Chiba, M.; Veres, D. F. 1980. High performance 
liquid chromatographic method for simulta- 
neous determination of residual benomyl and 
methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate on apple 
foliage without cleanup. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. 
Chem. 63:1291. 

Dias, H. F.; Allen, W. R. 1980. Characterization of 
the single protein and two nucleic acids of 
peach rosette mosaic virus. Can. J. Bot. 

58:1747-1754. 

Elliot, W. M.; Kemp, W. G. 1980. Flight activity of 
the green peach aphid (Homoptera: Aphidi- 
dae) during the vegetable growing season at 
Harrow and Jordan, Ontario. Proc. Entomol. 
Soc. Ont. 110:19-28(1979). 

Hagley, E. A. C. 1978. Integrated pest manage- 
ment — insecticides and natural predator popu- 
lations on apple. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ont. 
109:9-21. 

Hagley, E. A. C; Bronskill, J. F.; Ford, E. J. 1980. 
Effect of the physical nature of leaf and fruit 
surfaces on oviposition by the codling moth, 
Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). 
Can. Entomol. 112:503-510. 

Hagley, E. A. C; Pree, D. J.; Holliday, N. J. 1980. 
Toxicity of insecticides to some orchard 
carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Can. Ento- 
mol. 112:457-462. 

Ingratta, F. J.; Olthof, H. A. 1980. The influence of 
saprophagous nematodes on the production of 
Agaricus brunnescens (bisporus). Mushroom 
Sci.X(PartII):397-405. 

Johnson, P. W.; Potter, J. W. 1980. Winter survival 
of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incog- 
nita and M. hapla) under selected host crops in 
southern Ontario. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:203- 
207. 

Kerr, E. A.; Kerr, E. L.; Patrick, Z. A.; Potter, J. 
W. 1980. Linkage relations of resistance to 
Cladosporium leaf mold (cf-2) and root-knot 
nematodes (Mi) and new gene for leaf mold 
resistance (cf- 11). Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 
22:183-186. 

Leuty, S. J.; Pree, D. J. 1980. The influence of tree 
population and summer pruning on productiv- 
ity growth and quality of peaches. J. Am. Soc. 
Hortic.Sci. 105:702-705. 

Northover, J.; Ripley, B. D. 1980. Persistence of 
chlorothalonil on grapes and its effect on 
disease control and fruit quality. J. Agric. Food 
Chem. 28:971-974. 

Olthof, T. H. A. 1980. Screening rye cultivars and 
breeding lines for resistance to the root-lesion 
nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:281-282. 



O'SulIivan, J.; Reyes, A. A. 1980. Effects of soil 
fumigation, rotation, and nitrogen on yield, 
petiole N0 3 -N, and verticillium wilt of pota- 
toes. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 105:809-812. 

Pree, D. J. 1979. Toxicity of Phosmet, Azinphos- 
methyl and Permethrin to the oriental fruit 
moth and its parasite Macrocentrus ancyli- 
vorus. Environ. Entomol. 8:969-972. 

Pree, D. J.; Hagley, E. A. C; Simpson, C. M.; 
Hikichi, A. 1980. Resistance of the spotted 
tentiform leaf miner Phyllonorycter blancar- 
della (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) to insecti- 
cides in southern Ontario. Can. Entomol. 
112:469-474. 

Reyes, A. A. 1980. Pea root rot development and 
associated pathogens in Ontario fields. Plant 
Dis. 64:392-393. 

Sullivan, J. A.; Christie, B. R.; Potter, J. W. 1980. 
Inheritance of northern root-knot nematode 
resistance in alfalfa. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:533- 

537. 

Townshend, J. L.; Dirks, V. A.; Marks, C. F. 1980. 
Temperature moisture and compaction and 
their effects on the diffusion of ethylene dibro- 
mide in three Ontario soils. Can. J. Soil Sci. 
60:177-184. 

Townshend, J. L.; Potter, J. W. 1980. Population 
behaviour of Meloidogyne hapla under four 
forage legumes in microplots. Can. J. Plant 
Sci. 60:293-295. 

Trottier, R.; Hagley, E. A. C. 1979. Influence of 
temperature and snowfall on codling moth 
fecundity. Environ. Entomol. 8:1051-1054. 

Trottier, R.; Heme, D. H. C. 1980. Temperature 
relationships to forecast hatching of overwin- 
tered eggs of the European red mite, Pano- 
nychus ulmi (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Proc. 
Entomol. Soc. Ont. 1 10:53-60 (1979). 

Miscellaneous 

Fisher, R. W. 1980. Grape spray equipment can 
change with variety. The Grower 30(2):26-27. 

Johnson, P. W. 1980. Researchers wage war against 
tree fruit nematodes. The Grower 29(1 1):8. 

Leuty, S. J.; Miller, S. R. 1980. Thinning tree 
fruits. Agdex No. 80-005. 

McGinnis, A. J. 1980. Grapevine disease experts 
convene. Can. Fruitgrower 36(9):20. 

McGinnis, A. J. 1980. World renowned grapevine 
disease experts convene. The Grower 30(9): 12. 

McGinnis, A. J. 1980. Vineland— 1980 in review. 
The Grower 30(10): 12. 

Menzies, D. R. 1980. Sprayer maintenance and 
calibration a must. The Grower 30(8):9. 



RESEARCH STATION, VINELAND STATION, ONT. 



265 



Miller, S. R. 1980. Research Report, Smithfield 
Experimental Farm 1979. Vol. 7, 52 pp. 

Miller, S. R. 1980. Research results on apple 
production systems. The Grower 30(l):8-9. 

Olthof, T. H. A.; Potter, J. W. 1980. Nematodes 
can damage your potato crop. Cash Crop 
Farming 41 (3):26-28. 

Pree, D. J.; Heme, D. H. C; Phillips, J. H. H.; 
Roberts, W. P. 1980. Pest management pro- 
gram for peaches. Agdex No. 80-026. 

Pree, D. J.; Heme, D. H. C; Phillips, J. H. H.; 
Roberts, W. P. 1980. Oriental fruit moth. 
Agdex No. 80-027. 

Pree, D. J.; Heme, D. H. C; Phillips, J. H. H.; 
Roberts, W. P. 1980. Oblique-banded leaf 
roller. Agdex No. 80-028. 

Pree, D. J.; Heme, D. H. C; Phillips, J. H. H.; 
Roberts, W. P. 1980. Mite pests of peaches. 
Agdex No. 80-029. 



Pree, D. J.; Heme, D. H. C; Phillips, J. H. H.; 
Roberts, W. P. 1980. Plum curculio. Agex No. 
80-030. 

Pree, D. J.; Heme, D. H. C; Phillips, J. H. H.; 
Roberts, W. P. 1980. Scale insects on peaches. 
Agdex No. 80-031. 

Pree, D. J.; Heme, D. H. C; Phillips, J. H. H.; 
Roberts, W. P. 1980. Peach tree borers. Agdex 
No. 80-032. 

Pree, D. J.; Heme, D. H. C; Phillips, J. H. H.; 
Roberts, W. P. 1980. Cornstock mealy bug on 
peach. Agdex No. 80-033. 

Stevenson, A. B. 1980. Monitoring carrot pests in 
Holland Marsh. The Grower 30(5):9. 

Voisey, P. W.; Mohr, W. P. 1979. Quality control 
test for tomato juice viscosity. Engineering and 
Statistical Research Institute, Agriculture 
Canada. Report No. 7820-1-97. 40 pp. 



266 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



WESTERN REGION 
RÉGION DE L'OUEST 





Dr. A. A. Guitard 






*kh mû- 




Dr. W. N. 

MacNaughton 



Dr. D. M. Bowden Mr. H. C. Korven 





Mr. P. B. Griffith Mr. J. J. McConnell 



EXECUTIVE OF THE WESTERN REGION 
L'EXÉCUTIF DE LA RÉGION DE L'OUEST 

Director General 
Directeur général 

A. A. Guitard, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Assistant Director General 
Directeur général adjoint 

W. N. MacNaughton, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Program Specialist 

Spécialiste en programmes 

D. M. Bowdfn, B.S.A., M.S.A., PhD. 

Contracts Specialist 

Spécialiste en contrats 

H. C. Korven, B.E., M.Sc. 

Chief, Finance and Administration 

Chef, finances et administration 
P. B. Griffith 

Manager, Information Services 
Gérant y services de l'information 

J. J. McConnell, B.S.A., M.A. 

Seconded from Information Services, Ottawa 
Détaché des Services d'information (Ottawa) 



WESTERN REGION 269 



PREFACE 



The Western Region, with headquarters in Sas- 
katoon, consists of 15 research stations, four experi- 
mental farms, and eight substations. These research 
establishments serve the agricultural community 
throughout the Prairie Provinces and British Co- 
lumbia. In 1980 the Region managed a budget of 
$44 million and employed approximately 350 pro- 
fessionals and 885 subprofessionals in carrying out 
its research programs designed to solve a broad 
range of agricultural problems. 

Long-term studies showed that restoration of the 
productivity of eroded soil with legume crops and 
fertilizers was only partly successful and that zero 
tillage was helpful in reducing erosion, conserving 
soil moisture, and reducing energy requirements for 
crop production. 

Perhaps most significant in forage crop breeding 
was the licensing of Norgold, the world's first low- 
coumarin, yellow sweetclover. Also licensed were 
Heinrichs alfalfa, Clarke intermediate wheatgrass, 
Nova sainfoin, Elbee Northern wheatgrass, and 
Peace alfalfa. The alfalfa breeding program at 
Lethbridge was redirected in response to the survey 
findings that the disease verticillium wilt is spread- 
ing in Western Canada. Two strains of Rhizobium 
meliloti were released to legume-inoculant 
manufacturers. 

The cereal breeding programs in the Western 
Region continue to have a significant impact on the 
industry. Five cultivars of hard red spring wheat 
that were developed at the Winnipeg Research 
Station since 1965 were sown on 73% of the total 
area planted with wheat on the prairies in 1980. 
Breeding programs in 1980 produced Columbus 
hard red spring wheat, Norbert two-row barley, 
Johnson six-row barley, Fidler oats, Musketeer 
winter rye, and Manor buckwheat. 

Ochre, the first public cultivar of condiment 
yellow mustard, was licensed by the Saskatoon 
Research Station. Significant progress was made in 
research on control of diseases, insects, and weeds 
in oilseed crops. Research showed that canola meal 
can economically substitute for soybean meal in 
broiler chicken and turkey diets when it costs less 
than 63% of soybean meal. Canola meal was also 
found to be a satisfactory replacement for soybean 
meal in swine growing-finishing diets at levels up to 
15% of the diet. 

Further definition of the response of F, beef cows 
to various environments was obtained. The influ- 
ence of differences in summer grazing conditions on 
relative productivity of various types of crossbred 
cows was demonstrated. Recommendations were 
formulated for use of rangelands in British Colum- 
bia, to aid both beef cattle producers and wildlife 
managers. The finding that rate of initial digestion 
is an important factor in the bloat-causing tenden- 
cies of forage legumes will aid in developing bloat- 
safe alfalfa cultivars. 



Common cattle grubs were controlled on a large 
ranch with systemic insecticides and sterile male 
warble fly releases. A computer simulation model 
was developed that can estimate losses in productiv- 
ity of cattle infested with horn flies. 

A new tissue culture medium that is selective for 
dwarf growth habit in apple trees will aid in 
breeding new apples. 

Food quality and processing research resulted in 
a better definition of factors influencing quality of 
fruit leathers, as well as the development of a stem- 
jacketed extruder for fruit snack bars and an 
improved drum drier for fruit purees. 

Electrical stimulation of beef carcasses showed 
potential for improving tenderness when storage 
conditions were properly controlled. 

Contracting out of research is increasing and 
becoming more closely related to in-house research 
programs. During 1980-1981, 13 research stations 
were involved in 62 contracts for a total expenditure 
of $1 350 000. Major contract research areas were 
irrigation, drainage, and desalination; energy utili- 
zation and conservation; beef; supportive research 
and development; protection; and processing 
technology. 

The Western Region is strengthening research in 
new energy sources and energy conservation by 
recruiting two energy engineers to develop an in- 
house research program and to assist in administra- 
tion of energy contracts on crop residues for fuel 
and feed, heat exchangers for drying grain and 
heating livestock buildings, use of solar collectors 
and waste heat in greenhouses, alternate fuels, and 
energy conservation in meat processing plants and 
restaurants. 

Staff changes within the Region in 1980 included 
the appointment of new directors to the research 
stations at Brandon (Dr. B. H. Sonntag), Kamloops 
(Dr. J. D. McElgunn), Lacombe (Dr. D. E. Wal- 
dern), Morden (Dr. D. K. McBeath), Saskatoon 
(Dr. J. R. Hay), and Winnipeg (Dr. D. G. Dorrcll). 
At Lethbridge Research Station, Dr. T. G. Atkin- 
son was appointed Assistant Director. At Western 
Region Headquarters, Dr. W. N. MacNaughton 
transferred from the Brandon Research Station to 
become Assistant Director General. Upon the 
transfer of Dr. D. E. Waldern to the Lacombe 
Research Station, Dr. D. M. Bowden took up the 
position of Program Specialist. Dr. B. H. Sonntag 
left the position of Economist to become Director at 
the Brandon Research Station. 

Further information about our programs may be 
obtained by writing to the research establishments 
concerned or by addressing inquiries to Western 
Region Headquarters, Research Branch, Agricul- 
ture Canada, Room 600 Federal Building, 101- 
22nd Street East, P.O. Box 9241, Saskatoon, Sask. 
S7K3X5. 

A. A. Guitard 



270 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



PREFACE 



La région de l'Ouest, dont l'Administration 
centrale est située à Saskatoon, compte 15 stations 
de recherche, 4 fermes expérimentales et 8 sous- 
stations qui desservent les collectivités agricoles des 
provinces des Prairies et de la Colombie-Britanni- 
que. En 1980, son budget était de $44 millions et 
son personnel comptait environ 350 professionnels 
et 885 techniciens travaillant à la solution d'une 
large gamme de problèmes agricoles. 

Des études à long terme ont montré que la remise 
en valeur des sols erodes par la culture des légumi- 
neuses et par la fumure n'a pas eu tout le succès 
espéré et que la pratique de la culture sans labour 
aide à diminuer l'érosion, à conserver l'humidité du 
sol et à réduire les besoins d'énergie des cultures. 

L'homologation de Norgold, la première variété 
de mélilot à fleurs jaunes et à faible teneur en 
coumarine, est un des faits saillants de l'année. On 
a aussi homologué la luzerne Heinrichs, l'agropyre 
intermédiaire Clarke, le sainfoin Nova, l'agropyre 
Elbee Northern et la luzerne Peace. Le programme 
de sélection de la luzerne de la station de Leth- 
bridge a été réorienté par suite de la progression de 
la flétrissure verticillienne dans l'ouest du Canada. 
Deux lignées de Rhizobium meliloti ont été mises à 
la disposition des fabricants d'inoculum pour 
légumineuses. 

Les programmes d'amélioration des céréales ont 
toujours une incidence significative sur l'industrie. 
Cinq cultivars de blé roux vitreux du printemps, 
créés à la station de Winnipeg depuis 1965, occu- 
paient 73% des emblavures totales des Prairies en 
1980. Les programmes d'amélioration de 1980 ont 
produit le blé roux vitreux du printemps Columbus, 
l'orge à deux rangs Norbert, l'orge à six rangs 
Johnson, l'avoine Fidler, le seigle d'hiver Musketeer 
et le sarrasin Manor. 

Ochre, le premier cultivar de moutarde jaune du 
secteur public, a été homologué par la station de 
recherche de Saskatoon. On a démontré qu'il est 
économiquement avantageux de remplacer le tour- 
teau de soja par le tourteau de canola (colza) dans 
le régime du poulet à griller et des dindes, lorsque 
ce dernier coûte moins de 63% du prix du tourteau 
de soja. Le tourteau de canola peut aussi, jusqu'à 
concurrence de 15%, remplacer l'autre dans les 
régimes de croissance-finition du porc. 

On a pu préciser la réaction des vaches de 
boucherie F, à diverses conditions ambiantales. On 
a démontré les effets des différences dans les 
conditions de paissance d'été sur la productivité de 
divers types de vaches croisées. On a formulé des 
recommandations touchant l'utilisation des par- 
cours en Colombie-Britannique pour la production 
du boeuf et la gestion de la faune. La découverte du 
rôle important que joue le taux initial de digestion 
dans l'effet météorisant des légumineuses fourragè- 
res devrait faciliter la sélection de cultivars de 
luzerne non météorisants. 

On a lutté contre les hypodermes dans un grand 
élevage, à l'aide d'insecticides systémiques et de 



lâchers d'hypodermes mâles stérilisés. On a élaboré 
un modèle de simulation pour réduire les pertes de 
productivité occasionnées par l'infestation du bétail 
par la mouche des cornes. 

Un nouveau milieu de culture de tissus sélectif 
pour le nanisme chez les pommiers sera un outil 
utile pour la création de nouvelles variétés. 

Des études sur la qualité et la transformation des 
aliments ont permis de mieux définir les facteurs 
qui influent sur la qualité des pulpes de fruits 
déshydratées et de perfectionner un extrudeur à 
vapeur pour les comprimés de fruits et un séchoir à 
tambour pour les purées de fruits. On a démontré la 
possibilité d'améliorer la tendreté du boeuf par 
stimulation électrique des carcasses dans des condi- 
tions de conservation réglées. 

Les études effectuées par contrat deviennent plus 
nombreuses et plus étroitement liées à la recherche 
effectuée à l'intérieur de nos établissements. En 
1980-1981, 13 stations ont administré 62 contrats 
de recherche totalisant $1 350 000. Les principaux 
domaines concernés étaient l'irrigation, le drainage 
et l'assainissement des sols salins; l'utilisation et la 
conservation de l'énergie; le boeuf; la recherche et le 
développement de soutien; la protection et les 
techniques de transformation. 

La région de l'Ouest intensifie ses efforts sur la 
recherche de nouvelles sources d'énergie et sa 
conservation, en embauchant deux ingénieurs spé- 
cialistes chargés d'élaborer un programme de 
recherches interne et d'administrer les contrats 
portant sur l'utilisation des déchets de culture 
comme combustibles et aliments, l'utilisation des 
échangeurs de chaleur pour le séchage du grain et le 
chauffage des bâtiments du bétail, l'utilisation des 
capteurs solaires et de la chaleur excédentaire pour 
le chauffage des serres, les nouveaux combustibles, 
et la conservation de l'énergie dans les installations 
de traitement des viandes et les restaurants. 

Parmi les changements apportés au personnel de 
la région, en 1980, mentionnons la nomination de 
nouveaux directeurs aux stations de recherche de 
Brandon (B.H. Sonntag), de Kamloops (J.D. McEl- 
gunn), de Lacombe (D.E. Waldern), de Morden 
(D.K. McBeath), de Saskatoon (J.R. Hay) et de 
Winnipeg (D.G. Dorrell). M. T.G. Atkinson a été 
nommé directeur adjoint de la station de recherche 
de Lethbridge. Chez l'Administration centrale, M. 
W.N. MacNaughton anciennement de Brandon 
devient directeur général adjoint. Par suite de la 
mutation de M. D.E. Waldern à Lacombe, M. 
D.M. Bowden est devenu spécialiste en program- 
mes. M. B.H. Sonntag a quitté son poste d'écono- 
miste pour devenir directeur à Brandon. 

Pour de plus amples renseignements sur nos 
programmes, prière d'écrire aux établissements de 
recherche concernés ou de s'adresser à l'Adminis- 
tration centrale de la région de l'Ouest, Direction 
générale de la recherche, Agriculture Canada, pièce 
600, édifice fédéral, 101, 22 e rue est, C.P.9241, 
Saskatoon (Saskatchewan) S7K 3X5. 

A. A. Guitard 



WESTERN REGION 



271 



Research Station 
Brandon, Manitoba 

PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



B. H. Sonntag, 1 B.S.A., M.Sc. 

A. J. Dagenais 

Vacant 



Ph.D. 



Director 

Administrative Officer 
Information Officer 



Animal Science 



J. H. Strain, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



A. G. Castell,' B.Sc, M.S., Ph.D. 
R. L. Cliplef, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
G. W. Dyck, 2 B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
R. R. Grandhi, B.V.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
D. L. Grinwich, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
G. W. Rahnefeld, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Animal breeding 
and management 
Swine nutrition 
Meats physiology 
Reproductive physiology 
Swine nutrition 
Reproductive physiology 
Beef cattle genetics 



Plant Science 



L. 


D. Bailey, B.S.A., M.Sc., Ph.D. 


Head of Section; Soil-plant 
relationships 


K. 


W. Campbell, B.Sc, Ph.D. 


Barley breeding 


P. 


N. P. Chow, 4 B.S.A., M.A., Ph.D. 


Weed physiology 


R. 


D. Dryden, 5 B.S.A., M.Sc. 


Crop culture 


R. 


I. Hamilton, B.Sc, M.S.A., Ph.D. 


Corn physiology 


E. 


D. Spratt, B.S.A., M.Sc., Ph.D. 


Plant nutrition 


R. 


I. Wolfe, B.S.A., B.D., Ph.D. 


Barley breeding 



RESEARCH STATION. BRANDON. MAN. 



273 



Departures 



W. N. MacNaughton, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

Assistant Director General Western Region, 

Saskatoon, April 1980 
A. P. Piloski, B.S.A. 

Retired September 1980 



Director 



Information Officer 



'Appointed October 1980. 

: On postdoctoral transfer of work to University of Nottingham. 

Transferred from Melfort Research Station, September 1980. 

'Returned September from postdoctoral transfer of work to Weed Research Organization, Oxford, England. 

'Returned August 1980 from Canada - Sri Lanka rainfed agriculture project. 



274 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



INTRODUCTION 



The research program at Brandon encompasses beef cattle breeding; swine nutrition, 
physiology, breeding, and management; barley breeding; physiology and management of corn, 
soybean, and sorghum; and soil fertility, agronomy, plant nutrition, and weed control in cereal, 
oilseed, and forage crops. 

Several important changes occurred in the professional staff in 1980. Dr. W. N. 
MacNaughton, Director, resigned to accept an appointment as Assistant Director General, 
Research Branch, Western Region. Dr. A. G. Castell, swine nutritionist, transferred to 
Brandon from the Melfort Research Station. Mr. A. P. Piloski, information officer, retired 
after 31 years of faithful service. Dr. R. Simons, forage agronomist, was appointed in 1980 and 
will join our staff early in 1 98 1 . 

A highlight in 1980 was the licensing of Johnston feed barley with improved yield and 
disease tolerance and adaptability over a wide area in the prairies. This variety is named after 
Dr. W. Johnston, a long-time barley breeder at Brandon. 

Low zinc levels were identified as the main constraint to responses of flax to fertilizer P in 
Manitoba. Research at Brandon was instrumental in obtaining approval for registration in 
Canada of a new herbicide (BAS 9052) for control of weeds and volunteer cereal in oilseed 
crops. 

The Brandon Research Station continued participation in the long-term three-station 
foreign cattle breed evaluation project. The swine program continued with emphasis on 
nutritional and hormonal aspects of reproductive performance, production efficiency, and meat 
quality. 

The Brandon Research Station continued involvement in international research and 
development. This included secondment of Mr. R. D. Dryden to the Sri Lanka - Canada dry 
zone project and short-term consultative missions to Pakistan, Brazil, and Ethiopia by Drs. E. 
D. Spratt, R. I. Wolfe, and K. W. Campbell, respectively. 

This report summarizes the major results obtained in 1980. More detailed results can be 
obtained from our annual Review of Results, reprints of published papers, or by direct contact 
with research personnel at: Research Station, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Box 610, 
Brandon, Man. R7A 5Z7. 

B. H. Sonntag 
Director 



ANIMAL SCIENCE 
Beef cattle 

Performance of first-cross cows in two 
environments. A population of 1 150 first-cross 
females from Hereford x Angus (HA con- 
trol) and nine crosses produced by bulls from 
Charolais (C), Limousin (L), and Simmental 
(S) mated to Angus (A), Hereford (H), and 
Shorthorn (N) cows provided the base popu- 
lation for a cooperative study at Brandon, 
Lacombe, and Lethbridge research stations. 
These females were born in 1970, 1971, and 
1972 and maintained in an extensive range- 
management system on short-grass prairie at 
Manyberries, Alta., or in a semi-intensive 
farm-management system at Brandon, Man. 
As yearlings, these females were bred to 



either Red Angus or Beefmaster bulls. There- 
after they were mated to a third breed from 
one of Charolais, Chianina, Limousin, or 
Simmental. 

Results with 2-yr cows and their calves 
showed that the HA heifers were the lightest 
at 18, 24 (HA, LH, and LA did not differ), 
and 30 mo and had the shortest gestation 
period. The HA, LN, and LA crosses pro- 
duced calves with lowest birth weight. The 
progeny of all breed crosses surpassed those of 
the HA control in weaning weight, but only 
the SA, SH, SN, and LN exceeded them in 
weaning weight ratio, i.e. weaning weight of 
calf (av. 205 days) /weight of cow at weaning 075 . 
Progeny of CN and SN were heaviest at birth 
and those of SN had the highest weaning 
weight and weaning weight ratio. The Charo- 
lais-cross cows tended to be heaviest particu- 



RESEARCH STATION, BRANDON, MAN. 



275 



larly at 30 mo. Crosses from Hereford dams 
or Simmental sires had the longest gestation 
period. Cows at Brandon were lighter at 18 
mo but heavier at 24 and 30 mo than those at 
Manyberries; the cows at Brandon produced 
calves 7.3% heavier at weaning than did those 
at Manyberries. Beefmaster-sired calves were 
carried 3.2 days longer, were heavier at birth 
(9.4%) and weaning (5.7%), had 10.4% more 
assisted births, and more deaths at calving 
(7.6% versus 3.4%) than calves sired by Red 
Angus. 

Lifetime reproduction efficiency studies 
showed that extensive range environment 
gave greater cow losses, lower conception and 
weaning rates, and less weight of calf weaned 
than under semi-intensive pasture. Barren 
cows comprised the largest proportion of 
losses with sire breed ranking C < S < L and 
dams ranking A < H < N for the exotic 
crosses at both locations. The C sire breed 
ranked lowest for total attrition and highest 
for percentage conception and calves weaned 
per mating opportunity at both locations. At 
Manyberries these elements combined to give 
C-sired dams a slight advantage in weight of 
calf weaned per mating opportunity (143 
versus 139 kg for S) but this ranking was 
reversed at Brandon ( 1 76 versus 181 kg for S 
cross). First-cross dams out of A cows ranked 
above N cross cows in weight of calf weaned 
(139 versus 135 kg) at Manyberries but the 
reverse was true at Brandon (172 versus 176 
kg). All 'exotic' crosses ranked above the HA 
control for weight of calf weaned per mating 
opportunity. However, for this measure of 
productivity all L cross versus HA differences 
at Manyberries were negligible. 

Growth patterns were determined from 
weights of cows taken each year to 1979 at 
calving, breeding, and weaning. Average 
weights of the two herds at the initial breed- 
ing (15 mo) and final calving differed by less 
than 3% but growth patterns differed between 
the locations. Females at Brandon gained 
weight during gestation and usually lost 
weight during nursing but at Manyberries, 
females had substantial losses during gesta- 
tion in 3 yr but gained weight during nursing 
all years. Nursing status influenced weight 
changes with large compensatory gains occur- 
ring during barren years. The ranking of 
females by their sire breed was C > S = L > 
HA for annual breeding and weight at wean- 
ing at both locations {P < 0.05). Average 
ranking by breed of dam was N > H > A > 
HA at Brandon and H > N > A > HA at 



Manyberries. However, the only consistent 
differences were between the HA control and 
the other crosses. Breed rankings were not 
affected by nursing status. 

Swine 

Metabolic changes during feed restriction. 
Feed restriction by intermittent fasting com- 
pared with full feeding did not affect the 
blood glucose (BG) levels but decreased urea 
nitrogen (BUN) and free fatty acids (FFA) in 
both Lacombes and Yorkshires during winter 
but not in summer. Analysis of blood samples 
collected after full-feeding, fasting (24 h), 
and refeeding revealed that BUN and FFA 
were significantly {P < 0.05) elevated after 
fasting and returned to near normal after 
refeeding with little or no fluctuation in BG 
for the 3 days reflecting the phenomena of 
active tissue (protein and fat) catabolism and 
gluconeogenesis. This metabolic response to 
fasting appeared to be different between 
Lacombes and Yorkshires. 

Choline supplementation for sows. Choline 
supplementation (500 mg/kg) of a barley- 
wheat-soybean meal ration for gestation and 
lactation did not improve the reproductive 
performance in both Lacombe and Yorkshire 
sows. A positive response was observed only in 
Lacombe gilts during winter with more live 
pigs born (9.64 versus 7.90) and weaned (7.50 
versus 6.73) after choline feeding. The inci- 
dence of spradle leg syndrome was low (2.5%) 
in both breeds and was not influenced by 
choline supplementation. 

Estrus cycle regulation. Progesterone im- 
plants at 0, 100, and 500 mg for 48 h in 41 
first-parity Lacombe sows did not have a 
consistent effect on initiating early return to 
estrus after weaning. 

Embryonic mortality. Para 1 and para 2 
Yorkshire sows bred to either Yorkshire (Y) 
or Lacombe (L) boars treated with implants 
were slaughtered at 90 days pregnancy. Both 
parities of Y sows bred to Y boars and treated 
with estrone early in pregnancy had an 
increased number of live fetuses. The estrone 
had no effect on para 1 Y sows and decreased 
the number of live fetuses in para 2 sows when 
bred to L boars. Fetal survival to 90 days was 
similar for the YY and LY groups. When 
allowed to go to term the Y sows bred to Y 
boars and treated with estrone tended to 
deliver larger litters. 



276 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT I^SO 



Boar taint physiology. Active immuni- 
zation against 5a-androstenone (boar taint) 
and implantation with testosterone was tested 
on growing boars as a potential method to 
control secretion of boar taint in market hogs. 
Under optimal conditions both methods re- 
duced serum levels of 5a-androstenone in 
boars below those of either barrows or gilts. 



PLANT SCIENCE 

Wheat 

Weed control in wheat. SSH 0860 gave 
good control of wild oats and better control of 
green foxtail and broad-leaved weeds than 
triallate or triallate— trifluralin mixtures. This 
resulted in wheat yield increases of 10-20% 
over triallate on average in 1979 and 1980. 

The interaction of DPX 4189 at 5-50 g/ha 
in mixtures with each of four herbicides for 
control of wild oats has been studied. Antago- 
nistic effects were negligible with difenzoquat, 
light with barban and flamprop-methyl, and 
high with diclofop-methyl. The antagonistic 
effect of 2,4-D on barban for wild oat control 
was associated with reduced absorption and 
translocation of l4 C-barban in the leaves and 
to meristematic sections of the growing point. 
Furthermore, 2,4-D increased the incorpora- 
tion of 3 H-thymidine into DNA overcoming 
the effect of barban in meristematic tissues. 

Other cereals 

Barley breeding and genetics. A new feed 
barley cultivar, Johnston, was licensed in 
1980 and given to SeCan for increase and 
distribution. It outyielded the top check, 
Klondike, by 5% in the Black and Brown soil 
zones of the Western Cooperative barley tests. 
In the Black and Gray Luvisol soil zones of 
Alberta it yielded 14% higher than the top 
checks, Bonanza and Klondike. In addition to 
resistance to stem rust, it carries resistance to 
scald, making it superior to many licensed 
cultivars in this respect. The variety is named 
in honor of Dr. W. H. Johnston, barley 
breeder at the Agriculture Canada Research 
Station, Brandon, Man., from 1936 to 1971. 
During this period he developed eight barley 
varieties, two of which, Conquest and 
Bonanza, are still major malting barleys on 
the Canadian prairies. 

Two breeding lines from the feed program 
are in final stages of testing and may be 
considered for licensing in 1981. The most 
promising malting barley line (BT 343) with 



blue aleurone has passed initial malting and 
brewing tests and shows improvements in 
agronomic performance over Bonanza. A 
yellow aleurone line with similar performance 
will be advanced to licensing trials in 1981. 
The two-row phase of the malting and feed 
programs continues to increase in importance. 

Barley production and management. In the 
3rd yr of a barley-legume rotation, significant 
increases in grain protein were obtained when 
barley was grown after soybeans, fababeans, 
and sweetclover when compared with barley 
grown on summerfallow and on barley stub- 
ble. Barley grown on fallow without added 
nitrogen yielded 3230-3425 kg/ha, with 10- 
12% protein. No yield response was obtained 
with fertilizer N at 30, 60, and 1 20 kg/ha, but 
at the higher rates of nitrogen, grain protein 
increased to 14-16%. To obtain similar yields, 
N at 30-60 kg/ha was required after 
soybeans and fababeans (14-16% protein), 30 
kg/ha after sweetclover (14-16% protein), 
and 120 kg/ha after barley (12-14% N). 

Corn and sorghum physiology and man- 
agement. Corn trials were successful despite 
record abnormal weather.- Low and high 
precipitation records of mm in April and 
200 mm in August were established. Rainfall 
of 1 1 mm in May and no significant amount 
of rain until 27 June produced difficult 
establishment problems. Some seeds of corn 
germinated on 1 and 2 May from April 
plantings, and were then frozen six times 
between 6 and 15 May. However, 95% of the 
seedlings recovered and yielded an average of 
5 t/ha. Highest yields of individual selections 
were 6.5 t/ha. 

Further assessment of sorghum genotypes 
indicated that this species has sufficient 
adaptability for this environment. Two 0.4-ha 
increase plots of the most advanced popula- 
tions (begun in 1976-1977) resulted in satis- 
factory performance and further im- 
provement. Direct combine yields were 2.2 
t/ha. 

Weed control in corn. Under drought 
conditions in the spring of 1980, M-3972, 
dicamba, and dicamba in mixtures with 
metolachlor or alachlor gave only partial 
control of lamb's-quarters and green foxtail in 
corn. However, dicamba and dicamba with 
metolachlor or alachlor resulted in significant 
increases in yields of corn of over 50%. 



RESEARCH STATION, BRANDON, MAN. 



277 



Oilseed crops 

Fertilizer placement for rapeseed, flax, and 
soybeans. Root morphological studies show 
that banding of fertilizer P, 2.5 cm directly 
below or 2.5 cm below and 2.5 cm to the side 
of the seed, produced a greater proliferation 
of roots and a greater uptake of P by the crops 
than when the phosphorus was placed directly 
with the seed. 

Soybean physiology and management. 
Soybean trials yielded highest at Dauphin, 
51.5°N lat., followed by Brandon, 50°N, and 
Lyleton, 49°N, with 2000, 1400, and 1200 kg/ 
ha, respectively. The Ottawa line AU-3-1-3 to 
be recommended for licensing in 1981 showed 
a decided advantage in yield and maturity 
over the standard Portage; it was stable in 
percentage protein and oil across all three 
locations. 

Weed control in flax, rapeseed, and 
soybeans. BAS 9052 at 0.25-0.4 kg/ha in 
mixtures with Atplus surfactant gave excel- 
lent control of wild oats, green foxtail, and 
volunteer barley, and doubled yields in all 
three crops. TF 1169 demonstrated a similar 
pattern for weed control in oilseed crops. 
Mixtures of BAS 9052 with MCPA and 
bromoxynil/MCPA broadened the spectrum 
of weed control in flax. 

Soil fertility factors affecting flax produc- 
tion. During 3 yr (1977-1979) 404 flax plots 
(25 trials) with various fertilizer treatments 
were analyzed for a complete spectrum of 
nutrients in both soil and plant samples. Mean 
values for quantity of various nutrients were 
quite adequate for flax growth but deficiency 
levels of some nutrients were well within the 



standard deviation, e.g. Zn in plants, 22 ± 
8.9 ppm; N in plants, 2.2 ± 0.6%; and P in 
surface soil, 12.9 ± 11.1 ppm. The overall 
mean yield of grain was 1560 ±611 kg/ha; 
the average response to fertilizer P was 218 
kg/ha. In 19 out of the 25 trials zinc defi- 
ciency was identified as the main constraint 
for responses of flax to fertilizer P. When 
levels of Zn in the check plants were marginal 
(20 ppm), fertilizer P often depressed the Zn 
to deficiency levels (10 ppm). Flowering and 
seed set were affected and the harvest index 
(grain to straw ratio) often approached 20%. 
The mean extractable Zn level of surface soil 
was equal to Cu (1.5 ppm) and the subsoil 
zinc level approached zero, whereas Cu levels 
increased with depth (to 1.9 ppm). Occasion- 
ally (10 out of 25 trials) significant amounts 
of subsoil P (5 kg/ha per 15 cm depth) 
increased check yields and decreased the 
response of fertilizer P. 

Forage crops 

Alfalfa production and management. To 
assess the residual value of fertilizer P on the 
yield and chemical composition of alfalfa 
forage, single large applications of P,0 5 
fertilizer (100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) were 
compared with annual applications of P ; 5 at 
25, 50, and 75 kg/ha. Although yield in- 
creases and increased uptake of P were 
obtained from the single applications, annual 
applications of 50 and 75 kg/ha produced the 
largest yields and highest concentrations of P 
in the forage. Further, when the annual rates 
of P 2 O s were superimposed on the single 
application plots, significant yield increases 
were obtained on the 100 and 200 kg/ha 
treated plots after 2 and 3 yr of cropping. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 



Chan, J. S. D.; Grinwich, D. L.; Robertson, H. A.; 
Friesen, H. G. 1980. Maintenance of receptors 
for lutenizing hormone by ovine placental 
lactogen in pseudo pregnant rats. Biol. Reprod. 
23:60-63. 



Chow, P. N. P.; Dorrell, D. G. 1979. Response o( 
wild oats (Avena fatua), flax (Linum Usitatis- 
simum), and rapeseed (Brassica campestris 
and B. napus) to diclofop-methyl. Weed Sci. 
29:212-215. 



Chow, P. N. P. 1980. Improved Cerenkov radiation 
counting efficiency of ''phosphorus. Liquid 
scintillation counting: Recent applications and 
development. Vol. 1. Physical Aspects. Aca- 
demic Press, New York. pp. 387-395. 



Dyck, G. W.; Strain, J. H. 1979. Effect of level of 
feeding on breeding performance and concep- 
tus development at 60 days of pregnancy in the 
gilt. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 59:649-654. 



278 



RtSLARCH BRANCH RKPORT I^SO 



Grandhi, R. R.; Narendran, R.; Bowman, G. H.; 
Slinger, S. J. 1980. A comparison of soybean 
meal and Tower rapeseed meal as supplements 
to corn in diets of growing-finishing and heavy 
weight pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:123-130. 

Grandhi, R. R.; Strain, J. H. 1980. Evaluation of 
two methods of feed restriction for growing- 
finishing hogs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:149-158. 

Moyer, J. R.; Dryden, R. D. 1979. Wild oats, green 
foxtail and broadleaved weeds: control and 
effect on corn yield at Brandon, Manitoba. 
Can. J. Plant Sci. 59:383-389. 

Rahnefeld, G. W.; Parker, R. J.; Yodseranee, S.; 
Stringam, E. W. 1980. Influence of body 
weight and changes in body weight of the cow 
on preweaning traits of the calf. Can. J. Anim. 
Sci. 60:599-607. 

Sadler, J. M. 1980. Effect of placement location for 
phosphorus banded away from the seed on 
growth and uptake of soil and fertilizer P by 
flax. Can. J. Soil Sci. 60:251-262. 

Spratt, E. D.; Warder, F. G.; Bailey, L. D.; Read, 
D. W. C. 1980. Measurement of fertilizer 
phosphorus residue and its utilization. Soil Sci. 
Soc. Am. 44:1200-1204. 

Wolfe, R. I. 1980. Johnston barley. Can. J. Plant 
Sci. 60:1431-1433. 

Wolfe, R. I. 1980. Bedford barley. Can. J. Plant 
Sci. 60:1435-1438. 

Miscellaneous 

Bailey, L. D. 1979. Fertilizing flax — A review of 
research. 23rd Annual Manitoba Soil Science 
Meetings, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 
Man. pp. 92-104. 

Bailey, L. D. 1980. The effect of N-Serve nitrogen 
stabilizer and nitrogen fertilizers on the yield 
and nitrogen composition of barley and rape- 
seed. Agriculture Institute of Canada, Cana- 
dian Society of Agronomy, 26th Annual Meet- 
ing, Edmonton, Alta. (Aug. 1980). 

Bailey, L. D. 1980. The effect of K on the yield and 
chemical composition of alfalfa. American 
Society of Agronomy, Detroit, Ml. (Dec. 
1980). (abstract), p. 164. 

Bailey, L. D. 1980. Alfalfa: 10 tons/acre possible in 
Western Canada. Better crops with plant food, 
Potash/ Phosphate Institute (Summer 1980). 
pp. 23-25. 

Bailey, L. D.; Spratt, E. D. 1979. (a) Potassium 
research — Brandon Research Station; (b) Top 
Yield — Western Manitoba. Workshop on K 
related research and top yields in Western 
Canada. Potash/Phosphate Institute of 
Canada, Saskatoon, Sask. (Nov. 1979). pp. 73- 
99. 



Bailey, L. D.; Ukrainetz, H.; Walker, D. R. 1980. 
Effect of P-placement on crop uptake and 
yield. Western Canada Phosphate Symposium, 
Alberta Soil Science Workshop, Calgary, Alta. 
pp. 200-229. 

Buzzell, R. I.; Voldeng, H. D.; Bailey, L. D. 1979. 
Growing soybeans. Agric. Can. Publ. 1487. 

Campbell, K. W. 1979. Research continues on 
barley varieties for eastern prairies. The Mani- 
toba Co-operator, Crop Management Special 
(Mar. 1979). 

Chow, P. N. P.; Taylor, H. F. 1980. Improved 
herbicidal performance of DPX 4189 on oil- 
seed rape by the addition of surfactants. 
Proceedings 1980 British Crop Protection 
Conference — Weeds, Bristol, England. Vol. 1. 
pp. 23-28. 

Fredeen, H. T.; Weiss, G. M.; Rahnefeld, G. W.; 
Lawson, J. E.; Newman, J. A. 1980. Productiv- 
ity of hybrid cows in relation to breed cross and 
environment. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60 (Dec.) 
(abstract). 

Fredeen, H. T.; Weiss, G. M.; Rahnefeld, G. W.; 
Lawson, J. E.; Newman, J. A. 1980. Growth 
patterns of hybrid cows under two environ- 
ments. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60 (Dec.) (abstract). 

Goplen, B. P.; Baenziger, H.; Bailey, L. D.; Gross, 
A. T. H.; Hanna, M. R.; Michaud, R.; 
Richards, K. W.; Waddington, J. 1979. Grow- 
ing and managing alfalfa in Canada. Agric. 
Can. Publ. 1705. 

Grandhi, R. R.; Narendran, R.; Bowman, G. H.; 
Slinger, S. J. 1980. A comparison of soybean 
meal and Tower canola meal as supplements to 
corn in diets for growing-finishing and heavy 
weight hogs. Canola Council of Canada, Publi- 
cation No. 57. pp. 156-163. 

Narendran, R.; Grandhi, R. R.; Bowman, G. H.; 
Slinger, S. J. 1980. Effect of steam pelleting 
grower-finisher pig rations containing canola 
meal. Canola Council of Canada, Publication 
No. 57. pp. 186-189. 

Newman, J. A.; Rahnefeld, G. W.; Fredeen, H. T.; 
Tong, A. K. W.; Cliplef, R. 1980. Effects of 
"exotic" sire breeds on pre-weaning traits of 
their calves. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60 (Dec.) 
(abstract). 

Rahnefeld, G. W. 1979. Systems of crossbreeding. 
Saskatchewan Beef Production Seminar Pro- 
ceedings (Feb. 1979). 

Rahnefeld, G. W. 1979. Breed-cross evaluation for 
beef production. Saskatchewan Beef Produc- 
tion Seminar Proceedings (Feb. 1979). 



RESEARCH STATION, BRANDON, MAN. 



279 



Rahnefeld, G. W. 1980. Beef cattle breeding to 
improve cow productivity. Saskatchewan Beef 
Production Seminar Proceedings (Feb. 1980). 
p. 71. 

Rahnefeld, G. W. 1980. Foreign cattle breed 
evaluation in Canada. Saskatchewan Beef 
Production Seminar Proceedings (Feb. 1980). 
p. 87. 

Rahnefeld, G. W. 1980. Records, culling and birth 
weight. Elements of improving reproductive 
performance. Saskatchewan Agriculture Farm 
Report. Log No. 194. 

Rahnefeld, G. W. 1980. Breed evaluation for 
crossbreeding. South Dakota State University 
Cow-Calf Day Proceedings. 

Spratt, E. D.; Read, D. W. L. 1980. Long term 
benefits of residual P for small grains and 
forage crops. Western Canada Phosphate 
Symposium, Alberta Soil Science Workshop, 
Calgary, Alta. (11/12 Mar. 1980). pp. 122- 
139. 

Taylor, N. A.; Chow, P. N. P.; Owen, P. W. 1980. 
Influence of surfactants on spray deposition 
and biological activity of diclofop-methyl on 
wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Symposium on 



spraying systems for the 1980's, British Crop 
Protection Council Monograph, pp. 45-48. 

Voldeng, H.; Hamilton, R. I.; Mundel, H. K.; 
Sabourin, D. 1980. The agronomic perform- 
ance of soybeans in relation to climatic param- 
eters in Canada. Proceedings 26th Annual 
Meeting Canadian Society of Agronomy, 
Edmonton, Alta. 



Wolfe, R. I.; Campbell, K. W.; Johnston, W. H. 
1980. Registration of Bonanza barley. Crop 
Sci. 20:822. 



Wolfe, R. I.; Tekauz, A.; Johnston, W. H. 1979. 
The response of different wheat and barley 
varieties to date of seeding. Proceedings Anr 
nual Conference of Manitoba Agronomists, 
Manitoba Department of Agriculture, pp. 
8-13. 



Yarney, T. A.; Rahnefeld, G. W.; Konefal, G.; 
Boston, A. C; McCannel, B.; Sigurdson, M.; 
Parker, R. J.; Palmer, W. M. 1979. Time of 
day of parturition in beef cows. Can. J. Anim. 
Sci. 59 (Dec.) (abstract). 



280 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Research Station 
Morden, Manitoba 



PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



D. K. McBeath, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
H. G. Brodie 
M. P. Reimer 



Director 
Office Manager 
Information Officer and 
Photographer 



Field Crops 



G. H. Friesen, 1 B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
S. T. Ali-Khan, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
C. G. Campbell, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D 
J. Giesbrecht, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
G. H. Gubbels, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 
R. C. Zimmer, B.Sc, PhD. 



Head of Section; Weed science 
Breeding of field peas 
Breeding of buckwheat 
Breeding of grain corn 
Crop management, physiology 
Diseases of field peas 



Horticultural Crops 



B. B. Chubey, B.S.A., M.Sc., Ph.D. 



H. H. Marshall, Hon. D.Sc 

W. G. Ronald, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

W. A. Russell, B.S.A. 

D. E. Vanstone, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Quality of 
essential oils, new and special 
crops 

Horticulturist 

Breeding of woody ornamentals 

Breeding of potatoes 

Management, breeding of 
ornamentals 



RESEARCH STATION, MORDEN, MAN. 



281 



Oilseed Crops 



E. O. Kenaschuk, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
W. O. Chubb, B.Sc, D.Sc. 
W. Dedio, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
J. A. Hoes, B.S.A., M.S.A., Ph.D. 
H. C. Huang, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Breeding of flax 

Herbicides 

Breeding of sunflowers 

Pathology of flax and sunflowers 

Pathology of sunflowers 



'Seconded to the Canadian International Development Agency Indo-Canadian research project for Dryland 
Agriculture. 



282 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



INTRODUCTION 



The programs of the Morden Research Station are directed toward the development of 
new cultivars and the improvement of management for buckwheat, field corn, field peas, pulses, 
flax, sunflowers, potatoes, herbaceous and woody ornamentals, and new crops. This report 
summarizes some of the results of research conducted during 1 980. 

Breeding programs resulted in the licensing of Manor buckwheat and the release of three 
early corn inbreds. Evaluations were continued on promising cultivars of other crops. 
Refinements were developed for several management practices that may lead to increased 
productivity. Additional understanding was obtained on several diseases affecting crops. 
Information was generated on several new herbicides, which may lead to registration of these 
products for more effective weed control in the future. 

Further information on any of these research activities, reprints of publications listed in 
this report, and copies of previous reports may be obtained from: Research Station, Research 
Branch, Agriculture Canada, P.O. Box 3001, Morden, Man. ROG 1 JO. 

D. K. McBeath 
Director 



FIELD CROPS 



Buckwheat 



Breeding. Manor, a large-seeded buck- 
wheat cultivar, was licensed in 1980 and 
pedigreed seed was released to growers 
through SeCan. This cultivar outyielded 
Mancan by 9.2% in 4 yr of cooperative 
testing. It reaches full flowering 1 day earlier 
than Mancan but is up to 1 wk earlier in 
reaching a given percentage of ripe seeds in 
the fall. It is expected to replace a large 
portion of Mancan, which accounted for 90% 
of the commercial production in Manitoba in 
1980. 

Management. A study of several growth 
and flowering parameters on lines with both 
normal and semidwarf habits has shown that 
there is large variability in number of 
branches, number of side flower clusters, 
number of terminal flower clusters, and total 
number of flowers per plant. The percentage 
seed set over a 2 yr period varied from 4 to 
30%, depending on plant type. 

Disease. Downy mildew was found in 15 of 
17 fields examined in a province-wide survey. 
The leaf area affected averaged around 10%, 
except in one field where 50% was diseased. 
This low level of infection was probably due to 
the low rainfall prior to the surveys. Resist- 
ance to this disease was again confirmed this 
year in several breeding lines and appears 
heritable. Under plot conditions, an applica- 
tion of the fungicide Ridomil to the foliage 



significantly reduced severity of the disease 
and provided a corresponding increase in 
yield. 

Weeds. Satisfactory tolerance was found 
with postemergence treatments of TCA, BAS 
9052, and TF 1169 and with preplant-incor- 
porated treatments of metribuzin, alachlor, 
metachlor, and triallate. Initial crop injury 
resulted from postemergence treatments of 
difenzoquat, dicolofop, and metribuzin. 

Field corn 

Three early maturing inbreds with high 
combining ability, CM 145, CM 108, and 
CM 122, were released to the seed trade. 
Morden hybrid 1 125 yielded 15% better than 
the mean of standards and was equal in 
maturity to the earliest standard, Pioneer 
3995. 

Several new, early maturing inbreds with a 
high degree of resistance to stalk rot were 
developed from populations obtained from 
European breeders. These inbreds yielded 
very well in top-cross trials. 

The program to convert superior 'corn 
belt 1 inbreds to earlier maturing inbreds for 
Manitoba conditions has made progress. 
Selections from the backcrossing programs 
with H99 from Indiana, Mo 17 from Missouri, 
and A619 from Minnesota have been crossed 
with Morden inbreds CMW9 and CM 174. 
The derivatives from H99 appear most prom- 
ising, particularly when crossed with CMW9. 



RESEARCH STATION, MORDEN. MAN. 



283 



A similar backcross breeding program has 
commenced with the inbred B73 from Iowa. 

Field peas 

Breeding. The breeder seed of Triumph, a 
green-seeded cultivar, was released to growers 
through SeCan after a 4-yr program of virus 
elimination and genetic purification. A 
semileafless (afaf/StSt) line, MP 919, se- 
lected from a backcrossing program with 
Century, was equal in yield to the cultivar 
Century in cooperative tests. High yielding, 
semileafless lines with Trapper background 
have also been selected and will be evaluated 
in cooperative tests. Two green-seeded lines 
that are resistant to bleaching, MP 841 and 
MP 843, are under final evaluation. 

Management. Preharvest spraying of green 
field peas with diquat containing active ingre- 
dient at 0.28 and 0.56 kg/ha resulted in good 
desiccation of late green growth and permit- 
ted earlier harvesting. The peas that were 
harvested earliest escaped weathering and 
had the best color. Chemical desiccation had 
its greatest advantage in years when matura- 
tion proceeded slowly and when regrowth was 
most prevalent. 

Diseases. Of 1494 breeding lines evaluated 
for presence of pea seed-borne mosaic virus 
(PSbMV), 18 were infected. PSbMV detec- 
tion is an integral part of the research 
program, necessary for the production of 
virus-free cultivars for licensing. The sensitiv- 
ity of the assay plant Chenopodium amaran- 
ticolor for the detection of PSbMV was 
enhanced by providing it with low light 
intensity or high light intensity for growth, 
followed by a period of darkness prior to 
inoculation. Two of 35 advanced breeding 
lines showed some resistance to Mycosphaer- 
ella pinodes, and six lines as well as the 
cultivar Tara were highly resistant to powdery 
mildew. 



PULSE CROPS 

Evaluation. Eight pulse crops were evalu- 
ated. The lentil cultivar Eston continued to 
yield higher than Laird in Manitoba. Lines of 
adzuki beans selected at Morden outyielded 
introductions from Japan and the United 
States. Two chick-pea lines resistant to Asco- 
chyta blight were identified. Black bean lines 
earlier in maturity and higher yielding than 
commercial cultivars have been selected. 



High-yielding lathyrus lines that are resistant 
to drought have been identified. 

Management. Lathyrus was found to give 
excellent germination and growth under se- 
vere drought conditions, with yields above 
3500 kg/ha. 

Quality. A screening technique for 7V-ox- 
alyldiaminopropionic acid was developed 
under contract by the University of Manitoba. 
Ninety-three Morden accessions of Lathyrus 
were screened for this compound and wide 
variation was found in the amounts of this 
lathyrogenic compound occurring both within 
and between species. 



OILSEED CROPS 



Flax 



Breeding. Two lines, the late maturing FP 
692 and the mid-early FP 698, continue to be 
superior in yield to the widely grown cultivars 
Linott and DuiTerin. FP 692 also has better 
lodging resistance than DufTerin. 

Utilizing recurrent selection, lines have 
been developed that are up to three percent- 
age points higher in oil content than DufTerin 
and have good yield potential. 

Sunflowers 

Breeding. A sunflower hybrid, Morden 15, 
performed well in the 1980 cooperative test 
and will be proposed for licensing in 1981. 
Morden 15 yields 3.5% more than CMH 101, 
matures 1 day earlier, and has better resist- 
ance to downy mildew. Branching and non- 
branching restorer lines with identical genetic 
background did not differ in combining abil- 
ity. The contribution of the hull content and 
oil content of the kernel (hull-less achene) to 
the oil content of the whole seed in commer- 
cial hybrids was found to be 56.5% and 
43.5%, respectively. The contribution of the 
oil content of the kernel is higher than 
previously reported. 

Management. Yields were reduced by 
about 70%> when planting was delayed from 2 
June to 19 June, due mostly to considerable 
lodging, which occurred in the late planted 
crop. Premature harvesting resulted in a 
much greater oil reduction in late maturing 
hybrids than in early maturing hybrids. 

Diseases. Tan, a new strain of Sclerotinia 
sclerotiorunu was discovered in a sunflower 
field near Portage la Prairie. Unlike the 



284 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



normal strain of S. sclerotiorum, which 
produces black sclerotia and brown apothecia, 
this new strain produces tan sclerotia and 
white apothecia. Sclerotia of the tan strain 
lack dormancy and are capable of attacking 
sunflower plants in soil shortly after inocula- 
tion. 

In 2 yr of testing for resistance to sclero- 
tinia wilt (S. sclerotiorum), inbreds CM 526 
and CM 497 have shown wilt resistance 
superior to CM 400 and RHA 273, the 
inbreds currently used widely in the commer- 
cial production of hybrids. 

Premature ripening, a disease of undeter- 
mined etiology, was widespread in sunflower 
fields in Manitoba and was particularly severe 
in early sown fields. Sclerotinia diseases 
generally were of unusually restricted inci- 
dence and mildness. Rust was more promi- 
nent and severe than usual, and verticillium 
wilt was conspicuous in fields of hybrids 
known to be moderately susceptible. 

Weed control. Results in 1980 confirmed 
those from 1979 showing BAS 9052 to be 
selective in sunflowers at rates effective for 
control of wild oats, green foxtail, and volun- 
teer barley. Band application of BAS 9052 or 
flamprop-methyl followed by cultivation 
between rows was as effective for control of 
wild oats and green foxtail as overall applica- 
tion in sunflowers sown at 75-cm row spacing. 
When wild oats emerged early relative to crop 
emergence, treatment with barban was not as 
effective as treatment with flamprop-methyl 
or BAS 9052, which could be applied at later 
stages of wild oat and sunflower growth. In a 
study of wild oat competition, a weed popula- 
tion of 70 plants per square metre between 
rows contributed substantially to the yield 
loss. Full-season competition by a 20-cm band 
of wild oats centered on the row resulted in a 
yield loss of 23%, whereas on unweeded plots 
the yield loss was 44%. 



HORTICULTURAL CROPS 

Ornamental crops 

Breeding. Heritability of mildew resistance 
in roses was found compatible with an inter- 
pretation based on multigenic additive inheri- 
tance. The newly derived tetraploid RSMK1 
hybrid germ plasm transmitted resistance at a 
level of 81% in seven progenies; its perform- 
ance indicates its value as a disease-resistant 
parent. A dwarf honeysuckle and a hardy 



weeping willow were increased for release in 
1981 through the Canadian Ornamental 
Plant Foundation. These selections possess 
reliable hardiness for the prairie region. In 
lilies, two tetraploids derived by colchicine 
treatment from nearly sterile diploid hybrids 
of Lilium aurelianese x L. longiflorum 
proved fertile and cross compatible; these 
results indicate the value of tetraploid deri- 
vation for fertility restoration. This is the first 
known successful culture of second-generation 
embryos in this wide interspecific cross. 

Arboretum and evaluation. Arboretum 
evaluations were continued with the addition 
of 140 new accessions in 1980. A preliminary 
evaluation of birch for tolerance or resistance 
to borers showed that Betula davurica, B. 
albo sinensis septentrionalis from Asia, and 
the native B. occidentalis offered particular 
value for direct use or for further breeding. 
Other promising accessions include Cornus 
rugosa, roundleaf dogwood; Fraxinus ameri- 
cana, white ash; Populus grandidentata, 
large-tooted aspen; Populus CAG hybrid, 
white poplar; Quercus bicolor, white oak; 
Rhus glabra, smooth sumac; and a Sorbus 
aucuparia hybrid. These plants are being 
increased for final assessment and recommen- 
dation to nursery growers. 

Propagation. Morden Cardinette rose was 
propagated from leaf-bud cuttings using a 
range of concentrations of indolbutyric acid 
(IBA) and 7000 ppm was found to be opti- 
mum. A positive correlation existed between 
root formation and seasonal growth. Cuttings 
taken in early summer gave better rooting, 
growth, and overwintering than late-summer 
cuttings. A pilot project was developed to 
transfer this technology to commercial 
growers. 

Nursery management. Herbicides were 
evaluated for efficacy and crop tolerance on a 
range of woody nursery crops. Data are being 
used to support registrations of oxadiazon in 
nursery stock kept in containers and of 
oxyfluorfen in established spruce, and to 
broaden information on herbicide perform- 
ance in woody nursery crops. 

Potatoes 

Breeding and evaluation. Seventeen ad- 
vanced seedlings or newly named cultivars 
were evaluated in commercial field trials. 
Atlantic (B6987-56) and Oneida have 
achieved some support from the chipping 



RESEARCH STATION, MORDEN, MAN. 



285 



industry and require field-scale production 
before final acceptance. Wise 726 appears 
about equal to Norchip and Dakchip. Crystal 
and M69S06-69 are unacceptable for chip- 
ping. The red table stock cultivars, Botache 
and Wise 729R, have gained some acceptance 
from the industry and have higher dry matter 
than Pontiac and Norland. Lemhi Russet 
(A68678-1) and Shepody (F69016) have 
some potential for french fry production. 

Quality. Chipping potatoes were monitored 
for sucrose content (SR rating) beginning 4 
wk prior to harvest and throughout the entire 
storage period. Preharvest SR rating was 
found to be useful in assessing tuber maturity 
as it relates to vine killing and harvesting, and 
for predicting long-term storage potential. 
Monitoring sucrose content in storage permit- 
ted the identification of stress conditions, such 
as poor air circulation, and the breaking of 
tuber dormancy. 

Herbicides. Herbicide treatments of EPTC 
(Eptam) alone gave good control of lamb's- 
quarters and were as effective as EPTC plus 
extender or as a tank mix with napropamide. 
Variable cultivar tolerance for metribuzin was 
evident, ranging from only minimal injury 
(Norchip, Nipigon, F72117) to severe injury 
(Alaska Red). Some treatments that showed 
visible injury still produced good yields. 

Diseases. A survey of Russet Burbank 
potato fields in 2-yr rotations revealed a very 
high incidence of rhizoctonia disease. The 
least amount of rhizoctonia disease was found 
in the potato-wheat rotation, with levels 
increasing in the potato-barley, potato-onion, 



and potato-corn rotations. Both stems and 
stolons were affected; up to 100% of stems 
and 80% of stolons bore cankers, and 57% of 
stems and 46% of stolons were girdled. 



NEW CROPS 

Essential oil and spice crops 

Evaluation. Extremely droughty and hot 
conditions at seeding time imposed difficulties 
in seedling emergence. These conditions re- 
sulted in very poor plant stands. However, 
cumin and fenugreek were identified as hav- 
ing agronomic potential for the southern 
prairies. 

Management and quality. Dill oil quality 
has been adversely affected by the presence of 
phoma blight, which destroys the fern, and by 
volatile compounds obtained from certain 
weed species. Control of phoma blight was 
achieved by timely spraying with chlorotha- 
lonil (Bravo) at 1.7-2.2 kg/ha. Effective 
control of broad-leaved weeds was obtained 
with ethalfluralin, trifluralin, and chloramben. 

Because the geraniol-rich monarda seedling 
is a triploid, it can only be propagated 
asexually. The most effective and rapid 
method was found to be through mist propa- 
gation of stem cuttings dipped in 1000 ppm of 
IBA and placed in sand in a misting chamber. 
Cuttings taken from mid-May to mid-June 
rooted best, producing root initials in 1 wk; 
these cuttings were ready for transplanting in 
14-16 days. As the mother plants advanced in 
growth, the stems became more fibrous and 
their ability to produce roots decreased 
rapidly. 



PUBLICATIONS 



Research 

Ali-Khan, S. T. 1980. Lcnca field peas. Can. J. 
Plant Sci. 60:297-298. 



Dedio, W. 1980. CMH 
Sci. 60:291-292. 



01 sunflower. Can. J. Plant 



Dedio, W. 1980. Comparison of achene characteris- 
tics and combining ability of branching and 
nonbranching near isogenic sunflower restorer 
lines. Crop Sci. 20:180-190. 



DeJong, H.; Tai, G. C. C; Johnston, G. R.; Russell, 
W. A. 1980. Yield potential and genotype- 
environment interaction of tetraploid-diploid 
(4.v-2.v) potato hybrids. Am. Potato J. 475-476 
(abstract). 

Dirks, V. A.; Friesen, G. H. 1980. Tolerance of 
fresh market tomatoes to metribuzin applied at 
various dates after transplanting. Can. J. Plant 
Sci. 60:759-761. 

Gubbels, G. H. 1980. Yield and seed weight of 
buckwheat after foliar applications of boron 
and calcium. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:721-722. 



286 



Rl -SI-ARCH BRANCH RHPORT I9S0 



Hoes, J. A.; Kenaschuk, E. O. 1980. Postseedling 
resistance to rust in flax. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 
2:125-130. 

Huang, H. C. 1980. Control of sclerotinia wilt of 
sunflower by hyperparasites. Can. J. Plant 
Pathol. 2:26-32. 

Huang, H. C; Dueck, J. 1980. Wilt of sunflower 
from infection by mycelial germinating scle- 
rotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Can. J. Plant 
Pathol. 2:47-52. 

Marshall, H. H. 1980. RSM Kl and RSM K5 rose 
germplasm. HortScience 15(2):205-206. 

Ronald, W. G. 1980. Tower poplar. Can. J. Plant 
Sci. 60:1055-1056. 

Singh, G.; Bushan, L. S.; Friesen, G. H. 1980. Time 
of applying selective herbicides for control of 
weeds in maize in Doon Valley. Indian J. 
Agron. 25:89-91. 

Svejda, F. J.; Ronald, W. G. 1980. Forsythia 
'Northern Gold'. Can. J. Plant Sci. 60:1057- 
1058. 

Vanstone, D. E.; Stobbe, E. H. 1979. Light require- 
ment of the diphenylether herbicide, oxyfluor- 
fen. Weed Sci. 27:88-90. 

Whelan, E. D. P.; Dedio, W. 1980. Registration of 
sunflower germplasm composite crosses CMG- 
1, CMG-2, and CMG-3. Crop Sci. 20:832. 

Whelan, E. D. P.; Dorrell, D. G. 1980. Interspecific 
hybrids between Helianthus maximiliani 
Schrad. and H. annuus L. Effects of backcross- 
ing on meiosis, anther morphology, and seed 
characteristics. Crop Sci. 20:29-34. 

Miscellaneous 

Ali-Khan, S. T. 1980. Breeding field peas in 
Canada. Proceedings Pulse Crops Production 
Conference, Saskatchewan, pp. 10-14. 

Ali-Khan, S. T. 1980. Agronomic assessment of 
leafless peas in Canada. Agron. Abstr. p. 96. 

Ali-Khan, S. T. 1980. Seed inoculation in pulse 
crops. Canadex 255.24. 

Ali-Khan, S. T. 1980. Infestation and control of pea 
aphids. Canadex 621. 

Ali-Khan, S. T.; Zimmer, R. C. 1980. Production of 
field peas in Canada. Agric. Can. Publ. 1710. 

Chubb, W. O. 1979. Weed control in sunflowers. 
Technical and scientific papers, Manitoba 
Agronomy Conference, pp. 97-99. 

Chubey, B. B. 1980. Sucrose rating proving to be a 
good measure of tuber maturity at harvest. 
24th Annual Convention Canadian Potato 
Chip Association, Quebec City, Que. 
(abstract). 



Chubey, B. B. 1980. Gcraniol-rich essential oil from 
Monarda fistulosa L. 8th International Con- 
gress of essential oils, Cannes, France (ab- 
stract), p. 102. 

Dedio, W.; Campbell, S. J.; Hoes, J. A.; Ukrainet/, 
H.; Arthur, A. 1980. Sunflower seed crops. 
Agric. Can. Publ. 1687. 

Dedio, W.; Putt, E. D. 1980. Chapter 45. Sun- 
flower. Hadley, H. H., ed. Hybridization of 
crop plants. American Society of Agronomy 
Monograph, pp. 631-644. 

Gubbels, G. H.; Kenaschuk, E. Ô. 1980. Preharvest 
desiccation of flax with diquat. Proceedings 
48th Annual Flax Institute o/t U.S., Fargo, 
ND. (17-18 Jan.). pp. 36-38. 

Gubbels, G. H.; Kenaschuk, E. O. 1980. Desicca- 
tion as a harvest aid for flax. Canadex 148.55. 

Gubbels, G. H.; Kenaschuk, E. O.; Dedio, W. 1979. 
Desiccation research in flax and sunflowers. 
Proceedings Manitoba Agronomy Conference, 
pp. 23-26. 

Hoes, J. A. 1979. Rust and verticillium wilt 
reactions of 25 sunflower hybrid cultivars. 
Proceedings Manitoba Agronomy Conference, 
pp. 90-91. 

Hoes, J. A.; Kenaschuk, E. O. 1980. Variation in 
postseedling rust resistance in flax cultivars. 
Proceedings 48th Annual Flax Institute o/t 
U.S., Fargo, ND. (17-18 Jan.). pp. 41-46. 

Marshall, H. H. 1979. Index Seminum, Research 
Station, Morden. 

Marshall, H. H. 1980. Hardy chrysanthemums for 
prairie gardens. Agdex 200.22. 

Ronald, W. G. 1979. Hardiness zonation Manitoba 
report. Proc. West. Can. Soc. Hort. Sci. 
35:107. 

Ronald, W. G. 1979. Merit trials sub-committee 
report. Proc. West. Can. Soc. Hort. Sci. 
35:118. 

Ronald, W. G. 1979. Report of the Prairie Fruit 
Breeding Cooperative. Proc. West. Can. Soc. 
Hort. Sci. 35:88. 

Ronald W. G. 1980. Recent awards of merit. The 
Prairie Garden, pp. 8-9. 

Ronald, W. G. 1980. Mr. Richard H. Patmore— 
Pioneer Plantsman 1903-1979. The Prairie 
Garden, pp. 12-13. 

Ronald, W. G. 1980. New prairie-adapted apples. 
Landscape Alberta 3( 1 ):27. 

Ronald, W. G. 1980. Benefits of plant breeding to 
the landscape industry. Landscape Trades 
2(2):38-41. 



RESEARCH STATION, MORDEN, MAN. 



287 



Ronald, W. G. 1980. Tree breeding and evaluation 
at the Morden Research Station— 1978-79. 
Proceedings of the Canadian Tree Im- 
provement Association, Part I. p. 175. 

Ronald, W. G.; Temmerman, H. J. M. 1979. Some 
aspects of high density orcharding. Proc. West. 
Can. Soc. Hort. Sci. 35:69-75. 

Russell, W. A. 1980. Report on past highlights and 
present developments in potato breeding on the 
Canadian prairies. Proceedings 8th Annual 
Meeting of the Prairie Potato Council, pp. 
9-13. 



StaufTer, M. D.; Chubey, B. B.; Dorrell, D. G. 
1980. Growth, yield and compositional charac- 
teristics of Jerusalem artichoke as it relates to 
biomass production. American Chemical Soci- 
ety, Fuel Chemistry Division, Fuels from 
Biomass Symposium, San Francisco, CA. 
(Aug.). 

Vanstone, D. E. 1980. Containerized nursery 
stock — why? The Prairie Garden, pp. 112-11 4. 

Vanstone, D. E. 1980. Basswood seed germination. 
Landscape Alberta 3(4):24-26. 

Zimmer, R. C. 1980. Seed treatment and emer- 
gence in field peas. Canadex 142.23. 



288 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Research Station 
Winnipeg, Manitoba 



PROFESSIONAL STAFF 



D. G. Dorrell, B.S.A. 
M. D. Hamilton 



M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Director 
Administrative Officer 



Scientific Support 



M. Malyk, 1 B.Sc, M.Sc, M.L.S. 
W. Romanow, B.S.A., M.Sc. 



Librarian 

Scientific Liaison Officer 



Cereal Breeding 



D. Leisle, B.S.A. , M.Sc, Ph.D. 

V. M. Bendelow, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

D. Brown, B.S.A., M.Sc. 

A. B. Campbell, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

E. M. Czarnecki, B.S.A., M.Sc. 
P. L. Dyck, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

E. R. Kerber, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

F. G. Kosmolak, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

M. I. P. Kovacs, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
D. R. Metcalfe, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
R. I. H. McKenzie, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 
J. S. Noll, B.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Durum wheat 
breeding 
Cereal chemistry 
Oat breeding 
Common wheat breeding 
Common wheat breeding 
Wheat genetics 
Wheat cytogenetics 
Cereal chemistry 
Cereal chemistry 
Barley breeding and genetics 
Oat breeding and genetics 
Physiology 



Cereal Diseases 



R. Rohringer, Dr. sc 



agr. 



C. C. Gill, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

G. J. Green, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

D. E. Harder, 2 B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
N. K. Howes, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

W. K. Kim, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Molecular biology 
of cereal rust 
Viruses 

Wheat stem rust 
Oat crown rust 
Molecular biology 
Molecular biology of cereal rust 



RESEARCH STATION, WINNIPEG, MAN. 



289 



J. W. Martens, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

J. T. Mills, B.Sc, Ph.D., D.I.C. 

J. J. Nielsen, Dr. sc. agr. 

D. J. Samborski, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

A. Tekauz, 3 B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

P. L. Thomas, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Oat stem rust 

Seed storage pathology, fungicides 

Smuts 

Wheat leaf rust 

Leaf diseases 

Microbial genetics, smuts 



Cereal Crop Protection 



F. L. Waiters, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

D. Abramson, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
P. S. Barker, LA., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

S. R. Loschiavo, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 
W. Romanow, B.S.A., M.Sc. 
D. Sabourin, B.Sc, M.Sc. 
R. N. Sinha, B.Sc, Ph.D. 

L. B. Smith, B.Sc, M.S.A., Ph.D. 
P. H. Westdal, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Storage pest 

control 

Mycotoxicology 
Biology and control of stored grain 

pests 
Stored grain insect biology 
Insect surveys and control 
Biometrics 
Ecology of granary insects, mites, 

and fungi 

Population dynamics 
Biology and control of field crop 

insects 



Integrated Pest Control 



W. J. Turnock, B.S.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

G. L. Ayre, B.S.A., M.S.A. 

R. P. Bodnaryk, B.A., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

G. K. Bracken, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

G. E. Bûcher, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. 

G. H. Gerber, B.S.A., Ph.D. 

B. M. Hegdekar, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

R. J. Lamb, B.Sc, M.Sc, Ph.D. 

H. G. Wylie, B.A., Ph.D. 



Head of Section; Ecology and 
population dynamics 
Insect ecology 
Nutritional physiology 
Physiology and behavior 
Insect pathology 
Reproductive physiology 
Insect biochemistry 
Systems biology 
Host-parasite relations 



VISITING SCIENTISTS 



Research Associates 



H. A. H. Wallace, B.Sc, M.Sc. 

N. D. G. White, B.Sc.Agr., M.Sc, Ph.D. 

F. J. Madrid, B.Sc, Ph.D. 



Microflora of stored seed 
Grain storage, ecology 
Grain storage, ecology 



Graduate students 



C. Aitchison, B.Sc, M.Sc. 

290 



Entomology 

RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



A. Al-Hitty, B.Sc. Entomology 

B. S. Joia, B.Sc, M.Sc. Entomology 
M. Howlander, B.Sc, M.Sc. Entomolgoy 

G. Musa, B.S.A. Plant pathology 

P. Paterson, B.S.A. Plant breeding 

L. Wong, B.S.A. Plant breeding 



'Seconded from Libraries Division, Finance and Administration Branch. 

: On transfer of work to the University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany, April 1980 - March 1981. 
'On transfer of work to the Royal Veterinary and Agriculture Universtiy, Copenhagen, Denmark, October 1980 
September 1981. 



RESEARCH STATION, WINNIPEG. MAN. 291 



INTRODUCTION 



Research programs at the Winnipeg Research Station emphasize three broad responsibili- 
ties: development of improved cultivars of cereals adapted to regions of the Canadian prairies, 
research on the protection of stored seed and seed products, and research on the integrated 
control of insect pests of field crops. 

Improvement of cereal cultivars, historically the first mandate of the Research Station, 
requires close cooperation between plant breeders, geneticists, cytologists, plant pathologists, 
and cereal chemists. Three cultivars were licensed in 1980 as a result of their combined efforts. 
The hard red spring wheat cultivar, Columbus, is the first Canadian cultivar with a high degree 
of harvest-time sprouting resistance. The two-row barley cultivar, Norbert, is the first cultivar 
to combine resistance to stem rust and net blotch with tolerance for barley yellow dwarf mosaic 
virus. The spring oat cultivar, Fidler, is the first cultivar with effective multigenic resistance to 
stem and crown rust and good yield. Cereal cultivars developed by the Winnipeg Research 
Station are currently grown on more than 9.5 million ha in Western Canada. 

Research on the preservation of grain and oilseeds and their products is national in scope 
and requires close cooperation with Plant Products and Quarantine Division of Agriculture 
Canada, the Canadian Grain Commission, and the grain industry. Factors that cause the 
development of toxins in stored grain are being investigated as part of a strong mycotoxin 
program. Low-cost ventilation systems have been developed that permit safe storage and 
maintenance of quality in damp rapeseed. 

Research on the control of field crop insects, particularly those that attack rapeseed, 
includes the evaluation of new insecticides, an assessment of economic damage, and the 
development of management systems. A highly successful integrated control program for the 
strawberry cutworm was developed that includes chemical and cultural methods. 

Dr. W. C. McDonald, Director of the Winnipeg Research Station since 1971, retired at 
the end of 1979 after a distinguished 29-yr career with the Research Branch. He is noted for 
his contribution to genetic control of barley leaf diseases. Drs. R. Rohringer and F. L. Watters 
subsequently shared the responsibilities of Acting Director for 8 mo in 1980. 

Further information summarized in this report can be obtained from Research Station, 
Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 195 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2M9. 

D. G. Dorrell 
Director 



BREEDING, GENETICS, AND high ^-amylase activity appeared to be asso- 

CYTOGENETICS dated with lower levels of other enzymes 

essential for malting. Similarly, in initial 
malting tests it was found that lines with a 

ar e ^ very low polyphenol content showed a de- 
crease in essential enzyme activity. More 

The two-row barley line T.R. 206 was evidence was obtained to indicate that the 

licensed as the cultivar Norbert. This cultivar lcvel of hordein protein in barley affects 

is well adapted to the eastern prairie region amount f fermentable material that can be 

because it possesses improved yield and straw extracted from malt. Preliminary results 

strength and is the first cultivar with resist- indicate that hordein content can be easily 

ance to stem rust and net blotch and with scree ned for in the breeding program, 
tolerance for barley yellow dwarf virus. 

Although its status as a malting barley has Common wheat 

not been established, it has good malting ^, , , , , . ,- t> w; ->-> 

.. » & e y ne hard red spring wheat line, B.W. 37, 

^ ua l *" was licensed as the cultivar Columbus. This is 

Barley-quality studies revealed that high the first Canadian cultivar with a high degree 

lysine lines from the breeding program did not of resistance to harvest-time sprouting and it 

appear suitable for malting purposes. Their establishes a new standard o^ quality. This 

292 RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



characteristic means that the crop has a lower 
level of a-amylase activity in wet harvest 
seasons and meets the stringent requirements 
of the Japanese market. Columbus is slightly 
later maturing and higher yielding than the 
popular cultivar, Neepawa. It has good resist- 
ance to leaf rust and bunt, and moderate 
resistance to stem rust and smut. The overall 
quality is good. 

Progress was evident for the incorporation 
of sprouting resistance, and additional leaf 
and stem rust resistance, into the breeding 
populations. 

The genetics of rust resistance was deter- 
mined in several cultivars. Glenlea was shown 
to carry Sr5, Sr6, Sri a, and one or two type 2 
genes for stem rust resistance. It has at least 
three genes for leaf rust resistance: Lrl for 
seedling resistance and two genes for adult 
plant resistance. Sinton has LrlO for seedling 
resistance plus Lrl3 and one of the Glenlea 
genes for adult plant leaf rust resistance. 
Hork "S," a cultivar from the International 
Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, has 
LrlO for seedling resistance and Lrl 3 and 
Lrl2 for adult plant resistance. The seedling 
leaf rust resistance of Columbus is due to 
LrI6. Lines with stem rust resistance derived 
from Agropyron (Sr26), Aegilops ventricosa 
Tausch and Triticum persicum var. (VPM), 
and T. longissimum (Scheinf. & Muschli in 
Muschli) Bowden appear to have satisfactory 
quality. 

An increase in protein content, achieved by 
nitrogen fertilizer application, was shown to 
increase the water absorption capacity of flour 
and to decrease the mixograph development 
time in five Canadian cultivars. The effect of 
protein content on extensigraph areas differed 
among cultivars. Remix and blend-loaf vol- 
umes increased with increasing protein con- 
tent for each cultivar. Quality evaluation of 
Rescue-Cadet chromosome substitution lines 
showed reciprocal chromosome effects in the 
direction of the donor parent for mixograph 
development time with chromosome 1A, 
farinograph absorption with 2A and 6B, and 
grinding time with 1A, IB, and 6D. Cadet 
chromosomes of the homologous groups 4 and 
7 had a major effect on Rescue quality. 

Durum wheat 

Two lines from the breeding program were 
advanced in the cooperative test. After fur- 
ther evaluation the most promising appears to 
be DT 433, which yielded 108% of Coulter in 



the Black soil zone and was equal to the best 
check cultivar in the Brown soil zone after 2 
yr of testing. 

A preliminary study established that a link 
existed between factors controlling glume 
color and electrophoretic banding patterns of 
gliadin proteins, specifically bands 42 and 45. 
These bands were earlier shown to be associ- 
ated with gluten strength. It is now suggested 
that gluten strength is controlled by a factor 
associated with glume color and bands 42/45, 
and one or more factors segregating indepen- 
dently. 

The sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedi- 
mentation test to measure protein quality was 
further modified to speed processing of sam- 
ples. This modified test is being utilized in the 
quality screening program. 

Oats 

The oats line O.T. 210 was licensed as the 
cultivar Fidler. This cultivar is adapted to the 
eastern prairie region because it possesses 
highly effective multigenic resistance to stem 
rust and crown rust, and resistance to smut. It 
has shorter and stronger straw and good yield 
characteristics. 

Promising lines entered in the final testing 
stage combine rust and smut resistance from 
Avena sterilis, large seed size from Harmon 
and Kent (an Australian cultivar), and toler- 
ance for barley yellow dwarf virus from Kent. 



CEREAL RUSTS 

Rust surveys 

Stem rust of wheat. Wheat stem rust was 
scarce in Canada in 1979 because little air- 
borne inoculum was introduced from the 
south; hot dry weather during July and 
August was unfavorable for rust development; 
and rust-resistant cultivars were planted in 
the rust-prone areas. Twenty-one races were 
identified in Canada in 1979, three of which 
were new. Race C25, first identified in 1965, 
was potentially the most dangerous. It has 
been isolated with increasing frequency in 
recent years, although it has not been found in 
farm fields and does not appear to threaten 
resistant commercial cultivars. Nevertheless, 
it has shown some virulence on these cultivars 
in greenhouse trials. 

For many years most wheat stem rust 
collections in Western Canada were made 
from the wild grass, Hordeum jubatum L. In 
1978, however, a sudden change occurred and 



RESEARCH STATION, WINNIPEG, MAN. 



293 



the preponderance of rust found on this grass 
shifted from wheat stem rust to rye stem rust. 
This situation persisted in 1979, and because 
rust has not been found in farm fields of 
resistant varieties for many years, nearly all 
the wheat stem rust collections identified in 
the race survey were from three plots of the 
susceptible cultivar Klein Titan planted at 
Morden, Portage, and Brandon, Man. Similar 
plots sown at six locations in Saskatchewan 
produced only three pustules. There is always 
a concern that the limited number of samples 
identified may not be representative of the 
wheat stem rust population. Nevertheless, we 
feel that no important new race went 
undetected. 

Leaf rust of wheat. Rust surveys carried 
out in Manitoba and Saskatchewan indicated 
that wheat leaf rust occurred at very low 
levels of infection in 1980 and did not cause 
any damage to the wheat crop. Preliminary 
identifications of races indicated that only a 
few races of leaf rust were present in Mani- 
toba in 1980 and these could not attack any of 
the recommended resistant cultivars. 

The identification of races from leaf rust 
survey samples was carried out in 1979 with 
19 backcross differential lines of wheat. Lines 
with resistance genes Lrl6, LrI9, Lr21, and 
T 4 x PI 58548 were resistant to all isolates of 
leaf rust, and Lrl 1 was attacked by only a few 
isolates from Ontario. Thirty virulence com- 
binations on 14 genes for resistance were 
identified. 

Oat crown rust. Avirulence-virulence com- 
binations in crown rust were identified using 
19 single-gene lines in 1979. Thirty-three 
combinations collected from across Canada 
were identified, but there were no important 
changes in the populations that could affect 
advanced breeder lines or the sources of 
resistance being used in the Winnipeg breed- 
ing program. 

In 1980 crown rust occurred throughout 
most of Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan, 
but infections were the lightest in many years, 
with almost no crop damage, even in late 
maturing fields. 

Oat stem rust. Avirulence-virulence com- 
binations of oat stem rust were identified 
using nine backcross single-gene differential 
lines in 1980. Twelve combinations were 
identified from across Canada but there were 
no changes in the rust population that could 
threaten advanced breeders lines or the new 



rust-resistant cultivar, Fidler, in Western 
Canada. The resistance conferred by gene Pg- 
16 remains effective against all isolates identi- 
fied in Canada, and the resistances conferred 
by gene Pg-13 and the Pg-a complex were 
highly effective against more than 99% of the 
isolates identified in 1979. In 1980, stem rust 
occurred throughout Manitoba and eastern 
Saskatchewan, but infections were light and 
there was very little crop damage. The 1980 
physiologic race survey in Eastern Canada 
was expanded to include a 'trap nursery,' and 
two new avirulence-virulence combinations 
were identified. 

Resistance to the rusts 

A number of accessions from the World 
Wheat Collection were tested in the seedling 
and adult plant stages with eight races of leaf 
rust. A number of potentially useful sources 
of resistance were identified. Genes Lr3 and 
LrlO occurred in a number of these acces- 
sions. The incorporation of additional genes 
for resistance to leaf rust into the cultivar 
Benito was continued. Genes Lr3ka and Lr21 
are being backcrossed into this cultivar. 

A botanical expedition to the Canary 
Islands, northwest Africa, and the Iberian 
Peninsula in quest of new genetic resources 
produced 3850 accessions of Avena, 
Hordeum, Triticum and Aegilops. 

Three hundred and sixty new accessions 
from Turkey and Iran were tested for stem 
rust and crown rust resistance. Although new 
resistance was identified, it is at the tetraploid 
level, making it difficult to utilize. 

Molecular biology and ultrastructure of the 
cereal rusts 

Lectin-coated gold particles were used as 
histochemical markers to detect lectin recep- 
tors in ultrathin sections of stem rust uredo- 
sporelings and rust-infected wheat leaves. 

Con A receptors, presumably consisting of 
glucan or mannan, or both, were found in 
spore walls but not in germ tube walls. No 
receptors for soybean lectin (galactose-spe- 
cific) or Lotus tetragonolobus lectin (fucose- 
specific) were detected, although gas chroma- 
tography indicated that galactose and fucose 
may be present in macromolecular constitu- 
ents of germ tube walls. 

Wheat germ lectin-coated gold (specific for 
N-acetylglucosamine) showed anomalous 
behavior in the presence of chitin hydrolvsate. 
The latter inhibited binding of the lectin to 



294 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT loso 



lectin-specific receptor sites on germ tube 
walls, confirming the presence of chitin. On 
spore walls, however, it not only failed to 
inhibit binding, but greatly promoted it. 
Further work is necessary to determine the 
nature of wheat germ lectin receptors in spore 
walls. 

The ultrastructural and histochemical anal- 
ysis of tissue infected with wheat stem rust 
indicated that the neck wall and body wall of 
haustoria contains Con A receptors. Wheat 
germ lectin receptors were found in hyphal 
walls and in the body wall of old haustoria but 
not in those of young haustoria or in hausto- 
rial neck walls. The extrahaustorial matrix 
contained Con A receptors and probably 
cellulose as well, but no wheat germ lectin 
receptors. The possible presence of cellulose 
may indicate that this structure is of host 
origin. 

A histochemical study was conducted to 
identify the major components of the struc- 
tures at the host-parasite interface in oat 
leaves infected with crown rust, including the 
haustorium mother cell wall, the septum and 
septal protrusions, the adhesive substance 
attaching the haustorial mother cell to the 
host wall, the haustorial neck and body walls, 
the haustorial neck ring, and the interacting 
regions of the host cytoplasm. Comparisons 
were made between dikaryotic haustoria in 
oats and monokaryotic haustoria of this 
fungus in buckthorn. Information was ob- 
tained to aid in defining monokaryotic hausto- 
ria. 

Germ tube walls of wheat stem rust uredo- 
sporelings were extracted using five different 
methods to solubilize macromolecular wall 
constituents. The extracts contained various 
amounts of protein and bound sugars (man- 
nose, glucose, galactose, fucose, and N-acz- 
tylglucosamine), depending on the method of 
extraction. The macromolecular components 
were further characterized by passage 
through columns of Sepharose-bound Con A, 
revealing the presence of glucose or mannose, 
or both, in terminal positions. 

Protein was extracted from resistant and 
susceptible near-isogenic lines of wheat and 
compared by slab gel electrophoresis and 
isoelectric focusing to detect the product of 
the gene for resistance. This comparison was 
hindered by the presence of the major leaf 
protein, chloroplast fraction I protein. There- 
fore, leaf proteins were prefractionated to 
obtain a membrane-enriched fraction rela- 
tively free of fraction I protein. Similar 



membrane-enriched fractions were prepared 
from ditelosomic lines of wheat missing either 
2Da or 6D/3 chromosome arms. Evidence was 
obtained that the susceptible line has one 
additional protein not found in the resistant 
line or in the ditelosomic lines. 



OTHER CEREAL DISEASES 

Smuts 

Smut was found in 73% and 64% of the 
barley fields examined in the Prairie Prov- 
inces in 1979 and 1980, respectively. The 
levels of Ustilago nuda (Jens.) Rostr. and U. 
nigra Tapke were lower in 1980 than in 1979, 
whereas U. hordei (Pers.) Lagerh. was found 
at the unusually high level of 20-25% in three 
fields in Saskatchewan. 

Different strains of U. nigra and U. nuda 
were used to demonstrate that these two 
barley loose smuts are more difficult to 
differentiate than commonly assumed. Lab- 
oratory germination is required for positive 
identification. 

Bromus was shown to be a new host for U. 
avenae (Pers.) Rostr. and U. kolleri Wille. 

The smut Ustilago aegilopsidis Picbauer, 
collected on Aegilops caudata L. in Turkey 
and on A. cylindrica Host in Azerbaidzhan, 
was hybridized with false loose smut of barley 
collected in Canada, Turkey, and Azerbaid- 
zhan. Behavior of the progeny suggests that 
the two smuts, pathogenic on species of 
Aegilops or Hordeum, are conspecific and 
could be a link between ancestral species and 
the present species that are specialized on 
either wheat or barley. 

Foliage diseases 

Breeding lines and entries in the coopera- 
tive barley test were tested for resistance to 
leaf stripe, net blotch, and scald. Good 
resistance against scald was identified in the 
recently licensed barley cultivar Johnston. 

A genetic study with net blotch indicated 
that the gene for resistance found in CI 9214 
is different from that found in CI 5791. The 
presence of modifying factors, however, may 
preclude effective use of CI 9214 as a resist- 
ant donor. Field inoculation of cultivars 
Klages and Norbert barley with P. teres was 
repeated successfully by using a mechanical 
air pump to apply inoculum. The use of 
plastic bags on inoculated plants to stimulate 
the development of the disease was found to 
have a detrimental effect on grain yield. 



RESEARCH STATION, WINNIPEG, MAN. 



295 



The major components of the microflora of 
seed of four malting barley cultivars grown at 
six Canadian locations in 1979 were deter- 
mined. Differences between locations and 
cultivars were noted. The cultivar Bonanza 
had the cleanest seed and should be used as a 
standard in future testing. 

Viruses 

Some of the properties of the protein and 
ribonucleic acid (RNA) of oats necrotic 
mottle virus (ONMV) were determined. The 
molecular weights of ONMV protein and 
nucleic acid were determined by polyacryl- 
amide gel electrophoresis. Two bands were 
consistently found on gels for the protein with 
mean molecular weights of 39 800 and 
29 400. It is suggested that the slow compo- 
nent represents the true viral protein and that 
the fast component is a breakdown product. 
Glycoproteins were not detected in the virus. 
When ONMV nucleic acid was run on the 
gels, only one band was found with a mean 
molecular weight of 2.6 x 10 6 . Enzyme 
treatments indicated that the virus contained 
single-stranded RNA. 



STORED PRODUCTS PROTECTION 

Research on the biology and control of 
pests in stored cereals and oilseeds emphasizes 
the interaction of insects and microorganisms 
in a dynamic storage environment. The pro- 
gram includes: studies of the ecology of stored 
grain; factors that limit long-term storage; 
identification and quantification of insects in 
stored products; influence of attractants and 
feeding stimuli on insect behavior; control of 
insects and mites by environmental, physical, 
and chemical means; and identification and 
control of mycotoxins in stored grain and 
oilseeds. 

Storage 

The keeping quality of soybean seed, culti- 
var Amsoy 71, was determined by monitoring 
biotic and abiotic variables in seed lots of 
13.1% and 17.3% moisture content stored at 
10° and 30°C under aerobic and anaerobic 
conditions for 22 wk. Seeds of both moisture 
contents stored at 10°C had negligible quality 
loss after 22 wk. At 30°C under anaerobic 
conditions, however, fat acidity values (FAV) 
increased sharply, seed viability was drasti- 
cally reduced, and microorganisms developed 



rapidly, thereby substantially reducing qual- 
ity. The relative ratio of triglycerides did not 
change during the 22-wk period. The major 
postharvest microflora that developed on the 
soybeans were: Pénicillium spp., Aspergillus 
flavus, ascomycetes, and bacteria, particu- 
larly Erwinia herbicola. The mites Aearus 
farris (Oud.) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae 
(Schrank) could not survive on the soybeans; 
in contrast, the red flour beetle multiplied on 
seeds at 30°C under aerobic conditions. 

Principal component analysis was used to 
determine the relative importance of changes 
in wheat stored at 15.5% moisture content 
and artificially infested with lesser grain 
borer, rice weevil, red flour beetle, rusty grain 
beetle, and sawtoothed grain beetle. Tri- 
weekly and cumulative 60-wk analyses 
showed that high bacterial counts were associ- 
ated with high FAV. The mite Tarsonemus 
granarius Lindquist, which was present ini- 
tially in the grain, was positively correlated 
with the storage fungi of the Aspergillus 
glaucus group and Aspergillus candidus 
Link. The field fungi Alternaria spp. and seed 
germination were negatively related to FAV, 
bacteria, and grain damage. The number of 
insects was related to the presence of Asper- 
gillus and negatively related to the presence 
of bacteria. The combined action of the lesser 
grain borer and Aspergillus spp. increased 
seed damage and moisture content, thus 
promoting bacterial growth, which in turn 
inhibited growth of insects and molds. 

In rapeseed stored at 25°C and 12.4% 
moisture content, Pénicillium spp. were most 
frequent after 30 days and Aspergillus versi- 
color after 147 days; at 9.7% moisture 
content, however, species of the Aspergillus 
glaucus group were most frequent after 50 
days. Guidelines for maximum safe storage 
periods for farm-stored rapeseed at various 
temperature and moisture levels, derived from 
laboratory data, were validated with rapeseed 
data collected from farm bins in Manitoba. 

Small-scale field experiments were con- 
ducted with rapeseed at 10.9-15.0% moisture 
content to determine changes in quality. 
Respiration of rapeseed during the first 7 wk 
was high, and quality declined progressively 
during the 65-wk storage as indicated by 
decreased seed germination, increased leak- 
age of seed electrolytes, and increased free 
fatty acid levels. There was also an increase in 
the levels of postharvest molds, Aspergillus 



296 



RfSIARCH MR WCII RIPORT l l >S0 



candidus, A. glaucus group species, A. versi- 
color, Pénicillium verrucosum var. cy- 
clopium, and Wallema sebi. The results 
suggested that moist rapeseed should be dried 
immediately after combining, because loss in 
seed quality occurs within 24 h as a result of 
seed enzymatic action and Pénicillium activ- 
ity. 

Experiments conducted to simulate the 
effect of water leakage in a grain bin of wheat 
on the dynamics of the rusty grain beetle 
revealed that the most beetles were obtained 
after 8 wk at 27.5°C when 20 g of water was 
added to 50 g of wheat. There was no 
difference between adding 20 g of water 
initially or adding 5 g per week for 4 wk. 

Mycotoxins 

Fusarium trichothecene toxins at levels of 
approximately 6 ppm were discovered in a 
sample of Fusarium-inÎQCiQé wheat from 
Ontario, submitted by the Grain Inspection 
Division of the Canadian Grain Commission. 
Subsequent mass spectrometry analysis of 
other samples in Agriculture Canada's Ot- 
tawa facilities confirmed the presence of 
vomitoxin and resulted in a temporary em- 
bargo of this crop. 

Laboratory studies were conducted to ex- 
amine the natural formation of ochratoxin A, 
a potent nephrotoxin, in 1 -kg parcels of wheat 
at 20.5% moisture content, at various temper- 
atures. After 10 wk of storage, 8 ppb was 
formed at 15°C and more than 24 ppb at 
22°C. Strains of Pénicillium verrucosum var. 
cyclopium were associated with the produc- 
tion of this toxin. 

Biology 

An energy budget was determined for the 
sawtoothed grain beetle reared singly on 
rolled oats at 30 ± 1°C and 80 ± 2% relative 
humidity. The mean energy content of a 
rolled oat is 310 J. It was estimated that 31 1 
J/individual were ingested during an 80-day 
life-span. The highest rate of oxygen con- 
sumption (1.38 /xL/individual per day) occur- 
red on the eighth day of the life cycle. It was 
estimated that a female adult consumes 273 J 
in 60 days and expends 107 J in egg produc- 
tion, 1 35 J in respiration, and 1 2 J as feces. 

Studies with the larger grain borer showed 
that although this species is capable of 
developing into a serious pest of stored corn in 
mild climatic regions of Canada, it is unable 
to reproduce on stored wheat seeds, cultivar 



Neepawa. Oviposition occurred on ground 
wheat or corn at 18-32°C at 70% relative 
humidity. Maximum lifetime production of 
200 eggs per female occurred at 27 and 30°C. 
The lowest temperature at which adults 
developed normally over a period of 85 days 
was 20°C. The shortest mean developmental 
period was 25.4 ± 0.2 days at 32°C, 70% 
relative humidity. 

Adult rusty grain beetles were found to 
exhibit a powerful geotactic response result- 
ing in downward movement in wheat-filled 
containers. When beetles were introduced at 
the top of a 250-cm column of wheat, signifi- 
cantly more beetles were found in the bottom 
25 cm after 3 days than anywhere else in the 
column. When moisture was added to a 10-cm 
layer midway down the column, 91% of the 
beetles congregated after 7 days in either the 
moist wheat or in the 5-cm layer immediately 
below. Knowledge of these behavioral re- 
sponses is helpful in locating insects in grain 
bins. 

A survey of more than 1000 residences was 
conducted in Winnipeg in 1980 to determine 
the incidence, distribution, and economic 
importance of the merchant grain beetle as an 
urban household pest. About 13.5% of single- 
family residences and 19.3% of multiple 
dwellings were, or had been, infested with this 
species. The percentage of infested apart- 
ments increased by 1 .3% since 1971. 

Control 

Field experiments with rapeseed cultivar 
Tower, stored in a farm granary in which 
bromophos with active ingredient (ai) at 0.5 
g/m 2 had been applied to the floor and walls 
prior to storage, showed that after 16 wk 
bromophos residues ranged from 0.1 ppm in 
rapeseed samples taken from the center of the 
bulk to 2.6 ppm in floor samples. After a 
further 36 wk of storage, bromophos residues 
in floor samples contained 3.5 ppm. Labora- 
tory studies showed that uptake of bromophos 
by wheat or rapeseed was higher from wood 
surfaces than from concrete (P < 0.01); 
uptake of bromophos was higher in rapeseed 
than in wheat; and both wheat and rapeseed 
had higher affinities for bromophos than for 
malathion. The persistence of these chemicals 
on plywood surfaces was influenced by the 
type of abrasion applied after treatment. 
Persistence of malathion emulsified concen- 
trate (EC) and wettable powder (WP) was 
significantly extended by the abrasive action 



RESEARCH STATION, WINNIPEG, MAN. 



297 



of a broom over the surface, whereas the 
persistence of malathion EC and WP, bromo- 
phos EC and WP, and iodofenphos EC was 
significantly reduced by abrasion with wheat 
kernels. 

Wheat was treated with malathion EC to 
provide a deposit of 8 ppm prior to storage at 
seven temperatures from -35 to 27°C. Mala- 
thion degraded by <3% during 72 wk of 
storage at -20 or -35°C, but the degradation 
process increased progressively as the temper- 
ature was increased with losses of 26, 61, 74, 
95, and 96% from initial deposits in wheat 
stored at -5, 5, 10, 20, and 27°C, respectively, 
after 72 wk. 

The effectiveness of carbon dioxide, pro- 
duced from Dry Ice, for the control of the 
hairy mite, Lepidoglyphus destructor 
(Schrank), was determined in a column of 
wheat 179 cm high and 30 cm in diameter. 
When carbon dioxide concentrations of 1 300— 
1800 mg/L were maintained for 9 days, all 
adult and nymphal stages of the mite were 
killed at all depths except near the surface. 
However, a number of hypopi formed during 
fumigation emerged as adults after they were 
removed from the wheat and exposed to 
normal atmosphere. Thus it appears that C0 2 
would be ineffective as a fumigant. 



CROP PROTECTION 

Research on insect pests of oilseed and field 
crops emphasizes the development and imple- 
mentation of better methods of pest manage- 
ment to avoid or reduce damage. The pro- 
gram includes field testing insecticides, 
developing and testing techniques for moni- 
toring and predicting pest abundance and 
crop damage, and investigating methods of 
improving nonchemical control of pests. These 
programs are supported by research on sam- 
pling techniques, survival, development, phe- 
nology, host selection, induction and termina- 
tion of diapause, overwintering strategies, 
reproductive biology, and biochemical bases 
of neurotransmission. 

Sunflower beetle 

Phorate and cloethocarb were effective as 
in-furrow granular treatments for the control 
of sunflower beetles on sunflowers. This 
confirms the results of previous tests with 
phorate and emphasizes the critical impor- 
tance of correct placement of granular insecti- 
cides in attaining effective control. The 



synthetic pyrethroids, decamethrin, cyper- 
methrin, and fenvalerate, were effective as 
postemergence foliar sprays in the control of 
adults of the sunflower beetle. 



Pea aphid 

In cooperation with scientists from the 
Morden Research Station, preliminary 
studies were conducted on the role of pea 
aphid as a vector of seed-borne mosaic virus. 
A survey of commercial pea fields showed 
that although aphid populations were very low 
in the early part of the summer, the aphid 
populations in more than half the fields 
exceeded the accepted economic threshold. 
Both sweep net and foliage samples gave 
satisfactory estimates of aphid density. 

Cutworms 

An integrated control program against the 
strawberry cutworm was developed for and 
implemented by strawberry growers in Mani- 
toba. Registration was obtained for the use of 
Lorsban 4C on strawberries, and its use gave 
90% control of the cutworm larvae. The early 
application of spray permitted the develop- 
ment of a natural parasite complex, which 
destroyed 20% of the remaining larval popula- 
tion; delaying fall tilling until after moth 
flights in September destroyed 78% of the 
eggs laid by surviving moths. A second 
insecticide, Supracide 25EC, gave good con- 
trol but was less effective than Lorsban 4C. 

Experimental manipulation of photoperiod 
and temperature failed to induce diapause in 
any stage of the armyworm. It was concluded 
that the armyworm could not overwinter in 
Manitoba, because at no stage of development 
was this pest found to survive exposure of 
more than 2 wk at 0°C. 

Sex attractant trapping has shown that the 
clover cutworm is normally present and quite 
abundant in Manitoba, despite the difficulty 
of locating larvae. In 1980, the first recorded 
outbreaks of this species were reported on 
various broad-leaved crops in southern Mani- 
toba. Insecticidal spraying was required, and 
some fields were destroyed by the feeding of 
the larvae. Catch data from sex attractant 
traps were highly variable, indicating that the 
usefulness of traps may be restricted to 
predicting larval abundance within fields 
adjacent to them. 



298 



RESEARCH BRANCH REPORT 1980 



Red turnip beetle 

A study of the effect of overwintering 
temperature on survival of red turnip beetle 
eggs showed that after 200 days of exposure, 
all eggs survived at -5 and -10°C, none 
survived at -20°C, and 58.5% and 73.4% 
survived at 0°C and -15°C, respectively. The 
data suggest that the eggs are able to with- 
stand cold temperatures for long periods and 
that overwintering mortality caused by cold 
temperatures normally is not an important 
factor in the population dynamics of the 
beetle. 

Flea beetles 

The extremely hot dry weather in the 
spring and early summer of 1980 caused 
delayed and sporadic germination of rape and 
increased the movement of flea beetles, fol- 
lowed by their concentration on patches of 
suitable food. A sticky-trap warning s